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t,l i 

Soi ■• i ' ■^• 



Historic Society 

lantitabttc nni ffiljesljirt. 



1 * i 

The Authors of Papers alone are responsible for the facts 
and opinions expressed in their several communications. 

The present volume has been prepared for the press by 
R. D. Radcliffe, M.A., Ch. Ch. Oxford, F.S.A., Honorary 
Secretary and Editor. 






Society of Antiquaries of London. 

Society of Antiquaries of Scolland. 

Royal Historical and Archaeological Society of Ireland. 

Royal Arch ecological Institute, London. 

Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Kent Arclioeological Society. 

Somersetshire Archaeological Society. 

Sussex Archaeological Society. 

Chester Archaeological Society. 

Cumberland and Westmoreland Antiquarian Society. 

Leicestershire Archaeological Society. 

Yorkshire Antiquarian and Topographical Association. 

Shropshire Archaeological Society. 

Architectural and Archaeological Society of Lincoln and Notts. 

Manchester Literary Club. 

Suffolk Archaeological Institute. 

New England Genealogical Society. 




Old Moreton Hall, and its Past and Present OArners. 

By Robert Head {i plate and 2 woodcuts) i 

The Plans of Moreton Old Hall. Reprinted from Mr. 
Henry Taylor's Old Halls of Lancashire and Cheshire, 
(2 plans) 13 

Borwick Hall. By AVilliam Oliver Roper, {/plate) 21 

S. Helen's Church, Sephton. By the Rev. G. W. Wall, 

M.A. {4 plates) 37 

Norman Remains at Sephton Church. By Edward W. 

Cox. ( Woodcut) 103 

Notes on the Parish Churches of Wirral. By Wm. 

Fergusson Irvine (/ plate) 107 

Cheshire in the great Civil War. By A. M. Robinson, 

F.R.G.S 137 

Notes on Altcar Parish. By the Rev. William Warburton. 

(2 plates) 157 

Some Historical Notes on the Chapel of Our Blessed 
Lady, Parbold, Lancashire. By William Frederick 
Price (/ plate) 207 


Leaves from an Antiquary's Note- Book. By Edward W. 

Cox 23s 

Notes by the Hon. Local Secretary for Sefton District... 252 

Suggestions for describing Ancient Buildings. By Henry 

Taylor 257 

Ixeport for 1895 • 259 

I'apers read, 1895 ^59 

New Members elected, 1895 260 

Balance Shee's 260 

Index 261 

Editorial Notes and Acknoivledgments v 

List of Societies in Correspondence vi 

List of Illustrations viii 

Council and Officers, for the year 1896 ix 

Officers of the Society since commencement x 

List of Members xi 

List of Honorary Local Secretaries xxvi 

( viii ) 



Frontispiece. Berwick Hall, Lancashire Title Page, 

I. Moreton Old Hall, Cheshire (Bird's-eye view) ... 4-5 

[ Woodcuts — Entrance to Great Hall, page 9 ; 
Fireplace in the Retiring Room, page 11.] 

II. Moreton Old Hall, Ground plan 16-17 

III. Ditto First Floor plan 18-19 

IV. S. Helen's Church, Sephton 39 

V. Ditto The Tower Arch 44 

VI. Ditto The Screen, Bulkley Chapel... 75 

VII. Ditto Interior 80 

{^Woodcut — Norman Capital found at Sephton, 
page 103.] 

VIII. Bebington Church 125 

IX. Map of Lancashire, from the Harleian MS 177 

X. Altcar Parish Church — Communion Vessels and 

Ancient Fonts 179 

XL Douglas Chapel, Parbold — Exterior and Interior 

Views 205 
















/Aeinbcr^ of Council. 


E. W. COX. 





W. D. H. DEANE. M.A. 



Don. Ureaeurer. 


iMn. librarian. 

G. T. SHAW. 

Don. Curator. 

Don. Secretarig anb £bitor. 

R. D. RADCLIFFE, M.A., Ch. Ch., Oxon., F.S.A. 

Don* !H00i0tant Secretaries. 



©fflcers of tbe Societg since commencement- 

1. Right Hon. Francis, 1st Earl of Ellesmere, Lord-Lieut, of 


2. Right Hon. Charles William, 3rd Earl of Sefton, Lord-Lieut. 

of Lancashire 

3. General the Hon. Sir Edward Cust, K.C.H., D.C.L. - 

4. Right Hon. William Ewart Gladstone, M.P. 

5. Joseph Mayer, F.S.A., &c. 

6. Rev. Canon Hume, D.C.L., LL.D., &c. 

7. The Very Rev. J. S. Howson, D.D., Dean of Chester - 

8. Thomas Glazebrook Rylands, F.S.A., &c. - 
9 Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of Oxford, F.S.A. - 

10. Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of Chester, D.D. 


Rev. A. Hume. LL.D., and H. C. Pidgeon. 

Rev. A. Hume, LL.D., and Rev. Thomas Moore, M.A. 

Rev. A. Hume, LL.D. 

Assistant Secretaries. 

Thomas G. Wedgwood. 
W. W. Rundell. 
J. H. Genn. 
J. H. Genn. 
Charles Dyall. 
[Arthur Wakefield.] 
Eugenio Londini. 
Eugenio Londini. 
T. N. Morton. 







Rev. A. Hume, LL.D. 

Rev. A. Hume, LL.D. 

Rev. A. Hume, LL.D. 

Nicholas Waterhouse. 

David Buxton. 

David Buxton. 

David Buxton. 

C. T. Gatty, F.S.A. 

C. T. Gatty, F.S.A. 
-00. J E. M. Hance, LL.B. 
1554. |j^^ jy Radcliffe, M.A. 



T. N. Morton. 

R. D. Radciiffe, M.A., F.S.A. T. N. Morton. 
R. D. Radcliffe.M. A..F.S.A. | ^^ ^; ^Tine!' 

1848. Thomas Avison, F.S.A. 

i860. William Burke. 

1867. John G. Jacob. 

1886. H. D. ESHELBY, F.S.A. 


1848. Joseph Mayer, F.S.A. 

185 1, Rev. Thomas Moore, M.A. 

1859. David Buxton. 

1867. Nicholas Waterhouse. 

1869. Nicholas Waterhouse. 

1871. John R. Hughes. 

1875. Jo^^ ^' Hughes. 

187U C. T. Gatty, F.S.A. 

1877. E. M. Hance, LL,B. 


Joseph Mayer, F. S. A . 
Joseph Mayer, F.S.A. 
A. C. Gibson, F.S.A. 
A. C. Gibson, F.S.A. 
H. Ecroyd Smith. 
H. Ecroyd Smith. 
J. Harris Gibson. 
J. Harrs (iil)son. 
J. Harris Gibson. 

1880. (Offices in abeyance.) 

1885. W. Thompson Watkin. J. Hirris Gil)son. 

1886. W. Thompson Watkin. VV. Forshaw Wilson. 
1889. George T. Shawi W. C. Ashby Priit. 
1889. G. T. Shaw, Charles Potter. 







N,B, — // is requested that notice be^ven to the Secretary of any errors y change 

of address y or death. 


Corrected to 30th September^ i8g6. 

The names of Life Members are printed in Small Capitals, and those of Resident Members 

have an asterisk attached. 

Date of Election. 

1889. April 4 '''Abraham, Miss E. C. Riverham, Grassendale 

Park, Liverpool. 

1889. Jan. 10 '■'Abraham, Thomas Fell. 53 Bidston road, 


1877. F^^' 22 Adshead, George Haward. Fern Villas, 94 

Bolton road, Pendleton, Manchester. 

1895. Nov. 7 *Allwood, T. Massey. Orrell village, Lither- 


1889. Jan. 10 *Alsop, J. W., B. A. 14 Castle street, Liverpool. 

1893. J^*^* ^2 * Angus, John H. Upton road, Bidston, 


1889. Feb. 21 Arkle, Richard Nay lor, M. A. 13 Old square, 

Lincoln^s Inn, London, W.C. 

1895. Feb. 7 Ashworth, Alfred. Tabley Grange, Knutsford. 

1888. Mar. 22 * Athenaeum Library, Liverpool. 

1889. Feb. 7 '^'Atkinson, Wm. Christopher. 8 Harrington 

street, Liverpool. 

1890. Jan. 23 *Ayrton, William. 9 Cook street, Liverpool. 

1886. Nov. 18 ^Banner, John S. Harmood. Ash field Hall, 

Neston, Cheshire. 

1889. Mar. 7 *Bartlett, William. Highfield House, Knotty 

Ash, Liverpool. 

1892. Feb. 25 *Beazley, Edwin A. 25 Water street, Liverpool. 

1896. Feb. 13 Beeston, Charles G. Long lane, .\ughton. 

1891. Dec. 3 * Bell, Henry. Greenfield, West Kirby, Cheshire. 

xii List of Members, 

Date of Election. 

1864. Dec. I *Benas, B. L. 5 Prince's avenue, Liverpool. 

1889. Mar. 7 '''Bencke, Albert Henry, M. A. Bentham, West 

Derby, Liverpool. 

1894. April 5 -''Bennett, Richard. Nottingham Buildings, 

19, Brunswick street, Liverpool. 

1888. Nov. 29 *Birchall, Charles. The Laurels, Church street, 

Egremont, Cheshire. 

1896. Jan. 16 ^Birkenhead Free Public Library. Birkenhead. 

1 891. Feb. 19 Birley, Major Hugh Arthur. Woodside, 


1889. Oct. 31 Birmingham Central Free Library. Ratcliff 

place, Birmingham. 

1870. April 7 Blackburn Free Library. Blackburn. 

1891. Feb. 5 Bleckly, William Henry. Thelwall Lea, 


1883. Mar. 8 Blundell, Rev. T. B. H., ]\LA., Hon. Canon of 

Liverpool; Hon. Chaplain to Her Majesty 
the Queen. Halsall Rectory, Ormskirk. 

1888. Mar. 22 Bodleian Library. Oxford. 

1890. Nov. 6 "'Bootle Free Library. Oriel road, Bootle. 

1888. Mar. 22 Boston Athenaeum. Boston, U.S.A. ;c/o Messrs, 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner & Co., Pater- 
noster house,Charing Cross rd. , London, W. C. 

1889. Jan. 10 Boston Public Library. Boston, U.S.A. ; c/o 

Messrs. Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner & Co. 

1853. Dec. 15 Bossi, Arthur. Care of Thompson, Melly& Co., 

Brown's Buildings, Liverpool. 

1 88 1. Dec. I Bourne, Robert W. Higham, North iam, 


1889. Feb. 21 * Bradbury, George. 14 Cook street, Liverpool. 

1890. Feb. 20 '^'Brakell, Henry Edward. 15 Penkett road, 

Liscard, Cheshire. 

1896. Jan. 16 Brearley, Rev. J.B., M.A. Burscough Vicarage, 


1 89 1. Feb. 5 Bretherton, Rev. Humphrey W., M.A. 

Eccleston Rectory, Chorley. 

1891. Nov. 5 British Museum Library ; c/o Messrs. Dulau 

and Co. 37 Soho square, London, W. 

1876. April 20 Bromley, James, The Homestead, I^tliom, 


List of Members. xiii 

Datb op Election. 

1888. Feb. 23 Brooke, Colonel Thomas, F.S.A. Armitagc 

Bridge, Huddersfield. 

1868. Feb. 6 Brooks, Sir William Cunliffe, Bart., M.P.> 

F.S.A. Barlow Hall, Manchester. 

1891. Mar. 19 *Brown, Jacob G. 20 Bromptoh avenue> 

Sefton Park, Liverpool. 

1893. Mar. 23 *Browne, Henry B. Norcot, Poulton road, 

1 88 1. Jan. 27 Burnley Literary and Scientific Club, (per T. G. 

Crump, B.A., M.B., Ifon, Sec) Burnley. 

Bury Co-operative Society. Bury. 

1879. Jan. 9 Caraher, Hugh. Boyne Lodge, Abbey road, 

1885. Jan. 22 Caroe, W. D. 94 Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, S.W. 

1888. Nov. 15 Carrington, W. A. Bakewell, Derbyshire. 

1894. Nov. I *Carson, Thomas Ellis. 62 Grove street, 


1891. Nov. s Castle, Egerton, M.A., F.S.A. 49 Sloane 

gardens, London, S.W. 

1889. Feb. 21 *Caton, Richard, M.D. Rodney street, Liver- 


1888. Dec. 13 Chadwick, Edwin. Mottram road, Staly- 


1889 Jan. 10 Chester, the Rt. Rev. the Lord Bishop of, 

D.D. The Palace, Chester, i'm/V/tf^A 

1879. J*^' 9 Chetham Library. Manchester. 

1893. Feb. 23 Chicago Public Library. Chicago, U.S.A. 

1859. April 14 Clement, Leonard. Forest View, Nelson-inr 

Marsden, Burnley. 

1892, Nov. 3 *Cockbain, T. Herbert. 19 James street, Liver- 


1 89 1. Nov. 5 *Cook, Edmund. Hornby Villa, Hoylake, 


1855. May 24 *CoMBER Thomas. B 13 Exchange Buildings, 


1894. Nov. I *Cornett, Alfred. 15 Lord street, LiverpooL 

1889. Mar. 7 *Cox, Edward W. Highfield South, Rock 


1888. Nov. 15 Crane, John C. West Millbury, Mass., U.S.A. 

1895. Dec. s Crook, John. 6 Waterloo road, Southport. 


xiv List of Members. 

Dat^ OP Election, 

iSSg, Feb. 21 *Crosfield, John D. Forest Hey, Northwich. 

1389. Mar. 7 Crosse, Colonel Thomas Richard. Shaw 
<• ' ^- Hill, Chorley. 

1896. Mar. 26 *Cullen, Hugh, Junr. Oakhill park. Old Swan, 

* Liverpool. 

i388. Mar. 22 Darwen Free Public Library. Darwen. 

1888. Nov. I Day, Robert, F.S.A., M.R.LA. 3 Sidney 

' . place, Cork. 

• • • . . . 

1 895 i Nov. 7 De Hoghton, Sir James, Bart. Hoghton 

Tower, Preston. 

i!89Q. Jan. 23 '^'Deane, W. D. H., M.A. New College, 

Arundel avenue, Sefton park, Liverpool. 

1889. Jan. 10 *Dempsey, Miss Ellinor Mary. Sand Hey, 

Hoy lake. 

1893. Nov. 30 Derby, The Earl of, G.C.B. Knowsley, 
^ ■ Prescot, Vice-Presidait. 

1892. Nov. 3 Detroit Public Library. Detroit, Michigan, 

U.S.A. (Per B. F. Stevens, 4 Trafalgar 
square, London, W.C.) 

1857. April 23 Devonshire, The Duke of, K.G. Chats- 
worth, Chesterfield. 

1890. Jan. 23 Dickinson, John, c/o E. Dickinson, Newark 

Park, Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire. 

1895./ Dec. 5 Dickson, Edmund. 11, Westcliffe road, 


1894, Nov. 15 *Dunthorne, Edwin E. 27 Lord street, Liver- 

1888. Mar. 22 Earle, Hardman Arthur. 7 Hill street, Rutland 

Gate, London, S.W, 

1890. Feb. 20 Earle, Major Henry, D.S.O. Westfield, Cam- 


1888. Feb. 9 *Earle, T. Algernon. Hartford, Cheshire. ' 
1894. April 5 *Eccles, Edgar. Oakhill, Roby. 

1 89 1. Mar. 5 Ecroyd, W. Loraeshaye Mills, Burnley. 

1890. Jan. 9 Eden John. Colwyn, North Wales. - 

185 1. Jan. 7 Eoerton of'^Tatton, The Lord. Tattdn 

Park, Knutsford, Cheshire. 

1891. Mar. 19 *Elliot, Robert J. 11 i Chatham street, Liver- 

pool. . . . t 

List of Members. iv 

Patb <>F Election. 

iSgi. Jani 22 Elli6, Thomas Ratcliffe. iS King street, 


1889. Oct. 31 Esdaile, George. The Old Rectory, Platt-in- 

Rusholme, Manchester. 

1886. Nov. 18 *Eshelby, H. Douglas, F.S.A. 80 Shrewsbury 

road, Oxton, Birkenhead, Ifoft, Treasurer, 

1848. Nov. 23 Evans, Edward. Bronwylfa, Wrexham. 

1878. Jan. 10 Fairclough, John. Latchford Grange, War- 

1871. Jan. 12 Ferguson, William, F.C.S., F.GS., F.R.S.E. 

Kilmundy House, near Mintlaw, N.B. 

1891. Feb. 19 ffarington, Lieut.-Col. R. A. Mariebonne, 


1888. Nov. 15 ''Finney, Charles F. Huyton House, Huyton. 

1880. April I Fishwick, Lieut. -Col. Henry, F.S.A. The 

Heights, Rochdale. 

189 r. Mar. 19 '"'Fletcher, Mrs. Alfred. Allerton House, Wool- 
ton, Liverpool. 

1890. Nov. 6 Formby, John. Formby Hall, Formby. 

1891. Dec. 3 *Fox, John D. 29, Rocky lane, Anfield, 


1853. Dec. 15 Franks, Sir Augustus Woollaston, K.C.B., 

M.A., F.R.S., RS.A. British Museum, 

1^75' J^in. 7 Garnett, William. Quernmore Park, Lan- 

1890. Jan. 9 ^Gatehouse, Charles. Westwood, Noctorum, 


1880. Nov. 18 Gatty, A. S., M.A., F.S.A. York Herald, 

Herald's College, London. 

1867. April II *Genn, John Hawke. Rutland Abuse, 

Nicholas road, Blundellsands. 

1862. Mar. 6 Gladstone, Right Hon. William Ewart, 

M.P. Hawarden Castle, Flintshire, F/V^- 

1889. Feb. 21 ^Gladstone, Robert. Harrington street, Liver- 

1893. Nov. 2 *Goffey, Thomiis. Amdfl, Blundellsands, Liver- 

h ^ 

-xvi List of Members. 

Datr of Election. 

1889. Nov. 14 *Gregson, Wm. Eugene, 43 Moor l^ine, Great 


1854. Aug. 31 Grenside, Rev. William Bent, M.A. Melling 

Vicarage, Carnforth. 

1892. Jan. 28 *Grierson, Geo. 12 Paradise street, Liverpool. 

1891. Nov. 5 *Grylls, A. C, M.A. Newton School, Rock 

Ferry, Birkenhead. 

1890. Nov. 6 *Hannay, A. M. Queen Insurance Buildings, 


1883* Jan. 25 *Hargreaves, John. Egerton Park, Rock Ferry. 

1894.. April 5 ^Harris, George. 35 Fairview road, Oxton, 


1 891. Feb. 5 * Harrison, Frederick J. Mersey chambers, 

Old churchyard, I-.iverpool. 

r _ 

1 89 1. Feb. 5 Head, Robert. West Lodge, Congleton. 

1895. Feb. 7 '•"Heyn, G. P. Forwood. C 18 Exchange 

buildings, Liverpool. 

1848. Nov. 23 Heywood James, F.R.S., F.S.A., F.G.S. 

26 Kensington Palace gardens, London, W. 

1894. April 5 *Hill, J. E. Gray. Mere Hall, Oxton, Cheshire. 

1872. Sept. 5 HiNMERS, W.. Cleveland House, Lancaster 

road, Eccles, Manchester. 

;i89o. Nov 6 '''Holland, Edgar S. Stoneleigh, Liscard, 


1891. Nov. ■ 5 * Holland, Walter. Mossley Hill, Liverpool. 

1 89 1. Noy. 19 Hope, Thomas H. The Laburnums, Ather- 
• ton, Manchester. 

T890. Feb. .20 -''Hornby, Hugh PYederick. Sandovn Lodge, 

Wavertree, Liverpool. 

1895, Mar. 7 *Hoult, James, Jun. Brookland road, Stoney- 

croft, Liverpool. 

1888. Dec. 13 HovENDEN, Robert, F.S. A. Heathcote, Park 

Hill road, Croydon. 

893. Nov. 2 *Hudson, R. W. Bidston court, Bidston, 


1890. Jan. 23 Hughes, George. Metropolitan Bank, Oxford. 

1887, Mar. 24 Hutton, Wm. L. ''Advertiser'' Office, Orms- 


List of Members. -xvii 

Datb OP Election. 

1891. Nov. 5 Ireland, National Library of, c/o Messrs. 

Hodges, Figgis & Co., Dublin. 

1893. Nov. 2 *Irven, Mrs. John D. The Cottage, Bidston, 


1890. Nov. 6 *Irvine, Wm. Fergusson. 18 Devonshire road, 

Claughton, Birkenhead, Ifon. Assistant 

1889. Oct. 31 *Ismay, Thomas Henry. -Dawpool, Birkenhead. 
1882. James, Francis. 190 Cromwell road, London, 

s.w. : . 

1 89 1. Feb. 5 Jeans, William Dampier. Great Sankey, 


1888. Nov. I Johnson, J. H. West Lindeth, Silverdale, 


1888. Feb. 9 *Joynson, Tertius. Long View, Liscard, Birken- 
head. - / 

1890. Nov. 6 Kent-Green, Mrs. Edward. Claughton Rec- 

tory, Lancaster. 

18911 Feb. 5 Kenyon, Rev. the Hon. W. T., M.A. Malpas 

Rectory, Cheshire. 

1890. Nov. 6 *Kerfoot-Jones, J. 32 Rodney street, Liverpool. 

1863. Nov. 5 *King, John Thomson. 4 Clayton square, 


189P. Dec. 4 *Kirk, William. 15 Lord street, Liverpool. 

1894. Feb. 22 *Kissick, Thomas. 21 Wellington street, 


1872. April 4 Lathom, The Earl of. Lathom House, Orms- 

kirk, Vice-President. 

1888. Nov, 29 Lawrence, William Frederick, M.A., M.P. 

Cowesfield House, Salisbury. 

1889. Feb. 7 *Layton, George. 9 Fenwick street, Liverpool. 

1889. Mar. 7 Leeds, Free Public Library of. Leeds. 

1889. Mar. 7 *Leeming, William. Alder Hey, West Derby, 


1887. Dec. I *Leslie, Frank John. 15 Union court. Castle 

street, Liverpool. 

1891. Nov. 5 Letts, Rev. Ernest F., M.A. Newton Heatli 

Rectory, Manchester. 

xyiii List of Members. 

Datb of Election. 

1892. Mar. 10 *Lever, James Darcy. The Acres, Bebington, 


1892. Feb. 25 -^'Lever, William Hesketh. Thornton Manor, 

Thornton Hough, Cheshire. 

1:889. Feb. 7 *Lister, James. Basil Grange, West Derby. 

^Liverpool Free Public Library. William Brown 
street, Liverpool. 

1888. Nov. I ^Liverpool Library (Lyceum). Bold street, 


1893. Nov. 2 *Livesey, John. 10 Water street, Liverpool. 

1889. Oct. 31 London, Library of the Corporation of. 

(Charles Welch, Librarian.) Guildhall, 
London, E.G. 

1892. Feb. 25 '♦Lyell, George James. 14 Clarence grove, 

Devonshire park, Birkenhead. 

1891. Nov. 5 Main waring, Colonel Charles Salusbury, 

Galtfaenan, Trefnant, R. S. O., N. Wales. 

1888. Feb. 9 Marshall, George William, LL.D., F.S.A., 

Rouge Croix, College of Arms, Queen 
Victoria street, London, E.G. 

1891. Feb. 19 Mayler, William. 113 Mostyn street, Llan- 

1889. Mar. 7 *McCubbin, Hugh. Mill Bank House, West 


1887. Feb. 10 *McKay, Professor, M.A. University Col- 

lege, Liverpool. 

1895. Nov. 7 *McKibbin, George. Sandyknowe, Wavertree. 

1888. Mar. 22 Manchester Free Reference Library. King 

street, Manchester. 

1888. Nov. I *Mansergh, Jas. Fleming. Clougha, Hargreaves 

road, Sefton park, Liverpool. 

1874. Feb. 18 *Mawdsley, James Piatt. 26 Castle street, 


1894. April 5 *Mead, William D. Highlands^ Prenton hill, 


1890. Nov. 6 *Meade-King, Richard R. Sandfield park, 

West Derby. 

X^^9^ Nov. 6 Molyneux, Lt.-Col. Edmund. Warren Lodge^ 

Wokingham, Berks. ' ' - ' 

List of Members. xix 

Datb op Elbction. 

1892. Nov. 3 ^Morgan, Joseph B. Stand House, Childwall, 


1885. Mar. 19 *MoRTON, Thomas Naylor. 20 Hick's road^ 

Seaforth, Ifon, Assistant Secretary, 

1894. Feb. 22 *Musker, Frank. 68 Walton village, Liverpool. 

1888. Nov. I Myres,T. Harrison. 15 Chapel street, Preston. 

1^57- Jan. 15 Naylor, Richard Christopher. Kelmarsh 

Hall, Northampton. 

1893. Feb. 9 Newberry Library. Chicago, U.S.A. 

1874. Dec. 10 Nicholson, Major Edward J. 9 Raby place, 


1889. Mar. 7 Norris, Edward S. Clifton Villas, Llanelly; 

i88r. Dec. 15 Odgers, Rev. James Edwin, M.A., Fellow of 

University College, London. Bowdon, 

Cheshire. . .. : 

1889. Feb. 7 Owen, William. Cairo street Chambers, War- 


1888. Mar. 22 Owens' College, c/o J. E. Cornish, 16 St. 

Ann^s square, Manchester, 

1891. Dec. 17 Parker, Major John W. R. Browsholme Hall, 

Clitheroe. . : 

1891. Nov. 5 Park- Yates, Mrs. Ince Hall, Chester. 

1891, Feb. 5 Pearson, George. Southside, Wilmslow, 

Cheshire. , 

1888. Nov. 15 Pearson, Thomas H. Golborne Park, Newton- 


1896. Jan. 30 Peck, Herbert, M.D. Ormskirk. 

1895. Nov. 7 Pedley, George. Moody House, Congleton. 

1890. Nov. 6 *Peet, Henry, F.S.A. 97 Mount Pleasant, 


i86o. Mar. 21 Petty, Thomas Shaw. 128 Mount street, 

London, W. 

1894. Nov: I *Phipps, S. W. Harlescot, Longland toadi 


f * * * ' I 

1877. Dec 13 Pierpoint, Robert, M.A., M.P. St. Austin^ 


• ^ . 1 

XX List of Members. 

Datb OP Election. 

^890. Dec. 18 Pilkington, Sir George A., Knt. Belle Vue, 

Lord street West, Southport. 

1886. Nov. 18 *Pilkington, Lieut.-Col. John, F.S.A. Rook- 

wood, Sandown Park, Wavertree. 

1894. Nov. 29 *Pilkington, Thomas. Knowsley Cottage, 


1894. Nov. I *Pilkington, William. Roby Hall, Liverpool. 

1896. Mar, 26 *Pluramer, W. E. The Observatory, Bidston, 


1889. Oct. 31 *Poole, Sir James, Knt. Abercromby square, 


1878. Feb. 7 "Potter, Charles. 10 1 Miles street, Toxteth 

Park, Liverpool, jffon. Curator, 

1887. Mar. 24 Powell, Rev. Edward. Lydiate, Maghull. 

1890. Feb. 20 ^Prentice, John George. 62 Shrewsbury road, 


1892. Feb. II *Price, William F. Myers road West, Great 


1892. Nov. 3 Pritt, Miss G. A. Lonsdale. Saddlewood, 


1889. Feb. 21 *Quiggin, John M. 8 Harrington street, Liver- 

1889. Oct. 31 *Radcliffe, Sir David, Knt. Rosebank, Knows- 
ley, Prescot. 

1888. Feb. 9 *Radcliffe, Frederick M. 9 Cook street, Liver- 


1879. Jan. 8 *Radcliffe, Richard Duncan, M.A., F.S.A., 

Darley, Old Swan, Liverpool, -^«. Secretary, 

1892. Nov. 3 Radclyffe, C. R. Eustace (ist Life Guards). 

The Hyde, Wareham, Dorset. 

1874. Dec. 10 *Rathbone, Samuel Greg. Croxteth drive, Sefton 

park, Liverpool 

4889. April 4 "Read, Joseph F. 77A Lord street,' Liverpool. 

1891. Feb. 5 Reynolds, Rev. Charles L., M.A. Wray 

Vicarage, Lancaster. 

1891. Mar. 19 *Richardson, Richard T. Ullet road, Liver 

pool. . . 

1889. Oct. 31 "^Ridgway, Ebenezer. Huyton, Liverpool. 

List of Members. xxi 

Date qj Election. 

1889. Jan. io ' Ridgway, John Clare. Grappcnhall lodge, 

near Warrington. 

1891. Dec. 17 Rigg, George Wilson. Golborne. 

1895. Nov. 91 *Roberls, Rev. R. E., M.A. Holly Cottage, 

Woolton. • 

1855. Dec. 20 Robin, Rev. P. R., M.A., Hon. Canon of 

Chester. Woodchurch, Birkenhead. 

1890. Nov., 6 *Robinson, Arthur Muschamp. Lome road, 

Qaughton, Birkenhead. 

1891. Nov. 5 *Robinson, Lieut.-Col. Herbert J. Upton 

Manor, Birkenhead. 

1876, April 20 Roper, William O. Yealand Conyers, Lanr 


1891. Nov. 5 Roscoe, James. Kirkby. 

1889. Oct. 31 Royds, Clement Mol)meux. Greenhill, Roch- 


1888. Nov. 29 '''Riissell, Sir Edward R., Knt. 6 Abercromby 

square, Liverpool. 

1891. Nov. 5 *Russell, Walter, B.A. 26, AbercrombysquarCi 
- / LiverpooU ; .: . 

1870. Nov. 3' *Rylands, John Paul, F.S.A. Heather Lea, 

Chughtott, BirkQnhesidy Vice^J^residfti^. 

1888. Dec. 13 Rylands, John. Thelwall Grange, Warrington. 

1854. Dec^ .13 ■ Rylands, Thomas Glazebrooi^, .F.S.A.j 

F.L,S., M,R.LA. Highfields, Thelwall, 
Warrington, Vice-President , . 

1874. Dec. 10 Rylands, William Harry, F.S.A. Society 'of 

Biblical Archaeology, 37 Great Russell street, 
Bloomsbury, London, W.C. 

1891. Feb. 19 Rylaiid, John William. Rowington, Warwick, 

« ... 

1890. Nov. 6 *Ryley, Thomas Cropper. 19 Sweeting street, 
• - -' '. Liverpool/ 

ii588-' Mari 22 St.'-HelensFreie Public Library: St; Helens. 

1872.. Mar. 2,1 . Salisbury, The MARQtjiss of, K.G. Hatfield, 
••^■' • • '•"■•■•■■^' - -^ ''-Herts. - V •' '■^■"- 

1888. Nov. 15 Sanpeman, LiEUt.-CdL. John Glas, Sub- 

- Officer IJ.M. Hon. Corps of Gentlemen at 
Arms. ' 24 Cambridge square, London, W. 

189^1-* Novi 19 Sanders, Rev. Francis, MrA. Hoykke Vieari 

age, Cheshii«» " ^-- 

xxii List of Members. 

... « . ■ 

Date of Election. , 

1889. Jan. 10 *Scholefield, Joshua William. 33 Pembroke 

road, Bootle. 

1894. Nov. I '''Scott, David. 10 North John street, Liverpool. 

1872. Sept. 5 "Sefton, The Earl of, K.G., Lord Lieutenant of 

Lancashire. Croxteth Hall, Liverpool, Fice- 

1893. Nov. 2 *Shallcross, Thomas Myddleton. 25 Lord 

street, Liverpool. 

1853. June 2 Sharp, William. 29 Albert Gate, Hyde 

Park, London. 

1 89 1. Nov. 5 Shaw, Giles. 72 Manchester street, Oldham. 

1894. April 5 Sheldon, Alfred S., Town Clerk. Congleton. 

189 1. Feb. 19 *Shute, Arthur. 67, Hope street, Liverpool. 

1891. Feb. 19 *Sill, T. Byrne. 28 Wellington road, Oxton, 


1&89. Oct. 31 Simpson, Stephen, M.A. East Cliff House, 


1.892. Nov. 3 *Smith, Rev. Frederick, Island road, Garston. 

1880. April I Stanning, Rev. Joseph Heaton, M.A. The 

Vicarage, Leigh, Lancashire. 

1 89 1. Feb. 5 Stapleton-Bretherton, Frederick. The Hall, 

Rainhill. . 

1884. Nov. 13 Starkie, Lieut.-Colonel Le Gendre Nicholas. 

Huntroyde, Burnley. 

1876. April 6 *Stewart, Rev. Alexander, M.A., Hon. Canon 

of Liverpool. 29 Sandon street, Liverpool, 

1890. Nov. 6 ^Stewart, Rev. Percy, M.A. The Rectory, 

West Derby. 

Stockport Free Public Library. Stockport. 

1893. Nov. 2 Stoner, Thomas. The Orchard, Lathom, 
. . Ormskirk. 

1891. Nov. 5 Stonyhurst College, Rev. the Rector of, S.J. 


1 89 1. Mar. 19 Stubs, Peter. Blaisdon Hall, Newnham, 


x393*;Mar. 9 Stuttard, Thomas. Lawnswood, Swmton park^ 


l^ist of Members. xxiii 

Date op Election. 

1888. Nov. 15 SuUey, Philip, 14 Waterloo place, Edinburgh. 

1889. Feb- 7 ^Taylor, Francis Willis. 9 Cook street, Liver- 


1889. April 4 Taylor, Henry. Braeside, Rusthall, Tunbridge 


1872. Sept. 5 Taylor, James. Rencombe, Gloucestershire; 

1887. Feb. 10 Tempest, Mrs. Arthur Cecil. Coleby Hall-, 


1893. Jan. 12. *Temple, John. Mossley Bank, Elmswooc} 

road, Aigburth. 

1891. Dec. 17 ^Thomas, Walter A. New Hall, Neston, 


1889. Feb. 21 Thompson, Edward P. Whitchurch, Salop. 

1890. Nov. 6 *Thompson, John. 1 1 Bentley road, Liverpool. 

1891. Jan. 8 Thorapson-Yates, Rev. S. A., M.A. 45 Philli- 

more Gardens, London, W. 

1889. Oct. 31 *Thornely, Jas. L. 5 Fenwick street, Liverpool. 

1886. Nov. I Threlfall, Henry S. 12 Londop street. South- 


1894. April 5 *Tippett, H. Grindon. Caldy road. West 

Kirby. ' . ^ 

1890. Nov. 6 Tonge, William Asheton. Alderley Edge. 

1888. Feb. 23 Toulmin, John. '' Guardian'* Of^ct, FrQSton. 

1889. Oct. 31 '^Turton, Fletcher Thomas. Municipal Buildings, 


1887. Jan. 20 Unwin, John. Southport. 

1890. Dec. 18 "''Van Gruisen, Nicholas. 27 Bold street, 

Liverpool. , 

1848. Nov. 23 Varty, Thomas. Stag Stones, Penrith. 

1872. Dec. 12 Veevers, R. Woningworth, Fulwood Parkj 


1894. Nov. 29 *Vyner, Robert C. de Grey. Newby Hall, 


1873. Dec. II Waddington, W. A. 16 Piccadilly road, 

Burnley. . , 

1889. Oct. 31 *Wainwright, Tbos. T. ii Leigh street, Liver- 
pool. . , . ^ 

1894. April 5 Warburtoh, Rev. .William. Al tear Vicarage, 

,. Liverpool. 


XXIV List of Members. 

Date of Election. 

1892. Nov. 3 Warrington Museum. Warrington. 

1849. Feb. I "'Webster, George. 6 York Buildings, Dale 

street, Liverpool. 

1 89 1. Mar. 5. Weeks, W. Self. Clitheroe. 

1895. Nov. 7 *Weightman, Percy O. Fern Lea, Seaforth. 

1888. Dec. 13 Weldon, William Henry, Narroy King of 

Arms, College of Arms, London, E.G. 

1856. Jan. 3 Welton, Thomas A. 38, St. James's road, 

Brixton, London, S.E. 

1862. Mar. 13 Westminster, The Duke of, K.G., Lord Lieu- 
tenant of Gheshire. Eaton Hall, Ghester, 

1896. Mar. 26 *Whinnerah, William. 20 Wellington road, 

Oxton, Birkenhead. 

1 89 1. Feb. 5 White, Rev. W. Stuart, M.A. Esh Vicarage, 


1889. Jan. 10 Wigan Free Library, Wigan. 

1895. Mar. 21 ^Williams, James. 246 Park road, Liverpool. 

1892. Dec. 15 Williams, Rev. J. Wright, M.A. Farn worth 

Vicarage, VVidnes. 

1888. Nov. 29 -''VVillox, John Archibald, M.P. 9 Abercromby 

square, Liverpool. 

1892. Mar. 24 *Wilson,G. F. B. 24 Prince's avenue, Liverpool. 

1885. Nov. 26 "'Wilson, W. Forshaw. 20 Groxteth road, Sefton 

Park, Liverpool. 

1865. Dec. 7 Wood, Richard Henry, F.S.A., F.R.G.S. 

Penrhos House, Rugby. 

1891. Nov. 19 Woodhouse, Miss E. D. Burghill Gourt, 


1888. Dec. 13 Woods, Sir Albert William, K.G.M.G., G.B.i 

F,S.A., Garter Ring of Arms, GoUege of 
Arms, London, E.G. 

1888. Nov. 29 Worsley, James E*, F.S.A. Winwick, Newton- 


1892, Nov. 3 Worsley, Philip J. Rodney Lodge, Glifton, 

Bristol. : . 

1892. Jan. 18 "'Wynne, George. Mercury office, Liverpool. 

List of Members. xxv 


Datb op Election. 

1885. Nov. 26 *Atherton, Webster. 8 Victoria park, Walton. 

1895. Nov. 7 *Ball, T. Stanley. Care of Messrs. Eskrigge 

& Roby, 5, Cook street, Liverpool. 

1893. Nov. 30 Dolan, Dom Gilbert, O.S B. Callow End, 


1889. Dec. 12 Grazebrook, George, F.S. A. Sudbury, Harrow. 

1888. Mar. 8 *Shaw, George Thomas. Athengeum, Church 

street, Liverpool, Ifon. Librarian. 

1894. Nov. I *Waite, James A. 6 Fairfield street, Fairfield, 


1888. Feb. 9 *Watts, Augustine, M.A. 67 Lord street, 



1855. Feb. I Clarke, Joseph, F.S.A. The Roos, Saffron- 

Walden, Essex. 

1875. J^^- 7 Coughtrey, Millen. London street, Otago, 

New Zealand. 

1880. Oct. 5 Dean, John Ward. 18 Somerset street, Boston, 

Mass., United States of America. 

1870. Sept. 13 Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton, C.B. The Camp, 

Sunningdale, Berkshire. 

1854. Sept. 27 Latham, R. Gordon, M.D. . 96 Disraeli road, 

Putney, London. 

1870. Sept. 13 Lubbock, Sir John, Bart, M.P., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

High Elms, Hayes, Beckenham, Kent. 

1852. Dec. 9 MacAdam, Robert. 18 College square East, 


1891. Dec. 3 Oxford, the Lord Bishop of, F.S.A. Cuddesdon 

Palace, Oxford, Vice-President. 

1880. Oct. 5 Ruskin, John, LL.D. Brantwood. Coniston, 

Lancashire, Vice-President, 

1870. Sept. 13 Stokes, Sir George Gabriel, Bart, M. P., P. R.S., 

LL.D. Pembroke College, Cambridge. 


list of t)onorari> Xocal Secretaries. 

•• • • • • 

Blackpool ... 

Burnley ... 

Clitheroe ... 






Lancaster . . . 


Ley land ... 



Rainford ... 


Rochdale ... 


Southport ... 


••• ••• ••• 

1 1 • • • • 

• • • t • • 

• • t t • • 

• • • • • t 

t • • • • • 

• • • • • • 

• • • • ■ • 

t • • • • t 

• • • • ■ t 

• • t • • • 

• • • • • t 

• • t • • • 

• • • • • • 

• « • • • • 

• • • • • • 

• • • • • • 

• • t • • • 

« t • • • • 


• • • • • t 

• • t • • • 

a • • • • • 

Whalley and I 
■Fen die Hill ]" 
Wintpick and I 

'Neivfon-k' Willows \ ' 
Wray, near Lancaster 


Rev. J. S. DoXEY, Christ Church Vicfirage, Bacup. 

The Rev. E. Lupton, Crystal Road, South Shore, 
Blackpool. • ~ ; 

W. EcROYD, Lomeshaye, Burnley. 

The Rev. W. B. Grenside, Melliiig Vicarage, 

A. J. Robinson, Clitheroe Castle, Clitheroe. 

James Carr, Colne. * 

The Rev. A. Crofton, Reddish Green. 

D. J. Leech, M.D., Elm House, Whalley Range. 

Henry Stephenson, Haslingden. 

Joseph Rawlinson, Ulverston. 

W. O. Roper, Lancaster. 

W. D. Pink, King Street, Leigh. 

The Rev. W. Stuart White, Esh Vicarage, Durham. 

James Bromley, The Homestead, Lathom. 

The Rev. J. W. Williams, The Vicarage, Farnworth. 

Lt.-Col. FiSHWiCK, F.S.A., The Heights, Rochdale. 
W. E. GkegsoN, 43, Moor Lane, Great Crosby. 
H. S. Threlfall, 12, London Street, Southport.. 
The Rev. Canon Bardsley, F.S. A., The Vicarage, 

W. Owen, F.R.I.B.A., Cairo Street Chambers, 


W. S. Weeks, Clitheroe. 

T. R. Ellis, i8. King Street, Wigan. 

Rev. J. Carson, W^inwick, Newton-le-Willows. 

Rev. C. L. Reynolds, Wray Vicarage, Lancaster. 




Holmes Chapel. 



Northwich and\ 
Middlewich \ '" 
Wallasey . . . 

• • • • • • 

• • • • •■ 


E. W. Cox, Highfield, Rock Ferry. 

Robert Head, Congleton. 

Rev. Francis Sanders, Hoylake. 

Rev. H. (J. Barnacle, Holmes Chapel. 

Rev. J. F. Messenger, Newton Moor Vicajage, 

Rev. the Hon. ^V. Trevor Kenyon. 
James Hall, Lindum House, Nantwich. 

W'm. Bancroft, Northwich. 

George Pearson, Southside, Wilmslow, 




By Robert Head. 

Read 21st November, 1895. 

THROUGHOUT the length of our beautiful 
English land, I trow there is not anywhere 
a more beautiful picture than that formed by this 
block of irregular building, known to us as Old 
Moreton Hall. Its situation is at the extreme 
corner of Cheshire, off the highway between Con- 
gleton and the Potteries, the lofty hill of Mow Cop 
being its conspicuous landmark. King, in his Vale 
Royal J says : '^ Near the foot of that famous 
' mountain called Mow Cop begins the water of 
' the Whelock, making his first passage near unto 
^ Moreton, wherein are two very fair demeans and 
' houses of worthy gentlemen and esquires, of 

* most ancient continuance — the one of the name 

* of Moreton, and which, as I have heard, gave 
^ breeding to that famous Bishop Moreton, who, 

* in the time of Richard HI, contrived that project 

* of the marriage of two heirs of the houses of 

* York and Lancaster/' This allusion, doubtless, 


2 Moretan Holly Cheshire. 

is to Cardinal John Moreton, who was Master of 
the Rolls in 1473, created Bishop of Ely and Lord 
Chancellor in 1478, and Archbishop of Canterbury 
in i486. Unfortunately there is, however, nothing 
extant to prove that King was justified in saying 
that Old Moreton Hall was the birthplace of the 
famous bishop. 

The manor of Moreton, like many others in this 
county, was held by knight service under the 
barony of Halton, the family probably deriving 
the name from their possessions. In the reign of 
Henry HI, Lettice Moreton, who had become the 
heiress through failure in the direct male line:, 
bestowed the estate in marriage upon Sir Gralam 
de Lostock, of Lostock Gralam, Northwich. 
Until the death of Sir William Moreton, in 1763, 
the ownership continued in male descent ; but Sir 
William dying childless, the estates passed to his 
sister's son, the Rev. Richard Taylor, Rector of 
West Dean, who assumed the surname of Moreton. 
He died in 1784, leaving a son, the Rev. William 
Moreton, whose two daughters — Frances Anna- 
bella and Elizabeth — became at his death the 
co-heiresses. Frances Annabella Moreton, who 
married Mr. John Craigie, formerly sheriff-substitute 
of Roxburghshire, died in 1892, when her sister, 
Miss Elizabeth Moreton, the present benevolent 
owner, became sole heiress to the Moreton moiety 
of the manor of Rode. 

To this lady I am indebted for many kindnesses, 
particularly the privilege of inspecting the collection 
of deeds and ancient documents belonging to the 
family, extending back many years. These, which 
I trust to utilise some day in compiling a history 
of the Moreton family, include the following : — 

Correspondence, in three volumes, from temp. 
Henry VH to a.d. 1765 ; 

Morehn Hally Cheshire. 3 

. Papers, in three volumes, from a.d. 1247 to 181 2 ; 

Accounts, in one volume, from a.d. 1621 to 1670 ; 

Accounts and memorandum book of Philip 
Moreton, 1647-1663 ; 

384 deeds, relating chiefly to the county of 
Chester, temp. Henry Ill-George III. 

The bulk of the correspondence consists of letters 
from Peter Moreton, and is highly important and 

In the side chapel on the north of the chancel 
in Astbury Church,. situated a mile or more away 
from the hall, are vseveral monumental inscriptions 
relating to the Moreton family ; whereby it is 
concluded that this portion of the church was 
formerly the chief burying place of the Moretons 
of Moreton. Originally there stood here at the 
east end a plain altar tomb belonging to the family. 
This erection, which was about four feet high, with 
no pretensions to either beauty or ornament, was 
removed, by permission of the owner, some thirty 
years ago, and the slabs let into the floor exactly 
over the spot the tomb had occupied. The 
inscriptions are to the memory of Sir William 
Moreton, Recorder of London, who died in 1763 ; 
Dame Jane Moreton, died 1758 ; and Dame Mary 
Jones, died 1743. 

This Astbury side chapel, it has been suggested, 
belonged jointly to the families of Rode and 
Moreton ; both of whom, it is thought, were 
descended from the Lostocks of Lostock Gralam, 
and to whom the quoted allusion by King refers. 
Amongst the Moreton correspondence are several 
records of the feuds which existed between the two 
houses, one of which, between William Moreton 
and Thomas Rode, in the time of Henry VIII, 
was over a matter of precedence — **whiche of 
^' they m should sit highest in the churche, and 
B 2 

4 Moreton Hall, Cheshire. 

** foremost goo in procession." The decision of 
Sir William Brereton and Justice Bramley, to 
whom the arbitration was submitted, is printed by 
Lyson in his Magna Britannia, p. 492 : — *' That 
*' whither of the saied gentylmen may dispende in 
'* landes by title of inheritannce, ten marks or 
'* above, more than the other, that he shall have 
** the pre-eminence in sitting in the churche, and 
'* in gooing in procession, with all other lyke causes 
'' in that behalfe/' 

Sir William Moreton, named on the tombstone, 
was the only son of the Right Reverend William 
Moreton, Bishop of Kildare, and subsequently of 
Meath. Sir William, who was knighted on the 
igth of September, 1755, was the last of the male 
line who held the manor of Moreton, as already 
mentioned. Dame Jane, his wife, was the widow 
of John Lawton of Lawton. Dame Mary Jones, 
his mother, was the widow of Sir Arthur Jones at 
the time of her marriage with Bishop Moreton. 

Before I describe the old hall, it should be 
noticed that the present owner, Miss Elizabeth 
Moreton, who resides principally at Torquay, 
directly she succeeded to the estate, commenced the 
blessed work of restoration — restoration, that is, 
as far as was possible. In the year 1893 this work 
was completed, under the instructions of Mr. James 
Myott (Miss Moreton's agent), and his deputy, Mr. 
Carswell, of Capesthorne. Messrs. Isaac Massey 
and Sons, of Alderley Edge, were the contractors, 
the superintendent of the work being Mr. T. Call- 
wood Massey. The glazing of the windows was 
done by Mr. W. Gee, of Congleton. The work 
was of great importance, signs of decay and 
subsidence having appeared in many parts of the 
ancient building. 

The following are some of the details of what 
was carried out : — The stone parapet walls of the 


C. Vol. XL VI I. 


Moreton Hall, Cheshire. 5 

bridge were rebuilt, and the arch supplied with 
several new arch stones. The walls and foundations 
round the building were repaired, and portions on 
the west and east sides underpinned with new 
stone. The wall on the north side of the ban- 
queting hall was entirely restored. The task of 
dealing with those portions of the main building 
which showed alarming signs of giving way, was 
a most precarious matter ; and here the grand, 
massive way in which our forefathers built was 
fully shown, but the fact of the timber framing 
being corbelled over, whereby so much beauty and 
character are obtained, made it more difficult to 
deal with. Iron uprights, cased round with oak, 
firmly imbedded in cement concrete, were fixed in 
the entrance gateway and in the room over the 
oratory chapel. This was also done in other 
positions, so as to give perpendicular support to 
the walls of the upper storeys, and to which the oak 
uprights were bolted, to arrest as much as possible 
the bulging outwards. New oaken window frames 
were re-inserted, the original moulding and details 
being carefully observed. Several windows which 
had been built up were opened out again. New 
floors and panellings were supplied to several 
rooms ; and some two hundred panes of lozenged 
glass were supplied, and the lights secured by oak 
fillets. Frequently I was present when the work 
was in progress, and noticed that pickaxes had to 
be used in removing portions of the walls and 
floors — woodwork which was probably more than 
three hundred years old ! 


I must now assume the role of cicerone to my 
readers. The old hall, as will be observed by the 
accompanying illustration, is a beautiful example 
of the Tudor and Jacobean periods, situate in the 

$; Moreton Hall, Cheshire. 

midst of verdant meadow lands, and embowered in 
luxuriant foliage. Seen from the highway, its pro- 
jecting upper storeys and quaint windows, its gabled 
roofs and ivy-clad chimneys, its walls chequered in 
black and white, with trefoils, quatrefoils, and chev- 
rons diapered all over it, give one the impression 
that it is some big, beautiful toy. Of uniformity there 
is none ; but how picturesque is the irregularity ! 
The whole is a perfect specimen of a half-timbered 
manor house, and is said to possess more sixteenth 
century character and features than any other 
existing example of equal antiquity. 

Covering about an acre of land, this quaint 
dwelling is approached from the road by what was 
once a graceful avenue ; tall old trees even to-day 
suggest that. An earth mound stands at the 
south-west angle of the moat, similar to one once 
existing near Kinderton Old Hall. The moat is 
crossed on the south side by a bridge of one span, 
the arms of the Moreton family being carved on 
the centre panel. As you pass over this bridge, 
the massive oak of the gateway arrests your 
attention; also the old stone horse-block in the 
corner. A second double door in the gateway is 
worthy of inspection. Here are a curious old 
wooden lock and bolts, and a cunningly devised 
loop-door, where parleying with an intruder could 
be ventured upon. Entering the quadrangle, the 
picture is bewildering, and where to begin a 
description is a puzzle. Be it known that I have 
frequently noticed the intelligent stranger, as he 
crosses this threshold, invariably speaks in hushed 
tone, so deeply impressive and beautiful are the 
surroundings. Looking back at the gateway we 
have just passed through, there is Some carving of 
special interest. The top of each side-post is 
surmounted with the iigure of a soldier holding a 
partisan, and by the .head-pieces >of these figures 

Mof^n Hall^ Cheshire. y 

archaeologists have arrived at the probable date 
when the gatehouse was built. 

The windows of the quadrangle are the chief 
glories of Old Moreton Hall, the two great bays, 
which form five sides of an octagon, being of later 
date than the rest. These form two storeys, with 
the projecting roofs divided into small gables with 
carved pendants. The following words are seen 
round the upper tiers of the two great bays : — 




In a panel against the ground floor window is the 
maker's record, as follows : — 


Beginning our inspection of the interior with 
the ground floor, the oratory chapel, adjoining the 
gate-house on the left hand, comes first in order. 
It occupies a portion of the eastern side of the 
quadrangle, and is said to be the oldest part of 
the building. The chapel, which has an indepen- 
dent entrance, stands east and west, is of one 
storey only, and measures sixteen feet either way. 
The chancel, of two storeys, is twelve feet long 
and nine feet wide. Until the work of restoring 
was commenced, this little sanctuary had fallen 
into a most dilapidated and ruinous state. The 
pavement was broken up, the walls were white- 
washed, and the inscriptions were defaced. What a 
blessed fact it is that to-day it has again been made 
fit for the sacred purposes originally intendeds 
Architectural features are noticed on the doorway, 
where there are half-round and hollow mouldings of 
late perpendicular date. The apartment is lighted 
at thejeastcm end by a pointed window of five 

8 Moreton Hallj Cheshire. 

lights, and on the south side by a square-headed 
window of four lights. New moulded uprights, 
and a gate in the chancel screen have been added. 
The roof is flat, and formed in panels. The walls 
bear ornamentation of renaissance character, and 
black-letter texts, not yet restored, of a date anterior 
to the Authorised Version. The holy table is now 
appropriately adorned with crucifix, candles, and 
flowers. The altar cloth is of dark crimson, richly 
embroidered with gold. 

The Service of Reconciliation, by licence of the 
Bishop of Chester, which took place on the 17th 
of October, 1893, was conducted by the Rev. J. M. 
Egerton, then Rector of Old Rode, when the 
chapel was filled with a devout congregation. 
Services are now held regularly here on Saints' 
Days, when the clergy from Old Rode officiate. 
It is pleasant to mention that in this quaint little 
chapel the Rev. Thomas Brook — formerly Rector 
of Gawsworth, and subsequently minister of the 
old church of St. Peter at Congleton — preached 
his last sermons. He resided in Congleton from 
1649 to 1661, when he was dispossessed for non- 
conformity. Mr. William Moreton, of Old Moreton 
Hall, was his friend and patron, and, after Brook's 
dismissal from Congleton, opened his own private 
chapel to him, where he preached until his death 
in 1664, at the age of seventy-one. 

The great hall is a handsome, lofty apartment, 
thirty-four feet by twenty-one feet. Attention should 
be given to the elaborate carving which adorns the 
entrance to this room. Clustered and twisted 
pillars form the side-posts, and figures of dragons 
adorn the spandrels of the low, central principal, 
the tie-beam being relieved with running ornament. 
A double row of carved dwarf pillars support the 
cornice, with quatrefoils let into the spaces between. 
The projecting window, as seen in the illustration, 

Moreton Hall, Cheshire. g 

is surmounted by a gabled roof, which completes 
the beauty of the porch. Indications of the 
existence in former times of the musicians' gallery 
and the screen that divided the apartment from 
the kitchen and the vestibule are not wanting. 
In one of the lights of the projecting oriel is a 
greyhound statant, the crest of the Moretons. 

A narrow passage leads to the smaller hall and 
withdrawing room, which is twenty-two feet by 
fifteen feet. The second great window, which gives 
light to this apartment,' contains some remnants of 
coloured glass, representing the heraldic bearings of 
the Breretons of Brereton, and the Moretons, also 
the rose and crown of the house of Lancaster. In 
this room the walls are wainscotted, and the ceiling 
is of oak paneUing worked in squares. Above the 
fireplace, which reaches from floor to ceiling, are- 

10 M Of don Hall J Cheshire. 

the royal arms of Elizabeth — France and England 
quarterly, with a lion and dragon as supporters. 

A wainscotted room, probably the boudoir of 
one of the fair ladies of Moreton, adjoins the 
drawing room. Here the visitor may be served 
with a homely tea or substantial luncheon by the 
genial caretaker, Mrs. Dale, whose ancestors held 
the same post. The ** carpeder," Rychard Dale, 
the maker of the two great windows, was one of 
the same family. 

The kitchen must not be overlooked, where 
are several relics of the Moretons : the old spice 
chest, containing twenty-five little drawers ; the 
pewter plates, bearing the Moreton crest ; and 
the old oak table, around which a dozen people 
might sup. 

The upper rooms are reached by several spiral 
staircases. These consist of bed and sitting rooms 
on the first floor, and the long gallery on the second 
floor. The latter is considered of great importance 
and interest, the tradition (I am constrained to write 
tradition) that Queen Elizabeth danced in it being 
generally believed. The room measures about 
seventy feet in length, and is only twelve feet wide, 
the height to the roof being seventeen feet. Panels 
of old oak wainscotting cover the lower portions of 
the wall, the room being lighted by windows that 
extend almost entirely round the apartment. These 
windows are a marvel of the glazier's art, being 
set in the smallest panes. On the left of the 
doorway, scratched upon the window, amongst 
several other inscriptions, is the following, which 
is set upside down :— 

" I stay here both day and night, 
To keep out cold and let in light." 

Over the window at the east end is a female figure, 
representing Pate, holding a sword in om band 

Moreton Hall, Cheshire. it 

and a pair of compasses in the other. The sword 
is thrust through a globe hanging above her head. 
The following inscriptions are seen on either side 
of the illustrations : — • 

" The speare Whose ruler 

of Destinye is Kiioh ledge." 

A- female figure at the other end is symbolic of 
Fortune. Her right hand is pointing to the inscrip- 
tion painted on the rim of her wheel — Qui modo 
scandtt corruet statim. The side panels are 
inscribed — 

"The Wheele Whose rule is 

of Fortune .... i-j no ranee." 

The retiring room leading from this gallery 
contains a large fireplace, much ornamented, as 
will be seen by the illustration. Justice and Mercy' 

Ftniruoa ik 

12 Moreton 'Hally Cheshire.. 

are represented on either side. The shield in the 
centre bears the arms of Moreton, quartering those 
of Macclesfield. The crest is that of the Moretons. 
John de Moreton, in the time of Edward III, 
married Margaret, the daughter of Jordan and 
sister and co-heiress of John de Macclesfield. The 
quartering in the shield alludes to this union. 
This apartment, which is somewhat lofty, is 
wainscotted, and the windows are glazed after the 
manner of those in the long gallery. 

In conclusion, I would say that under the new 
regime this old mansion is being cared for and 
prized, as it so well deserves. Thousands visit it 
during the year. Some twenty years back only a 
score of people used to inspect it annually. The 
dawn of its fame as an interesting show place 
began when Miss Amelia Edwardes wrote her 
** Lord Brackenbury '* for the Illustrated London 
News. Old Moreton Hall was the delightful 
manor house of this delightful tale. Of late 
years, brush and canvas and photography have 
combined to make its romantic beauty more 
famous and more widely known. 



Some years since, when collecting materials for his work, The 
Old Halls of Lancashire and Cheshire^ Mr. Henry Taylor, then 
of Manchester, Architect, had measured plans made of this 
building. They did not appear in the book, and have never 
been published. By his kind permission they are here 
reproduced, together with a description of the Hall, reprinted 
from the above-named work, which is now a scarce book. 


** Moreton Old Hall, or Little Moreton Hall, as 
it is often called, to distinguish it from a more 
pretentious house in the neighbourhood, is one of 
the most remarkable specimens of the half-timbered 
style of buildings with which Cheshire abounds. 
It has been little touched by the hand of the 
modern restorer ; indeed, unless some measures are 
promptly taken for its preservation, this beautiful 
old house will fall into absolute ruin. 

** The hall stands in the midst of beautiful 
scenery, near the base of the Mow Cop range of 
hills, and is about four miles distant in a southerly 
direction from the quaint old town of Congleton. 

** The building is still almost entirely half- 
timbered or * black and white,' and scarcely any 

14 Moreton Hall, Cheshire. 

part of it has been rebuilt in other materials, as is 
the case in so many other old halls. The roofs 
are covered with the old * grey ' or stone slates, 
and are now of a beautiful colour. 

** In Nash's Mansions of the Olden Time, and in 
numerous other works, interesting views are given 
of portions of this building, such as the gatehouse, 
the interior of the courtyard, and the bay window 
.of the great hall. Looking across thejcpurtyard 
to the north we see the great hall, with its fine 
porch and bay window. The easterly wing con- 
tains family apartments and the domestic chapel. 

** The house is built in the form of an irregular 
quadrangle. It is built fairly four-square with the 
points of the compass, so that the chancel of the 
chapel faces east. The gatehouse was doubtless 
intended to be built at right angles with the family 
wing, but the builders of these old halls seem to 
have had very hazy ideas of geometry, and thfe 
corner in question forms a very decided acute 
angJe^ The site being level, the usual means af 
defence under such conditions was adopted, and 
so we find here a rectangular moat, measuring 
externally about ninety yards by eighty yards.' 
It is still quite complete and full of water. 

** The gatehouse is of unusual size, and is a 
singular agglomeration of apartments. It is 
detached from the rest of the house, except at 
the south-east corner of the quadrangle, where 
the junction is just wide enough to allow of a 
■narrow door of communication on the bedroom 
floor. An examination of the architectural features 
of this block of buildings leads us to the conclu- 
-sion that it is of later date than the great hall and 
contiguous apartments, and it seems not impro- 
bable that this south side of the quadrangle was 

• • * j 

1 This is a common size for the moats of the Counties Palatine, though 
they are often quite square on plan. 

Moreton Hally Cheshire. 15 

built as an after-thought, so as to enable the 
Moretons to entertain their guests in the lordly 
and hospitable style which prevailed during the 
Elizabethan epoch. The great hall, indeed, would 
have proved quite inadequate for the magnificent 
scale of the banquets of this period. In all 
probability this composite structure replaced an 
earlier and more humble gatehouse. 

*' Flanking the boldly projecting main entrance 
porch on the left hand is the two-storied garderobe ; 
oil the right-hand side is a strong wall. These 
erections were manifestly contrived to protect the 
main entrance to the house from those attacking 
it, who might have crossed the moat unobserved-. 
Passing through the porch, which is richly carved, 
and contains an old stone mounting blocks we enter 
a passage, on the right hand of which is the porter's 
room ; on the other side of the passage is ari 
ante-room leading to the garderobe. Beyond the 
ante-room, at the west end of this block of 
buildings, is a good-sized kitchen, containing a 
fireplace of large dimensions, and in connection 
is a scullery or pantry. The probable use of these 
apartments was to provide refreshments for the 
guests in the rooms above, the older kitchens being 
•so far away. 

** The first or middle floor of the gatehouse is 
reached from the courtyard by a staircase with 
winding steps attached to a central newel-post. 
This staircase is carved out of the ante-room 
referred to above, and lands us in a similar ante- 
room with garderobes connected with it. To the 
east of the ante-room on the first floor is a fine 
apartment, thirty-one feet long and nineteen feet 
wide, which may have been used as a supper-room. 
It is lighted by a square oriel window looking into 
the courtyard, and by another similar one looking 
out to the east, The ceiHng is divided into 

1 6 Moreton Hally Cheshire. 

twenty-eight compartments by nine ceiling beams. 
A little room over the porch communicates with 
this apartment. 

** The two secret apartments or hiding-rooms 
are in the little wing at the back of the gatehouse 
at its north-west corner. They are each about 
nine feet square, and in all probability served, one 
as the sitting-room and the other as the bedroom 
of the unfortunate priest or other fugitive who had 
to be concealed from his pursuers. The only 
access to these two rooms is by a sliding panel in 
the north wall of the apartment over the kitchen ; 
but some pressure must have been applied to a 
stout priest to get him through this narrow 
aperture. Of such neat manufacture is the panel- 
ling, that much time might be spent by the pursuer 
in discovering that any part of it was moveable, or 
that anything like a door existed in it. In the 
westernmost of these secret rooms is a black- 
looking abyss or shaft, about four feet by three 
feet, and down this hole the fugitive is said to have 
descended to the subterranean passage under the 
moat. Mr. Myott, the agent of the property, 
informs me that this underground passage, passing 
under the moat, has been followed up for some 
distance, a chimney sweep having been employed 
for the purpose. This passage leads in the direc- 
tion of a mound which stands not many yards 
from the south-west corner of the moat. I have 
not personally investigated the facts relating to 
this underground passage, but in the nature of 
things it is not improbable that such a means of 
escape did once exist. On the ground floor a 
bricked-up doorway suggests that at one time 
there was a means of escape from the dark shaft 
into the garden. It is a noticeable fact that there 
are small doorways in the walls of all the rooms 
in the eastern wing and in the rooms of the 


1 3 1.8 

11 fill 

i Ij 


I s .n , 


• " S -5 

a 5 M 


S 3 

f- a. 

> *■ 

Moreton Hall, Cheshire. 17 

gatehouse, so that a fugitive could escape to the 
secret apartments from the furthest extremity of 
the building. 

** Ascending by the same spiral staircase in the 
gatehouse, we reach the long gallery, measuring 
about seventy-five feet in length, and twelve feet 
six inches in width. Some doubt exists as to the 
uses of the long galleries which are to be found 
in houses of this date, but there can be little doubt 
that they were used for the country dances which 
were so popular with our ancestors. Certain it 
is that this apartment could not have been used 
as a picture gallery, for, with the exception of a 
few feet, the whole of the wall space is occupied 
by windows, both at the sides and ends. Its roof 
is open-timbered, and supported by five pairs of 
principals. From this long gallery a narro\V door 
leads us into the uppermost room over the porch. 
It is about eighteen feet long and eleven feet 

*' The great hall is of the early type, with 
open-timbered roof, and is in its usual place at the 
opposite side of the quadrangle to the gatehouse. 
It is about thirty-four feet long and twenty-three 
feet wide. The roof is divided into two long bays, 
and supported in the middle by a strong central 
principal. The kitchens and butteries, with sym- 
metrically arranged doors, are at the west end of 
the hall. The kitchen fireplace is large enough 
to roast an ox. It is eleven feet wide and five 
feet deep. The posts of the screens supported 
the musicians' gallery, from which there is access 
to three bedrooms over the kitchens and butteries. 
The through passage of the hall is protected from 
draughts by porches at both ends of it. In the 
north porch is a most ingeniously contrived 
circular staircase, which leads to the musicians' 
gallery, and to the three bedrooms just referred to. 

1 8 Moreton Hall, Cheshire. 

The fireplace of the hall is in a somewhat unusual 
position, being at the north end of the high table, 
and there are indications of afterthought in its 
construction, as in so many other instances. The 
bay window also, by its plan no less than by the 
date which it bears, was manifestly added as an 
improvement many years after the erection of the 
great hall itself. This bay window, with the 
contiguous bay of the drawing-room, in their upper 
parts are joined together in a very unique manner. 
The picture of the courtyard, given in Nash's 
Mansions of the Olden Time, gives a clear idea of 
this remarkable architectural construction, which, 
according to the inscription given elsewhere, dates 
from the year 1559. 

** These two bays terminate hexagonally on plan. 
The South porch of the hall, which like the two 
bay windows is richly ornamented and carved, 
appears to have been added at the same time. 
Passing out of the great hall by the usual door at 
the back of the high table, we enter the eastern 
wing of the building. In front of us is a winding 
staircase leading to the bedrooms. On our left 
hand is the smaller hall, or lord's chamber. On 
our right is the withdrawing room, the ceiling of 
which is divided into twelve square compartments 
by fine ceiling beams. These compartments are 
enriched with moulded floor joists, the direction 
of which is changed in each compartment, thus 
imparting an interlacing eff'ect resembling that 
which is so much favoured by Japanese artists. 
The ceilings at Samlesbury Hall are of similar 
construction. The work is all executed in oak. 
There is an interesting Elizabethan chimney-piece 
in this apartment. The chapel is at the south end 
of this east side of the quadrangle. Its chancel, 
which is about twelve feet long and eight feet wide, 
projects beyond the line of the main buildings. 

I m 

o ii 

Moreton Hall, Cheshire. 19 

The nave, or body of the chapel, is about eighteen 
feet square on plan. It is lit by a five-light south 
window, and an oak screen divides it from the 
chancel. A small apartment on its north side may 
perhaps have been the priest's room. Over this 
little room and the nave of the chapel is a long 
apartment which may have formed a dormitory 
for the servants. It has an open-timbered roof, 
and is reached by a circular staircase, the only 
entrance to which is from the courtyard. The 
two oriel windows of this room look into the 
quadrangle, and their rich ornamentation has often 
been represented in the sketch-books of artists. 

** The chief bedroom is over the withdrawinor- 
room. It was enlarged in the year 1559 by the 
great two-storied bay window which William 
Moreton then built. A narrow door on the 
northerly side of this bay leads us into the upper 
story of the bay of the great hall, and thus a large 
cupboard or dressing-room is most ingeniously 

*' The quadrangle measures internally about 
sixty feet from north to south, and forty feet from 
east to west. The break in it on the west side 
is defended by a brick wall. 

** There is an entire absence of corridors in this 
house, and we have in consequence four separate 
staircases. In fine weather the access to the 
bedrooms may have been from the quadrangle, or, 
in bad weather, by the narrow doors which lead 
from bedroom to bedroom. 

** Amongst the details worthy of note is the 
ancient leadwork in the windows, particularly in 
the long gallery and the bay windows of the great 
hall and withdrawing-room. It is arranged in 
ingenious geometrical patterns, somewhat similar 
to those of the glazing at Bramhall Hall. We 
may also note that the walls of some of the 
c 2 

ao MoreUm Hall, Cheshire. 

earlier parts of the house, which now look so 
bare, appear to have been originally hung with 
tapestry, whilst some of the rooms of more modern 
date are enriched with handsome oak panelling. 

" The coat of arms of the Moretons js to be 
seen on the fireplace in the small room leading 
out of the long gallery, and also in the windows 
of the great hall and with drawing- room." 


By William Oliver Roper. 

Read 2 1st February, 1895. 

THE traveller on his way to Scotland by the 
London and North-Western Railway may, 
some seven miles north of Lancaster and shortly 
after leaving Carnforth station, catch a glimpse of 
a massive tower and long lines of grey buildings, 
embosomed amidst the trees to the north-east of 
the line. The tower and the grey buildings form 
part of Borwick Hall. But if the traveller should 
ask if the tower has a history, and why the long 
lines of grey buildings stand almost athwart the 
front of the hall, his enquiry either meets with a 
blank ignorance of the subject, or with that little 
knowledge which is a dangerous thing, and which 
furnishes a reply totally devoid of any approach to 
historical accuracy. 

What, then, is the history of Borwick Hall ? 

Our sources of information are somewhat limited. 
Tradition affirms that the finst of the Bindlosses 
of Borwick was a merchant at Kendal in West- 
morland. A reference to the Booke of Recorde for 
the borough of Kendal, shews that in January, 
1579, it was ordered that — 

" Henrye Willson ffrom hencefurthe shal be removyd displacyd 
and discharged off his sayd offyce and place off Burgesshippe 
and ffrome the usinge and exercisinge thereof and all nianer off 
authoritye belonginge thereunto. ... By and w'*^ the ffull 
advise counsell and consente of Xpofer Byndlose, Alderman of 

a^ Berwick Hall. 

the Boroughe of Kirbie Kendal, and the Recorder and Burgesses 
of the same Boroughe with the advise and assennte of the more 
part of the xxiiijtie their assistants being then assembled in the 
Court Lofte thar. . . . And also it is likewise orderyde by 
the sayd Alderman Recorder Burgesses and others the p'sons 
above mencyoned that . . . Jennett Eskrige (ihe other 
defendant) shall be cartyd through the sayd Boroughe to the 
terror and ffeare of other persons of evill dispocicion for the 
comyttinge the like offence in tyme to come." 

In 1579, then, Christopher Bindloss was a person 
of some importance in the town of Kendal. 

Another entry in the same volume mentions 
amongst the list of aldermen — 

"Christopher Byndlosse, chapman, alderman 1579, mort 1581." 

According to this entry, Christopher Bindloss, the 
alderman, died in 1581. 

The same volume also mentions, in handwriting 

of 1575, 

** Mr. Roberte Byndlose Esquyer '* 

as a freeman of the borough. This Robert Bind- 
loss probably died in 1594 ; and the next of the 
family of whom we have any definite knowledge, 
and the first who is definitely connected with 
Borwick, is Christopher Bindloss. This appears 
from the registers of the parish of Warton, in 
which Borwick Hall is situate. Amongst the 
earlier items in those registers are the following : — 

1583 Mr. Barnabye Bindlosse buried. 

1592 Dorothea, daughter of Christopher Bindloss of Borwick 

Hall, bapt. 
1594 Brigget, daughter of Christopher Bindloss of Borwick, 

1596 Christopher, son of Christopher Bindloss of Borwick, bapt. 

The Barnaby Bindloss named in the first of 
these entries I have been unable to identify. 
From the second, Christopher seems to have 
been resident at Borwick Hall in 1592 ; and, 
apparently, still lived at Borwick, if not at the 
hall, in 1594 and 1596. 

Borwick HalL 23 

Christopher Bindloss of Borwick, ** being troubled 
**with an infirmytie in his body,'* made his will on 
the 3rd of June, 1600. After directing his body to 
be buried in the chancel of his parish church at 
Warton, he bequeathed to the poor of Warton 
£6 13s. 4d., to the poor of Kendal ;;f 10, and to 
the poor of Lancaster £6 13s. 4d. His wife, 
Millyzant, is to have the tuition of his daughter 
Bridget till she attained the age of eighteen years. 
The testator then directs that Valentine Bindloss 
** is to have ;f 100 when twenty-one, which was 
** given him by the last will of Robert Bindlos 
** Esq. my father deceased.'* The will proceeds — 

" Whereas my brother Robert Byndlos is bounden to pay to 
my brethren in law Thomas Breathwait and John Calvert 
Esquires and to my cosenes James Boroshell and Edward 
Willimsone ;^i20o for the maner of Presthutton for my use — 
;^30o of it to my wife and ;^90o to my daughter," 

The testator appoints his wife executrix of that 
his will, and ** Thomas Braithwaite of Burnishead, 
** Esq., and John Calvert of Cockerham, Esq., my 
** brethren in law and my loving friends Mr. 
** Christopher Shute, Vicar of Giglesworth, and 
** Henry Porter, Vicar of Lancaster, supervisors." 
The will was proved at York, on the nth of 
August, 1600. 

From this will it appears that the testator was 
the son of Robert Bindloss, and that he had a 
brother named Robert ; that probably he had, at 
the date of his will, only one child living, viz., 
Bridget, unless it can be supposed that the 
Valentine Bindloss mentioned in the will was a 
son of the testator. Still, there is nothing to shew 
that Christopher Bindloss lived at Borwick Hall, 
except the extract from Warton register for 1592 ; 
and nothing at all to shew that he built the hall. 

Now at the top of the staircase there is a stone, 
supported by a dozen small pillars, and bearing on 
its edge the name and date — 

24 Berwick Hall. 

MASON 1595 

and on a stone in the wall of one of the long 
barns, which, according to tradition, were built to 
shelter the pack horses of the Kendal merchant 
on their way to and from London, are the date 
and initials— ^ dni 1590 

R B 
A B 

From these dates it would appear that Borwick 
Hall was built in the last decade of the sixteenth 
century ; that its builder was probably Robert 
Bmdloss, who died about 1594 — the father of 
Christopher Bindloss, the testator, and his brother 
Robert. Beyond this point our information does 
not at present carry us. 

With the next generation more definite details 

The Visitation of Lancashire , by Sir William 
Dugdale, in 1664-5, describes Sir Robert Bindloss 
as of '* IBarwick Hall, Knight '' ; and as marrying, 
first, Alice Dockwray, and secondly, Mary Eloft. 
The parish registers furnish the date of the 
baptism of the son by the second wife — 

1603 ffrancis son of Mr. Robert liindloss of Barwick bapt. 

In 1604, ** Dorithie daughter of Mr. Robert 
** Bindloss of Barwick, Armiger," and, in 1614, 
** Jane the daughter of Mr. Robert Byndloss Esq. 
** of Barwick," are baptized. In 1625 ^^ the entry 
of the burial of ** Marie ladie to Sir Robert 
'' Bindlose Kt. in the Churche.'^ 

Sir Robert Bindloss made his will on the 7th 
of February, 1629-30. He desires *' to be buried 
/* in my parish church of Warton, neare unto my 
** well beloved wife.'* He then devises all the 
lands left to him by Robert Bindloss, his father, 
in various parishes in the counties of Lancaster, 
Westmorland, York, and Durham, to his grandson 

Borwick Hall. 25 

Robert, the son of Francis Bindloss, to whom also 
he bequeathed all his armour and furniture, pro- 
vided for the service of the king. The will also 
mentions Francis Bindloss, a minor (probably his 
younger grandson), his daughter, Jane Bindloss, 
and his daughter-in-law, ** the Lady Cicely Bind- 
** loss," the widow of his son Francis.' 

Sir Robert Bindloss, the testator, is stated to 
have built a chapel at Borwick, and to have 
bequeathed a sum of ;;f 20 per annum ** to a 
** preaching minister here to be nominated by the 
** Lord or Lady of Borwick : wch pension was to 
** be paid out of an estate at Wencedale, Yorksh., 
** and to continue as long as any of y^ s^ Sir 
** Robert's name or blood shall remain Lord or 
'*Lady of Borwick."* 

The Church Survey, in 1650, states that the 
stipend left by Sir Robert Bindloss for Borwick 
Chapel was **withholden and not payed"; and, 
rather more than half-a-century later, Bishop 
Gastrell, in his Notitia^ states that *'the Pension is 
*' dropt, and y« Chapel is dropping." 

Returning to Sir Robert Bindloss, the testator, 
the Warton registers shew that his second wife 
predeceased him in 1625, ^^^ that his grandson 
Robert was baptized in the same year. This 
grandson was the son of Francis Bindloss, by his 
marriage with Cecilia, daughter of Thomas West, 
Lord de la Warr. The arms of ** Byndloss 
impaling West," carved above the fireplace in the 
hall at Borwick, have only recently been removed. 
Francis Bindloss was knighted in 1624, ^^d was 
Member of Parliament for the borough of Lan- 
caster in 1627-8. He died in 1628, in the lifetime 
of his father, and leaving two sons, Robert and 
Francis, and a daughter, Dorothy. 

Robert, the elder son, was baptized on the 8th 

z Chetham Society, n.s., vol. xxviii, p. 204. 
« Notitia CastriensiSf vol. ii, p. 562, 

26 Berwick Halt. 

of August, 1624, ^^d on the death of his grand- 
father, in 1629, became the owner of the Borwick 
estates. He was created a baronet on the i6th of 
June, 1641 ; was Member of Parliament for the 
borough of Lancaster from 1645 to 1653, and for 
the county in the Convention Parliament of 1660 ; 
and served the office of High Sheriff of the county 
in 1658, 1672, and 1673. Sir Robert Bindloss 
ranks as a Royalist, but although he received a 
baronetcy from Charles I, he does not seem to 
have drawn his sword on behalf of his king. In 
1 65 1 the Royalist army were on the march from 
Scotland to London. The king reached Kendal 
on the loth of August, 165 1, and the vanguard 
arrived at Lancaster the following day. Charles H, 
however, spent the night at Borwick Hall ; but, 
beyond the mere record of the fact, nothing is 
known of the visit. The next morning the 
Royalists left for Lancaster, where Charles was 
proclaimed with all solemnity, and the march was 
continued as far as Worcester, where the Royalists 
met with disastrous defeat. 

Whether Sir Robert Bindloss was an active 
Royalist or not, he certainly seems to have been 
zealous in the discharge of his duties as a magi- 
strate. Little more than a year after Charles H 
visited the hall. Sir Robert was urging the exercise 
of the extreme power of the law against the 
followers of George Fox. The account of one 
escape of the founder of the Society of Friends 
from an assault said to be committed by the 
servants of Sir Robert Bindloss, may be given in 
Fox's own words : — 

** 1652-3. From Lancaster I returned to Robert Widders's, 
and from thence I went to Thomas Lepers to a meeting in the 
evening ; and a very blessed meeting we had there ; after the 
meeting was done I walked in the evening to Robert Widders's 
again, and no sooner was I gone than there came a company of 
disguised men to Thomas Lepers with swords and pistols ; who 
suddenly entering the house put out the candles, and swung 

Berwick Hall. 27 

their swords about amongst the people of the house, so that the 
people of the house were fain to hold up the chairs before ihcni 
to save themselves from being cut and wounded. At length 
they drove all the people out of the house, and then searched 
the house for me, who, it seems, was the only person they looked 
for ; for they had laid wait before on the highway by which 
I should have gone if I had ridden to Robert Widders. And 
not meeting with me on the way they thought to have found me 
in the house, but the Lord prevented them. Soon after I was 
come in at Robert Widders, some Friends came from the town 
where Thomas Leper lived and gave us a relation of the wicked 
attempt ; and the Friends were afraid lest they should come and 
search Robert Widders house also for me and do me a mischief, 
but the Lord restrained them that they came not. Though the 
men were in disguise the Friends perceived some of them to be 
Frenchmen and supposed them to be servants belonging to one 
called Sir Robert Bindlas ; for some of them had said that in 
their nation they used to tie the Protestants to trees and whip 
and destroy them. And his servants used often to abuse Friends, 
both in their meetings and going to and from their meetings. 
They once took Richard Hubberthorn and several others out of 
the meeting and carried them a good way off into the fields ; 
and there bound them and left them bound in the winter season. 
At another time one of his servants came to Francis Fleming's 
house and thrust his naked rapier in at the door and windows ; 
but there being at the house a kinsman of Francis Fleming's, 
one who was not a Friend, he came with a cudgel in his hand 
and bid the serving-man put up his rapier; which, when the 
other would not, but vapoured at him with it, and was rude, he 
knocked him down with his cudgel, and took his rapier from 
him, and, had it not been for Friends, he would have run him 
through with it. So the Friends preserved the life of him that 
would have destroyed theirs." 3 

Sir Robert's chaplain at Berwick was Dr. 
Richard Sherlock, who is described as ** a person 
** of a most pious life, exemplary conversation, of 
** great charity, hospitality, and so zealous a man 
** for the Church of England that he was accounted, 
** by precise persons, Popishly affected and a Papist 
** in masquerade.*' Dr. Whitaker writes : — 

" It is very certain that during the usurpation the Service of 
the Church of England was performed, with great effect, in a 
chapel at Borwick, by an ecclesiastic of the best principles, who 
lived to see better days, and to. be rewarded for his fidelity. 

3 Jmmal of George Fox^ seventh edition, voL i, pp. 143-4. 

28 Borwick Hall. 

This was Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Sherlock. . . , In my author's 
time," continues Dr. Whitaker, citing Lucas as his authority, 
*' about eighty years ago, stood an ancient domestic chapel on a 
green near the hall, of which, on a visit to the place this year 
(1819), I could not find either a trace or tradition, and I doubt 
not that for obvious reasons it has been industriously removed. 
Being purely domestic it was unendowed, and, according to the 
restrictions of the canon law, without a bell. Since the accession 
of the Standish family it appears that no service was performed 
at this Chapel, but in the latter part of Lady Bindloss's days, 
the Vicar of Warton usually read prayers and preached here 
once or twice every year, and not often er, as the good lady chose 
rather to afford a good example by attending regularly at the 
parish church ; but in the beginning of her husband. Sir Robert's 
days, it had the honour of being constantly and zealously served 
by Richard Sherlock. . . Sir Robert Bindloss returning from 
his travels, and being in want of a chaplain of his own principles, 
Mr. Sherlock was recommended to him. This young baronet, 
like many of the Royalists, professed a high veneration for the 
Church of England, then in a persecuted and suffering state, 
while they disgraced its precepts and its discipline by their 
licentious lives. He had succeeded to a large estate, the income 
of which he had spent and far exceeded in promiscuous hospi- 
tality. Mr. Sherlock, though no Puritan, abhorred prodigality 
and excess; he saw with deep concern his patron's fortune 
diminishing, his morals relaxed, and probably his principles 
undermined by the company which crowded Borwick Hall to 
partake of the wasteful festivities of the place. To counteract 
these various courses, he first tried to awaken his conscience by 
oblique hints and warnings, and, when he found that these had 
no effect, he addressed a letter of admonition to hini, couched 
in the most respectful terms, but exposing with courage and 
fidelity the errors of his life and their consequences. Above all, 
he urged the scandal which such conduct, in an age of hypo- 
critical austerity, brought upon that suffering Church to which he 
professed himself so much attached. Li conclusion, he boldly 
desired rather that his representations might be attended to, or 
that he might be discharged from a service which had become so 
irksome to hitH'; arid this, it must be remembered, at a time 
when the regular clergy were starving, and he himself would not 
have known where to have procured a subsistence. Sir Robert 
Bindloss had too much generosity to take him at his word, 
though it is not unlikely that he wished him in a better situation." 

Dr. Sherlock entered into a controversy with one 
of the principal members of the Society of Friends, 
Richard Hubberthorne, a native of the village of 
Yealand, distant about two miles from Borwick 

Berwick Halh 29 

Hall. In 1656, Dr. Sherlock published a pamphlet 
entitled, The Quakers^ Wilde Questions objected against 
the Ministers of the Gospel, and many Sacred Acts 
and Offices of Religion, with brief Answers thereto. 
This treatise is dedicated to Sir Robert Bindloss, 
and one discourse is inscribed to the Lady Rebecca, 
his wife. In answer to this, Richard Hubberthorne 
issued a tract entitled, A Reply to a Book set forth 
by one of the Blind Guides of England, who is a 
Priest at Barwick Hally in Lancashire, who writes 
his name R. Sherlock, Bachelor of Divinity, but he is 
proved to be a Diviner and Deceiver of the People ; 
which Book is in answer to some Queres set forth to 
him by them whom he calls Quakers. The details of 
the controversy are now of little interest, and, 
indeed. Dr. Sherlock seems to have declined to 
reply to the latter pamphlet. 

While at Borwick, Dr. Sherlock *' was compelled, 
"in order to prevent his being silenced by the 
** governing powers, to decline the literal use of the 
** Common Prayer, but he digested out of it a 
*' formula of worship as nearly approaching to it 
** as he thought safe, and constantly used it to the 
*' great edification of his hearers.'' {Richmondshire, 
vol. ii, p. 312.) 

Dr. Sherlock was presented by Charles, eighth 
Earl of Derby, to the Rectory of Winwick, where 

" He was so constantly resident that in an incumbency of 
nearly thirty years he was scarcely absent from his benefice as 
many weeks ; so constant a Preacher that, though he entertained 
three curates in his own houses, he rarely devolved that duty 
upon any of them ; such a lover of monarchy, that, like 
Mephibosheth, he never shaved his beard after the murder of 
Charles I ; so frugal in his personal habits that the stipend of 
one of his curates would have provided for him ; and so 
charitable that out of one of the best benefices in England 
he scarcely left behind him one year's income, and that for the 
most part to pious uses.** 

He died on the 15th of June, 1689, aged 76. By 
bi§ will he gave j^30 to the poor of Bprwick, and 

30 Berwick Hall. 

his memory, in the time of Lucas, the historian of 
Warton, was '* yet precious in this parish." 

After the Restoration of Charles II, Sir Robert 
Bindloss was engaged in the prosecution of Roman 
CathoHc priests in Lancashire. The following is 
an abstract of a letter written by Sir Robert to the 
Earl of Derby, dated at Borwick on the 8th of 
December, 1662 : — 

" Sent a letter addressed to John Seddon, now prisoner in 
Lancaster. At first he disavowed any knowledge of the writer. 
He is in prison for refusing the oaths of allegiance and supremacy. 
Is a member of a church of 900 still meeting at Bishopsgate, is 
a dangerous fanatic, one of many sent from London to stir up a 
second Rebellion. 

" Encloses examination of John Seddon. Lived in London 
nine years. Came to Warrington on his marriage a year ago. 
Wrote to the congregation in Duke's Place, London, to know 
whether he might join that in Warrington, of which Wm. Booth, 
now prisoner in Lancaster Castle, is preacher, there having been 
some defection amongst tliem. Knows the signatures of Nat. 
Strange, John Ward, and S. Evans. To the letter he received a 
reply, but to none of the others. Thinks it was partly written 
by Hen. Preston a Schoolmaster." 

On the 24th October, 1672, Sir Robert signed 
the declaration that there lay upon him *' no 
** obligation from the oath commonly called the 
** Solemn League and Covenant, and that the 
** same was in itselfe an unlawful oath and imposed 
** upon the subjects of this Realme against the 
** knowne Laws and Liberties of the Kingdome.'' 
On the same day Sir Robert was elected mayor of 
the borough of Lancaster ; but, owing to ill-health, 
retired from the office in the following April. A 
copy of the letter announcing his resignation is 
preserved amongst the records of the Corporation 
of Lancaster : — 

" To the Aldermen and Councell of this Burrow Towne 

"These °^ ^'""'' 

" Gentlemen 

" I give you thanks for your respecte unto mee but as 
my condition is at present I am not able to serve you and the 

Borwick Hall. 31 

rest of your towne as I could heartily wish, (the extremity of my 
distemper remaining still upon mee.) Out of my true affeccons 
therefore to you I wish and advise that for the more speedy 
carrying on of your Townes affaires you wold please soe farr as 
your Constitucons of your Towne will enal)le you to electe a 
new Maior in my stead. And in soe doing I shall willingly 
acquiesce. And when God Almighty shall please to give me 
strength and abiUty I shall be ready and willing to doe you any 
friendly office as formerly. I wish you good successe in all your 
proceedings. And shall ever remaine, 

" Gent" 

" Yo'* asser* friend to serve you 
"April y« 6, '73." "Rob^ Bindlos. 

Sir Robert died in 1688, and was buried in 
Warton Church. By his wife Rebecca, daughter 
of Sir Hugh Perry, he left one daughter, CeciHa, 
who married WilHam Standish, of Standish. The 
settlement on this marriage, dated the i6th of 
August, 1697, includes the manor of Langtree, 
lands in CoppuU, Duxbury, Woolston, Martin's 
Croft, Woolston Moss, ** and all cannal mines or 
** coal pits " in the township of Shevington, the 
Rectory of Garstang, and Borwick Hall. The 
Borwick estate is described as ** all that y« Mannor 
*' or Lordshipp or reputed Mannor or Lordshipp of 
*' Borwick with the appurtenances in the said 
** County of Lancaster and the Capitall message 
*' called Borwick Hall with the Demesne lands, 
*' Water-corne Mill and Appurtenances thereunto 
*' belonging scituate lying and being in the parish 
** and precincts of Borwick, Warton and Hutton 
** in the said county of Lancaster.'' The lands 
were settled upon Cecilia Bindloss during her life, 
with remainders over. 

The issue of this marriage was three sons — 
Ralph, Edward, and William — and several daugh- 
ters. The eldest son, Ralph, was ** out in the 
** Fifteen." The Stuart force had advanced to 
Preston,^ its last halting place, where, on the loth 

4 An old tenant on the Borwick estate used to say that he remembered 
an aged woman declare that she saw the Scotch army drawn up not far from 


32 B or wick Hall. 

of Novenlber, Ralph Standish joined its ranks. 
Three days later Preston surrendered, and Ralph 
Standish was one of the unfortunate troop of 
gentlemen who, under the charge of a cavalry 
escort, and enduring all the hardships of winter, 
travelled wearily to London, to be tried for loyalty 
to the Stuart line. For six months the owner of 
Borwick Hall lingered within the walls of New- 
gate ; and, on the i6th of June, 17 16, he was 
brought up to answer a charge of high treason, 
and convicted. The sentence, however, was never 
carried out, and after another year's imprisonment 
he was released.^ His mother, Cecilia, the daughter 
of the last Sir Robert Bindloss, of Borwick, was 
still living. She therefore presented a petition ** to 
** the Hon'ble Comissioners appointed by Act of 
*' Parliament made in the first year of , his Majesties 
*' Reign entitled An Act for appointing Comis- 
*' sioners to enquire of the estates of certain traitors 
** and of Popish Recusants and of estates given to 
** superstitiouse uses in order to raise money out of 
** them sev'ally for the use of the Publick.'* 

The petition was entitled — *' The Claime of 
" Cecilia Standish of Borwick in the County of 
" Lancaster widow to and out of sev'all mannours 
** messuages Lands tenemts and Hereditaments of 
'* Ralph Standish late of Standish Hall in the said 
** County of Lancaster Esq. being a p'son attainted 
*' of High Treason.'' 

The petition recites a settlement dated the i6th 
day of August, 1697, and made between William 
Standish (then since deceased) and the claimant, 
his then wife. Dame Rebecca Bindloss of Borwick 

the hall, and that when tliey perceived some people advancing over the 
rising ground between that spot and Lancaster, they placed themselves in 
battle array. The war cry of the Highlanders was "Claymore," and it is 
not improbable that the field may derive its name — '* Clamara" — from this 

5 Ralph Standish was found guilty of high treason at Westminster ; since 
removed into the custody of a messenger, in order for a pardon. (Patten's 
History t second edition, p. 147.) 

Borwick Hall. 33 

Hall, widow, the mother of the claimant, Ralph 
Standish and Mary Standish, children of William 
Standish, and Thomas Wilson of Wrightington, 
of the first part ; the Right Hon. Lord George 
Howard and Lady Phiiippa Howard, his sister, 
children of the Most Noble Henry late Duke of 
Norfolk, deceased, of the second part ; William 
Lord Fitzwilliam, Baron of Lyford in the Kingdom 
of Ireland, Sir Henry St. George, Knight, Claren- 
cieux King-at-Arms, Charles Townley of Townley, 
Edward Warren of Duckley, William Dickonson 
of Wrightington, Esquires, and Charles Mawson 
of the parish of St. Clement Danes in the county of 
Middlesex, gentleman, of the third part ; Reginald 
Brittand, Serjeant-at-Law, and William Hoghton 
of Park Hall, of the fourth part ; and Thomas 
Hey of the parish of St. Dunstan's in the West, 
London, gentleman, and Thomas Mawson of the 
parish of St. Clement Danes aforesaid, of the 
fifth part. 

Under this settlement the manor of Langtree, 
Langtree Hall, the Holt in Coppull, lands in 
Duxbury, the manors of Woolston, Hernhead, 
and Martinscroft, and Woolston Hall, with other 
property in those townships, '* Cannal Mines or 

* Cannal Pits '' in Shevington, ** and also all that 
' the Mannor or Lordshipp or reputed Mannor or 

* Lordshipp of Borwick with the appurtenances in 
' the said County of Lancaster and the Capitall 

* Messuage called Borwick Hall with the Demesne 

* Lands Water-corne Mill and appurtenances 

* thereto belonging scituate lying and being in the 
' parish and p'cincts of Borwick, Warton, and 
' Hutton in the said County of Lancaster," toge- 
ther with the Rectory of Garstang, were settled 
upon the claimant during her life, as her jointure. 

The petition concludes — ** Your claimant prays 
** that such an entry may be made by the said 
** Comissioners of this her claim unto and out of 

34 'Borwick Hall. 

** the estate of the s'd Ralph Standish her son 
** who now stands attainted of High Treason in 
*' such manner and form as by the aforesaid Act is 
*' in that behalfe directed appointed and required." 

The petition, signed *' CivS. Standish," apparently 
had the desired effect, as the claimant remained in 
possession of Borwick Hall until her death, on the 
igth of January, 1729-30. 

Ralph Standish, her son, married Lady Philippa 
Howard, daughter of Henry, sixth Duke of Norfolk. 
The eldest son by this marriage died in the lifetime 
of his father, leaving two children, who died in 
infancy. All the other children of Ralph and 
Philippa Standish died unmarried, except a daugh- 
ter, Cecilia, who married William Towneley of 
Towneley. The issue by this marriage was three 
sons — Charles, Ralph, and Edward — and a daughter, 
Cecilia. Charles, the well-known antiquary, died 
unmarried in 1805 ; Ralph, who inherited Borwick 
on the death of his father and mother, died without 
issue; and Edward, the youngest, died in 1807. 
Cecilia Towneley married Charles Strickland of 
Sizergh ; and their son, Thomas Strickland, in- 
herited the Borwick estates. Thomas Strickland 
married Anastasia, eldest daughter and co-heiress 
of Sir John Lawson of Brough Hall. The Borwick 
estates became the property of Thomas Strickland, 
the younger son by this marriage. This Thomas 
Strickland left issue, Walter Charles Strickland and 
Henry Charles Strickland, by the elder of whom 
Borwick Hall was sold, in 1854, ^^ George Marton 
of Capernwray Hall, whose son, George Blucher 
Heneage Marton, is the present owner. 

Borwick Hall stands on rising ground, over- 
looking the valley of the Keer. To the west is 
the bold outline of Warton Crag ; to the east are 
the hills dividing the Keer valley from that of the 
Lune ; and to the south-west lie the waters of 

Berwick Hall. 35 

Morecambe Bay. The lodge abuts on the old 
high road from Carnforth to the village of Borwick. 
Over the archway is a stone, on which are carved 
the initials of Sir Robert Bindloss and his wife 
Rebecca, with the date 1650. Adjoining the lodge 
are the long range of buildings now used as barns, 
but which tradition alleges were originally erected 
to afford accommodation for the packhorses of 
Christopher Bindloss, on their way from Kendal 
to London. 

The gateway of the lodge opens into a grass- 
grown court, on the north of which stands the 
hall. The front of the building comprises three 
projecting bays and a massive square tower. A 
broad flight of stone steps leads up to a terrace 
extending the whole length of the hall, the main 
entrance to which is opposite the steps. On 
entering, a door on the left leads into the dining 
hall, lighted by three large windows, and panelled 
all round to within a few feet of the ceiling. The 
fireplace bears the initials r.b. The long oak 
table, said to be the one in use when Charles II 
visited Borwick, is still in the room. Beyond the 
dining hall are two smaller rooms. The panelling 
in the front room was removed a few years ago ; 
the other room is devoid of decoration. A panelled 
staircase leads to the drawing room, a large and 
well-proportioned room, extending over the dining 
room and entrance. On the same floor is a suite 
of panelled rooms, one of which has evidently been 
used as a chapel. The upper story is divided into 
small attic chambers, in one of which — panelled to 
the ceiling — tradition avers that Lord Clarendon 
wrote part of his history of the Great Rebellion. 
The staircase leads to the battlemented roof of the 
square tower, which commands an extensive view 
of mountain and plain, river and sea. 

At the east end of the hall are the ruins of walls 
and muUioned windows, covering a considerable 

D 2 

36 Borwick Hall. 

extent of ground ; but at what date they fell into 
decay is not known. A wing projects northward 
from the east end of the hall, and behind the main 
building is a picturesque gallery, the appearance of 
which has recently been marred by the insertion 
of a modern sash window. Eastward of the hall 
runs a brook, and beyond again the ground rises 
in terraces, where, under the shade of lofty trees, 
the cavaliers of Sir Robert Bindloss's time passed 
many an idle hour. 

For many years now the hall has been uninha- 
bited, and is consequently falling out of repair. It 
stands melancholy in its solitude, the silence onlv 
broken by the visitors who come to gaze on the 
former home of a family which, in its day, played 
its part in Lancashire history, but whose name and 
habitation are now almost forgotten. 

Mention may be made here of a piece of vandalism which 
occurred within recent years to the tombstone of a member of 
the family connected with Borwick. Francis Bindloss married 
Cecilia, daughter of Thomas West, Lord de la Warr. Some of 
her family seem to have settled in the neighbourhood, and one of 
them was buried in Warton Church. His tombstone was in the 
iioor of the nave, and bore upon it the arms of \Ytsi— Argent, a 
/esse dancettk Sable— ^\\\i the epitaph, which I copied some four 
or five years ago, Hie jacet Dominus Nathaniel West praeilustris 
Domini Nathanielus West filius natu maximi et illustrissimi 
Domini Thomas West Baronus de la Ware ex fratre fiepos obiit 
XV ij Kalendis Fehrnarii ab Incarnacionis Dominicae Anno i6yo. 
The interior of the church was restored in 1892, and instead of 
this and certain other monuments being carefully preserved, they 
were actually sold, to be used for flags for footpaths in the 
village I The above tombstone was sawn in half; the upper 
portion, bearing the arms and part of the inscription, forming 
one of the flags in the path leading up to a house at the north 
end of Warton. How comes it that, notwithstanding all the 
formalities necessary to obtain a Faculty for the " restoration " 
of a church, such ruthless desecration can be carried on without a 
word of objection on the part of the authorities of the church ? 

By the Rev. G. W. Wall, M.A., 

Rector of Sephton. 
Read 7th March, 1895. 


THOMAS PENNANT, the antiquary and 
** tourist/' supplies in the year 1773 some 
brief information regarding Sephton. The church 
and parish are, of course, mentioned at some 
length in Baines* History of Lancashire ; and some 
account is given of it in a small book styled A brief 
Historical and Descriptive A ccotint of Sefton Churchy 
published in i8ig, and dedicated by its author, 
** Thomas Ashcroft, Esq., of Lydiate,'' to the Rev. 
R. R. Rothwell, Rector of the parish at the time. 

In the year 1822, a certain R. Bridgens, an 
architect by profession, living for several years at 
Liverpool, published in London a large folio volume, 
dedicated '' to the Rt. Hon^ie Earl Sefton.'' The 
work contains little letterpress, but consists of 
drawings of the interior and exterior of the church, 
and of the screens and bench ends and details of 
the carving, as they existed in the year 1818. The 
author remarks, that since the earlier date the 
church, so he had been informed, had undergone 
'* considerable repairs and some alterations." This 

38 5. Helen's Churchy Sephton. 

work would possess more value if greater depen- 
dence could be placed upon its correctness ; but in 
some instances the draughtsman appears to have 
trusted to a defective memory, and in others to 
have drawn upon his imagination. His ground 
plan does not indicate any northern opening either 
of door or window in the ** revestre/' though the 
exterior view shows a south window ; nor does it 
place any window in the tower, or at the west end 
of the south aisle. His interior view shews the 
Molyneux brass in a position which it does not at 
present occupy. He places at its foot a brass of 
three children, of which no trace remains, and 
omits the coats of arms, at present sufficiently 
obvious. His drawing shews no side galleries, but 
a blocked-up tower arch with a western gallery, in 
which it is probably correct. A small square-headed 
window is shewn in the north aisle, which is 
probably a misplacement of the square-headed 
one now existing. It shews the stalls as if 
paved with stone, and a flight of steps descending 
from a nave at a higher level into the chancel. 
The present levels would seem to put such steps 
out of the question. His concluding plate is 
styled ** a composition.'' In it two knights in 
armour, standing amidst the ruins of the church, 
anxiously contemplate one of the mailed effigies 
which it contains. The oak tracery of a screen is 
standing, but the font and a bench-end, with its 
** poppy,'* lie uncared for on the ground. The 
work is painstaking and interesting, but it cannot 
be relied upon as an authority. 

A more extended history of the church and parish 
appeared in the year 1893. This ''descriptive 
''and historical account" is the joint work of 
"W. D. Caroe, M.A., F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A., and 
" E. J. A. Gordon," and is copiously illustrated by 
engravings. It contains an account of S. Helen's 

w « 

3. Helen's Churchy Sephton. 39 

Church, and of many matters of antiquarian and 
archaeological interest connected with the parish 
and neighbourhood of Sefton ; and not only quotes, 
but in many instances reproduces the contents of 
ancient documents and charters calculated to throw 
light on the working of the social machinery in 
by-gone centuries. In matters of more recent 
date, this volume supplies full information as to 
the proceedings of a body which styled itself 
** The ancient and loyal Corporation of Sephton," 
more commonly known as '* The Mock Corpo- 
'' ration/' The late Rev. Engelbert Horley, M.A., 
Rector 187 1- 1883, took a lively interest in the 
records of the sayings and doings of this asso- 
ciation, and, by collecting and editing them as 
they are now presented in print, has preserved a 
very life-like picture of a curious phase of social 
life, and of men and manners as they appeared 
between the year 1780 and the cessation of the 
chronicles, if not of the existence, of this jocose 
and merry-making self-styled corporation, in 1798. 


Whether or no a Norman church formerly stood 
at Sephton, on any portion of the site of the 
present building, is a matter only to be inferred 
from a few traces which seemingly exist. Our 
great Norman cathedrals were built much about 
the dates 1150-1180, and Norman work was 
followed by Early English before the close of the 
twelfth century. A certain '* Richard, parson of 
** Sefton,'' is mentioned in a deed which internal 
evidence assigns to the year 1204 or thereabouts. 
It goes without saying that this ** parson of Sefton," 
who seems to have had a taste for litigation, must 
have had a church in which to officiate ; and as 
his dispute with the monks of S. Mary's, Lancaster, 
was arranged in the year just named, that building 

40 S. Helenas Church, Sephton. 

must have been in existence at Sephton some 
twenty or thirty years only after the date of the 
erection of some of our finest examples of Norman 
architecture. The remains of a Norman doorway 
at Aughton, and of a Norman windo\y at Ormskirk, 
render it perfectly possible that a Norman building 
stood at Sephton also, at an early date. The 
tradition locally current, that it was founded in 
mi, may be dismissed as unauthenticated, and 
rests probably on a misinterpretation of an i.h.s. 
carved above the arch of the south porch. It is 
most improbable that the builders of the sixteenth 
century porch would place upon their work the 
merely traditional date of a vanished building. 

The Norman church at Sephton has disappeared, 
but in the angle formed by the junction of the 
western wall of the porch with the wall of the 
south aisle, a stone is built into the wall which 
evidently formed at one time part of a diapered 
surface, wrought by the hands of a Norman mason. 
The shape and diagonal tooling of many of the 
stones built into the east wall of the north aisle 
seem also to indicate a Norman origin, and another 
fragment of diaper occurs in the interior, high up 
in the wall of the south aisle, to the east of the 
parvise door. Some large blocks of red sandstone 
in two courses — the lower one squared and tooled, 
the upper one much injured — are visible at the 
base of the interior of the tower, beneath its west 
window. These appear to be anterior to the 
Decorated work, and are possibly the remains of 
a stone bench, and are certainly evidence of some 
description of an early building. 

As no trace of Early English work exists in the 
church, it may be assumed that the Norman church 
stood through the Early English period, until it 
was supplanted towards the end of the thirteenth 
century by a Decorated building, which in its turn 

S. Helen^^ Churdhj Sjsphton. 41. 

gave place to the work of late fifteenth century 
masons. The relaying of some flags near the 
western face of the chancel screen, in the year 
1893, disclosed a red sandstone wall of considerable 
thickness running north and south, at some little 
depth below the present surface. The similarity 
of material would seem to point to some connection 
as regards date and builders between this wall and 
the courses in the tower. A sandstone floor is also 
to be found lying at some depth below the oaken 
flooring of the choir stalls, and presents the 
appearance of having formed the floor of some 
early building. 

The place of the Norman church was taken by 
a Decorated building, of which some substantial 
portions still remain. The tower, and a portion of 
the north aisle at its western, and more especially 
at its eastern end, enable us to conjecture what 
manner of building the whole structure was. It 
probably occupied much the same site as the 
existing church, but had not quite the same axis. 
It had a high-pitched roof, the slope of which is 
indicated by the weather moulding, visible from 
the interior on the eastern wall of the tower, and 
which also shows that the present nave stands 
rather more to the south than did the earlier one. 
The spire, where it rises from the tower, had the 
same turrets at its base as now, but they are shewn : 
in old drawings as simple cones, devoid of the' 
crocketted pinnacles placed upon them by later, 
hands. An examination of the plinth and base 
mouldings of the tower where they appear in the. 
church at the west end. of the south aisle, leads to ' 
the conclusion that they were originally carried/ 
straight onward to the east, and that the Decorated 
church had no south aisle ; but that its high-pitched ' 
roof, starting from the tower, terminated eastward 
by .the nave and chancel, gables, resting . upon : 

42 S. Helenas Churchy Sepkton. 

a south nave and chancel wall. This wall was 
probably pierced by either arched or square-headed 
windows, having flowing tracery, and filled with 
yellow stained and grisaille glass. The north aisle 
formed a part of the original design, and was 
erected at the same time as the Decorated nave, 
and, as it would seem, with stones taken from a 
preceding Norman building. 

But if the Norman church was swept away by 
the builder of Decorated date, his work in turn fared 
nearly as badly at the hands of the Perpendicular 
architect. The carrying of the weather-moulding 
of the nave roof slightly beyond the northern limit 
of the tower wall, is an indication that the north 
aisle had a gabled roof of its own, which is 
confirmed by the height of its eastern window. 
Some corbels in the northern wall, above the 
square-headed window, were evidently intended to 
carry the roof timbers ; but whether they were 
designed to be simple blocks, or, like the corner 
one, to have a step-like form, is not so clear, 
though the latter appears most probable. This 
north aisle exhibits an architectural declension as 
its construction is carried westward. It has been 
repaired with Perpendicular work of an earlier 
period than that of the nave, consequently, it may 
be inferred, while the Decorated nave was still 
standing. Beyond the square-headed window 
westward, it has apparently undergone successive 
and intermittent repair, rather than systematic- 
reconstructitto. The east window is an interesting 
example of Decorated work, as is also the square- 
headed one ; but the latter has undergone some 
unskilful repair, while the former stands urgently 
in need of careful restoration. The next window 
was evidently also square-headed, as probably were 
all the windows, but the lintel has been removed, 
and replaced by a fifteenth century arch. An 

5L Hdm's Churchy Sapkton. 43 

inspection o£ the exterior of the north aisle wall 
will §hew> by the alteration in the courses of the 
stones, and by their size and materials, how far the 
exi^tirkg walls date from the Decorated period, and 
wheie the late Perpendicular work commences. 
The pKnth from the tower eastward was seemingly 
spared hy the Perpendicular rebuilders, who either 
raised their walls upon it, or reset it upon a new 
foundation. The corner buttress eastward is 
Decorated, the next very recent, the next fifteenth 
century work, the next two modern, and the 
western corner one late fifteenth centurj-. The 
parapet and flat roof are also of the same date. 

Modern builders and restorers only are generally 
credited with a destructive vandalism, but a slight 
examination will shew that here the fifteenth 
century masons shared the same failing. A 
filleted fragment, probably of a muUion, and of 
Early English character, is built into the cill of 
the second window of the north aisle ; while 
another fragment of tracery, taken either from a 
window or, possibly, from the canopy of a niche, is 
embedded in the south aisle, in the cill of the third 
window. The destruction of the body of the 
Decorated church was complete, and the builders 
of the existing nave and chancel utilized its stones 
in their rising walls. A portion of a window label, 
identical in shape with the label of the windows oif 
the topmost stage of the tower, appears upon the 
exterior of the western wall of the north aisle, 
probably in its original position ; but the window 
itself has been replaced by one of far later date, 
not quite in the same position. The stone-work of 
this window had become so decayed, that it was 
found needful to insert an exact replica in new 
stone, in 1895. The western window of the tower, 
although of the Decorated period, may yet not be 
the original one, as the tracery, carved out of a 

44 S\ Helenas Church, Sephton? 

single stone, which fills its head, has not been 
planned to fit the muUion with which it is 

A square recess is to be found in the western 
wall of the tower. This may have been an aumbrey 
or cupboard, intended to receive the requisites for 
the administration of baptism. Two otheV recesses 
— the one in the northern, the other in the southern 
wall — extend within the thickness of the wall for 
some distance eastward beyond their openings. 
These recesses have been grooved, as if to receive 
a shelf, but no satisfactory explanation has ever 
been brought forward, either of their peculiar 
formation or of the purpose which they were 
intended to serve. In the present clock room, 
where some massive corbels support the belfry 
floor, a curious funnel-shaped opening, of square 
section, pierces the eastern wall. This, now 
blocked up, would, if open, command a view of 
the chancel, and may have been intended to enable 
an occupant of the chamber to observe the celebra- 
tion of the Mass, so that he might sound one of 
the bells at the fitting moment. On the southern 
side of the tower, between the tower arch and the 
recess, some faint vestiges were found, on the 
removal of the whitewash, of a flowing foliage 
pattern executed with some red material, and may 
yet be indistinctly traced. At some recent period 
a sloping mass of stone has been raised against 
the whole width of the south side of the tower, 
apparently as a buttress. A portion of the spire 
was blown down in the year 1802, and rebuilt. 
Its eyelet holes, and the initials of the church- 
wardens at the time, graven in a lofty position, 
may be referred to the same date. On the northern 
side of the tower is a gurgoyle, one of the grotesque 
imaginings in which the old masons occasionally 
indulged with a free hand. 

S. OF L. •HO C, Vou 

.5; Helen! s CHufch\ Sephtoh^ 45 

The north aisle, in the eastern knd Decorated 
portion of its interior, contains in its eastern wall 
a piscina, or water, drain, into which the ablutions 
of the vessels employed in the Mass were poured. 
This possesses two peculiarities ; the one that its 
basins are aot pierced nor connected with any 
drainage, the other that it presents the unusual 
feature of having two basins instead of one. It 
possibly had a shelf at the back, which has dis- 
appeared. Two holes in the wall above it — the 
one plugged with the remains of a piece of. oak, 
the other with a stone — suggest the existence at 
one time of a bracket, possibly supporting the 
image of a saint. A few faint lines, scarcely 
visible, still remain upon a thin coat Qf plaster 
on the wall above the piscina, and indicate the 
former existence of a fresco painting," They suggest 
the folds of a trailing robe, but nothing further is 
decipherable.. i 

Immediately below the eastem.window cill^ two 
other holes appear to have received the supports of 
an altar slab or shelf. On the removal of the 
whitewash, two loose stones were found, to conceal 
a cavity hewn out of the thickness of the eastern 
wall on its northern side. This cavity, which was 
filled with loose fragments of clay, -may have had 
a wooden aumbrey inserted in it. A. recess in the 
northern wall contains the. effigy of a knight, but 
the connection between the two is evidently 
accidental; the effigy is of far earlier date than 
the arch, which has been cut into in order to admit 
the figure, This recess, which has some peculiar 
mouldings, may have been intended either to cover 
a founder's tomb, or to serve as an Easter 
sepulchre, in which the Host was deposited from 
Good Friday until Easter Morning. 

It is questionable whether the small doorway 
in the north aisle occupied its present place when 

46 S. Helenas Churchy Sephton. 

the Decorated aisle was built. It certainly was 
a doorway in some part of the Decorated church, 
possibly the " priest^s '' door in its chancel ; but 
the severance of the Decorated plinth without 
any return of its mouldings, suggests that the 
insertion of this doorway in the northern wail was 
an afterthought of later builders. Viewed from 
the interior, it seems to form an integral portion of 
the walling, which strengthens the surmise that 
the Perpendicular builders raised their new walls 
upon the old plinth ; but having cut through it to 
form an entrance, proceeded to build in the jambs 
and arch of a doorway taken from some other 
site. The intended purpose of several tunnel-like 
openings, some inches square, carried through the 
thickness of the north wall, closed at the exterior 
but still open within, is not obvious. The remains 
of some interior cornice shew that the north wall 
has undergone several alterations, the nature of 
which it is difficult to define. 


While the existing portions of the Decorated 
building seem to have had incorporated into them 
fragments of work possibly of Norman origin, the 
sixteenth century Perpendicular nave, aisle, arid 
chancel shew evidence of having been very largely 
constructed out of the materials of an immediately 
preceding church. It is perhaps easier to form a 
notion of the general aspect of the Decorated 
church, although it has all but disappeared, than 
to solve some puzzles which present themselves in 
the later building. Anthony Molyneux, a Rector, 
is of opinion, in his will, dated the 13th of October, 
1553, that his ** successors cannot in conseyence 
** requyer any dylapidac'one ifor Sefton,'' owing to 
the fact that he had ** made so greatt coste of y*^ 
** chauncell and revestre.'' The ** dilapidac'one '' 

S. Hden*s Churchy Sephton. 47 

may refer to the north aisle, but the restrictive 
phrase is hardly the language of a man who had 
raised the whole building. Probably he found the 
arcades already erected by some unrecorded builder 
of the early part of the sixteenth century, and, by 
the addition of the sacrarium and ** revestre,'' only 
completed a church which had at least a south 
aisle in the year 1528. The appearance of the 
interior of the church must in his day have been 
more imposing than at present, inasmuch as it was 
loftier, and probably unobstructed. 

The soil of the south chapel was shewn, by an 
excavation made in 1893, in connection with the 
erection of the organ, to be made ground, loose 
and sandy, in which the bases of the pillars were 
buried to a depth of two feet* In connection with 
the question of earlier and later floor levels, it 
must again be noticed that a sandstone paving lies 
beneath the stalls on either side of the chancel, at 
a depth of two feet six inches below the present 
level of the chancel pavement, and one foot beneath 
the base of the columns of its arcade. No trace 
of the pavement on which the columns stood 
remains^ unless it is in the present floor uplifted 
from an earlier level. The cavity below the stalls 
forms a narrow passage-way. The one on the 
north is walled on either side with dressed ashlar 
blocks, loosely set in courses ; and the stone step 
in the chancel at the division of the stalls is 
supported from below by blocks of stone, placed in 
a manner which bears the appearance of a hasty 
and rough temporary expedient, and is by no 
means suggestive of the hand of a skilled work- 
man. The pavement was, until very recently, 
concealed by soil some inches in depth, which has 
now been cleared away. 

Ashlar walls are found only on the south and 
west sides of the corresponding passage on the 

48 S: Tiilen''s:Cni^cUrSiphm. 

south side of the chancel.' Of these nearly every 
stone bears a sharply cut arrow head as a mason's 
mark; but upon the .lowest course, which is 
^apparently older work, either an X or a right angle 
r-r-piarks found on the walls of the south aisle — 
occur. The base of one of the chancel columns 
is to be seen at the eastern end of the passage, 
far below the level of the present floor. From its 
northern . side, : and resting upon the pavement, 
springs a large brick arch, which runs east and 
west and covers a large vault, its crown lying 
immediately beneath the flags of the chancel floor. 
A layer of bricks upon the passage floor, between 
it and the ashlar wall to the south, is evidently 
intended to receive and transmit its thrust. Three 
dates are here indicated : the date of the pavement, 
of the ashlar that was subsequently raised upon it, 
and of the arch abutting upon the wall. The 
pierced quatrefoils beneath the stalls have been set 
upon, the curve of the arch, and are wedged up by 

a rough stone walling. 

It is difficult to imagine what the condition of 
the chancel could have been when the bases of 
these columns were visible. : It is only evident that 
:the floor of the sixteenth century church lay. at a 
considerably lower level than the present one, and 
this again above an earlier floor ; but no infor- 
mation has been handed down as to who it was 
who raised the containing walls, or brought in the 
mass of soil now between them, or utilized it for 
interments. The present level of the piscina in 
relation to the floor of the north chapel, and the 
-stunted . appearance of the. arch over the recum- 
bent fi:gure in the north aisle, both supply 
additional evidence of the raising of the floor, 
at some unknown date, above its earlier level. 
The three steps up to the sanctuary must either 
have been raised to their present position simul- 
taneously with the raising of the chancel floor, or 

S. Helenas Churchy Sephton. ^ 49 

their continuations downward have been either 
removed or buried in the soil ; but the comparatively 
recent formation of vaults below the sacrarium 
causes its original level and condition to be now a 
matter of the merest conjecture. 

In the south wall of the sacrarium four niches 
are placed beneath a linear moulding, which is 
higher than the cill of the window. The labels of 
the arches above the niches terminate in carved 
heads, which bear a strong appearance of being 
portrait sculpture. A block of stone having slight 
mouldings is placed in the easternmost niche, and 
forms a credence. Near, and above it, a small 
hole or recess is to be found in the wall, the 
character and purpose of which is uncertain. On 
the removal of the whitewash, in 1891, the back of 
each niche was found to be thickly coated with a 
black and hard cement, while the sandstone wall 
had been roughly hacked with a pick, in order that 
the cement might hold. It is inexplicable why it 
was applied at all, but the damage done was so 
glaring and unsightly, that the back of each niche 
had to be refaced ; the solitary instance in the 
removal of the whitewash in which a new surface 
was put upon the walls. It will be observed that 
the moulding at the back of each niche stops short 
at the spring of the arch. 

The sedilia are now placed at so high a level 
above the sanctuary floor, that as seats they are 
practically useless. If only three steps originally 
led to the sanctuary from the early level of the 
chancel floor, they would have been more useless 
still. That the existing three steps are only the 
remains of a longer flight, continued both upwards 
and downwards, appears improbable ; and the 
inference remains that the sedilia are not now in 
the position which they originally occupied. Some 
curious grooving upon a stone near, and to the 


50 S. Helenas Churchy Sephton. 

west of the sedilia, is said to have resulted from 
the sharpening by archers of their arrow-heads. 
In some other churches there is a strong presump- 
tion that stones on the exterior have been so 
employed. The stone in question may have been 
on the outside of the earlier church, and have 
been built-in in its present position. Other stones 
in the church seem to have been transferred from 
the exterior, as traces of ivy-roots are to be found 
within their hollows. A square aumbry has been 
formed in the thickness of the wall on the north 
side of the chancel. Externally, some mouldings 
of an unusual character form a kind of canopy, of 
which the finial has been destroyed. These 
mouldings, however, bear masons' marks which 
occur on the inner west wall of the porch. Another 
instance of the transference of a stone to another 
position, is afforded by a stone now placed high 
up in the clerestory wall, above the westernmost 
column. It bears a rudely frescoed face, which 
probably formed a portion of some large design. 
Traces remain which have been conjectured to 
represent part of a coif of mail. 

The existing nave stands rather more to the 
south than, and its axis somewhat diverges from 
that of, the Decorated church, and an examination 
of its apparently temporary juncture on the south 
side with the tower, against which its arcade merely 
abuts, will lead to the conclusion that the removal 
of the tower was contemplated, had not the work 
of rebuilding come to a sudden standstill. The 
lines of the string-courses shew a slight conver- 
gence of the arcades towards the west. 

A small room or parvise, possibly intended to be 
used as a chamber by a chantry priest, is situated 
in the upper storey of the porch. Access would 
appear to have been gained by means of a wooden 
staircase in the south-west angle of the aisle, 

A S^Melen's Chutch^"^ Sephtcn. ; 5 1 

ding at ai^latform before the door, c T<he/sookets 

!'iof) the: joists which carried this landing still 1 remain. 

.The bases iX)f the pillars of the nave arcade are 

..concealed, as in the chancel, by the raising of the 

- floor level. The ceiling of the porch, which forms 

rthei. floor of the parvise, is formed of massive 

..beams ^x)f:' oak, enclosing panelled spaces. It 

. probably is a type of what was, or was intended 

: to be:, the ceiling of the nave, aisles, and chancel, 

:: hut a whitewashed boarding conceals the nature 

.;of ..their construction. An examination of the 

walLof the arcade in the south aisle has disclosed 

holesito receive the ends of beams, but now filled 

.up. with brick : an evidence of a change in the 

formation of the roof. 

• Whatever other portion of the church may have 

been built or completed by Anthony Molyneux, he 

.distinctly claims the vestry as his own work. The 

■ ' only . access to it from within the church. is by a 

doorway on the south side of the east wall of the 

. sacrarium, which does not appear to be in its 

..original condition. The present outer door is 

• toward the south, and has taken the place of a 

; window, similar to the one in the porch, while 

I. the old doorway, strangely placed to the north, 

has been partially blocked up, and a window 

inserted in its stead. The window in the €ast 

wall of the vestry is both modern and unsightly. 

The original muUions and transoms of the east 
window of the chancel were removed in 1870, and 
replaced by modern tracery, in which stained glass 
has been inserted, as a memorial ta > a' former 
rector, the Rev. R. R/Rothwell. Theold cill and 
the lower portion of the old muUions still remain, 
V but are concealed behind the modern classic panel- 
ling, i The lofty windows to the north and south 
. of the sacrarium, although of late workmanship, 
are not devoid of a roeasure^of sober dignity/ 'The 
E a 

52 . S.\Helen's Church, Sephton. 

two windows toward the east in the south aisle 
retain their original stonework and iron saddle- 
bars, but the stonework of the remaining windows 
has been renewed. A comparison of the old and 
new small lights in the top compartments of the 
aisle windows will shew how completely the modern 
workman has failed to grasp the niceties of form 
which give a distinctive character to. the work of 
the earlier mason. The tower appears at one time 
to have been floored across at no great height from 
the ground, and its arch was boarded up, and further 
blocked by an organ and organ gallery, until the 
year 1893, when the tower was opened out to the 
church, its walls cleaned and restored, stained 
glass placed in the western window, and a panelled 
roof of English oak upon the old corbels put in 
as a memorial of Mrs. S. Rothwell, the cost being 
defrayed by Mrs. Birchall and Mr. R. R. Rothwell, 
the plans being most kindly prepared by Mr. 
Edward W. Cox. 

In the year 1891, a commencement was made of 
the removal of the whitewash, which had disfigured 
the church probably from the seventeenth century ; 
and the work was carried on until the unsightly 
coating had entirely disappeared. The pulpit 
originally stood against the middle pillar of the 
north arcade, where the marks left by its removal 
are still visible. Other marks upon the pillar 
immediately opposite may indicate the former 
existence of a bracket for the support of an image, 
but this, in the absence of any record, is a matter 
of surmise. 

No doubt can exist that the church, and more 
especially the chancel, has been much despoiled. 
Its hangings have been torn down, its frescoes 
obliterated, its stained glass demolished, its brasses 
broken, its monuments defaced, the fabric itself in 
plages injured ; yet notwithstanding the handiwork 


S.' Helenas Churchy Sephton. 55: 

of the iconoclast, and of the soldiers of the 
Commonwealth, it still remains a noble witness 
to the piety and liberality of an age gone by. 

masons' marks. 

Various small devices cut upon the face of many 
of the stones of a mediaeval building are generally 
passed by unnoticed by the majority of those 
who visit it, or, if observed, are regarded as the 
meaningless work of some idle hand. These 
incised figures have, nevertheless, been intentionally 
made, for a purpose, and possibly with a meaning, 
which has long been closely investigated by the 
students of ** masons* marks.'' These marks are to 
be found on buildings of every age, and in every 
country. With a strange continuity and similarity 
of form, they have been cut upon their handiwork 
by known and unknown, by Egyptian, Oriental, 
Greek, Roman, and mediaeval masons. Modern 
masons' still employ them, but with a prosaic 
object, in a different position, and, though with a 
vague respect, in ignorance of any secret meaning 
which they may have heretofore conveyed. 

The earliest regular use in this country of 
masons' marks began about the eleventh century ; 
and as the various styles of architecture succeeded 
one another, these marks increased in number, and 
underwent corresponding variations. The marks 
appear to have had differing origins. Some bear 
a resemblance to various religious symbols ; some 
appear to be alphabetical in character, some 
numeral, many geometrical ; and others rude 
representations of various objects, among others 
of masons' tools. Their dimensions range from 
one to three inches, and frequently vary in accor- 
dance with their position. The same mark will 
be found of full size upon a stOne in the wall, but 
of much -smaller dimensions upon- another in a 

54; V »5. Hdsff^ Churcki Se/yfUen. ^ 

mauldifig. Art inspection of Euclid^s EletMnts wilh/ 
give ^ -a -general notion of their appearance, and 
some of them are identical with the figiires of some 
of his propositions. The circle is conspicuous, 
however, by its absence ; a curve is of rare 
occurence, but an angle is invariably introduced. 

Examples of these marks occur in abundance at 
Sepljton, and may be described as the simple 
angle J either right, obtuse, or acute ; two triangles 
placed in hour^gjass position ; the five-pointed star ; 
portions of the pentagon ; a bisected angle- or arrow- 
head ; the same with the bisecting line produced 
upwards' or downwards, or upwards and crossed by 
a shcHt line, forming a kind of gable crxoss ; a 
triangle with » each side produced in one- direction, 
forming (threie external obtuse angles ; two triangles . 
on na-rcammfon base ; two parallel lines bisected - 
diagppaily by a third ; a simple X ; two figures of 
X, the one above and resting on the other; anX' 
placed upon its- side in the inner angle of an 
obtuse-angle-; a W; a W with. its upper points 
touching a perpendicular line ; a W with its inner 
lines produced above and cutting each other; an 
N or Z ; , a figure resembling the letter A, with 
concavo sides and the apex flattened ; a bisected 
inverted U, the three points touching a base line 
and resembling a mediaeval M ; two curves, their . 
convex sides facing each other and joined by a- 
double bar, in the fashion of an H ; a peculiar 
mark on the wall of the north aisle, in the shape 
of an horizontal line with a curved line resting 
upon it on its extremities, having at one end a^. 
reversed Cf and at the other a crook or hookv An 
anchor is also to be found. 

These various marks can be easily identified i by 
a careful- inspection of the jambs of ^ the two 
Decorated windows of the north wall/ the piscina^ 
the nKoukUngs, of^tbe chancel. iaumbsy,r. the wall 

S. Helen^s^ Churchy Sephton. 55 

above the sedilia, the east wall of the south aisle^ 
the arches of both nave and chancel, and the 
porch. Masons' marks can also, with the help of 
a glass, be seen in abundance upon the clerestory 
walls ; where, as they usually occur most frequently 
on the lower courses of a building, they supply an 
indication that the existing nave and chancel have 
been constructed largely out of material furnished 
by the demolition of an earlier church. It has 
already been noticed that they occur distinctly on 
the stones beneath the chancel stalls. These 
marks sometimes appear to be inverted, which 
may be accounted for either by the position of the 
mason with regard to his stone, or by the stone 
having been placed upside down when built into 
the wall. 

Such being the characteristics of these marks, 
the question presents itself. For what purpose were 
they made ? The saying will here apply, '* Many 
'* men, many minds." Some would assert that 
they form the alphabet, or, like the Chinese 
characters, are the verbal signs of a universal 
geometric language, intelligible to the craftsmen 
of every nationality ; or that they express some 
secrets of construction. Others hold that they 
merely serve to identify the work of the members 
of some particular lodge or community of masons, 
or of some individual mason. The marks appear 
in many instances to have been handed down from 
father to son, which will account for the same 
mark occurring on parts of a building which belong 
to different periods. Documents are in existence, 
dating from the seventeenth century, which record 
the appropriation of certain marks by different 

As the periods when various forms of marks 
came into use are approximately known, the expert 
is furnished with a key as to the date of the 

56^ S.'Iieten-s Churchy Sephian.- 

workmanship on which they occur, and is able to 
trace the handiwork of the owner of a mark as he 
joutneyed through the country from building to 
building. English mediaeval masons placed their 
marks invariably at the centre of the face of a 
stone ; modern masons make them, but merely as 
a means by which each man may identify his work, 
on the upper surface of the ** bed.** Straight lines, 
like the Roman numerals up to three, sometimes 
occur. Such are to be found near the sedilia, on 
the chancel wall^ but these strokes probably only 
indicated to the builder the proper position of the 
stone. If the observer does not in these marks 
find ** sermons in stones,*' he may at least conclude 
that they are not without a meaning, whether 
occult or practical. 


Engraved plates of brass or latten came into 
use as memorials of the dead in the thirteenth 
century. The continental brasses exhibit both the 
figure and the background engraved upon a quad- 
rangular plate ; the English workers adopted the 
plan of inlaying the figure and any tabenacle work 
surrounding it, separately into the stone, or, very 
commonly, Purbeck marble slab, which supplied a 
background in itself. An illustration of this latter 
method is to be seen at Sephton, in the memorial 
brass of Margaret Bulkeley. 

These memorial brasses furnish representations 
of ecclesiastics in their vestments, of knights in 
their armour, of ladies in the costume of their day, 
and of all sorts and conditions of men, of merchants 
and burghers, in their habits as they lived. Great 
pains were evidently taken to represent correctly 
even minute details of vestment, armour, or robe ; 
tht- feshion of wearing the hair or beard ; and the 

S. Helenas Churchy Sephton, 57 

general personal appearance of the person com- 
memorated. NevertheleSvS, brasses occur in \^hich 
individuals are arrayed in dress or armour worn 
at a period much earlier than the one in which 
they lived and died. It is difficult now to assign 
any valid reason for this departure from accepted 
custom and actual truth. It would be equally 
difficult to say why, in a day not long gone by, our 
sculptors chose to clothe their marble effigies of 
our warriors or our statesmen in the garb of 
ancient Rome. 

A puzzling example of this anachronism is to be 
found in the brass on the south side of the chancel, 
which commemorates Sir William Molyneux. 
While the lower portion of the figure is encased in 
armour of the time of Henry VIII, the head, neck, 
and chest are covered with a coif and shirt of mail 
such as were worn in the thirteenth and fourteenth 

Sir William is represented with his two wives — 
the first, Jane, the only daughter and heiress of 
Richard Rugge, by whom he had a son and two 
daughters ; the second, Elizabeth, daughter and 
heiress of Cuthbert Clifton, b} whom he had two 
sons and one daughter. Bridgens, in his drawing, 
places a brass beneath the figures, on which three 
children are represented. This has disappeared, 
if its insertion was not an error on his part. A 
shield, with twelve quarterings, is also beneath 
th-e figures. The cross moline is also engraved 
upon the knight's breastplate, which is an unusual 
position. Another plate above the central figure 
has upon it the cross moline^ a cap of maintenance 
with peacock plumes, the motto En droit devanty 
and a representation of the banner or pennon of 
the Earl of Huntly, taken at Flodden by Sir 

I See paper by Mr. J. G. Waller, F.S.A , in the Society's Tiansactions^ 
vol. ir, p. 249. 

58 S. Helen's Churchy Sephton. 

William. Part of the plate has been taken away. 
On the part which remains are engraved the staves 
of two banners crossed behind a cap of main- 
tenance ; the second banner has disappeared. As 
no hollow to receive the missing part is found 
upon the slab, it is evident that the brasses have 
been relaid. The words Clanc tout appear among 
the heraldic devices upon the banner which 
remains, and near its point. This, doubtless, was 
a battle-cry, but its meaning is far from obvious. 
The knight wears a collar of SS, and both sword 
and dagger; the ladies wear the ** pedimental" 
head-dress of the period, and each has an ornament 
hanging from her waist by a lengthy chain. The 
feet of the left-hand figure are placed in an awkward 
position, as though by an unskilful artist. Beneath 
the figures lies a plate with a Latin inscription, 
which may be rendered as follows : — '* William 
Molyneux, Knight, Lord of Sefton, bore himself 
bravely when thrice sent to battle against the 
Scots, during the reign in England of King 
Henry VI IL In peace, dear to everyone, he 
aided his friends by counsel, the needy by alms. 
He had two wives, the first Jane, the only 
daughter and heiress of Richard Rugge, Knight, 
of the County of Salop, by whom he had 
Richard, Jane, and Anne ; the second, Elizabeth, 
daughter and heiress of Cuthbert Clifton, Esq., 
by whom he had Thomas, William, and Anne. 
He lived 65 years. He rests here with his fore- 
fathers, in hope of the Resurrection. In the 
year of our Lord 1548, in the month of July.'' 
This date appears to have been altered from 1546 
to 1548. 

The brasses of Sir Richard Molyneux, son of 
Sir William by his first wife, Jane, and of his two 
wives and children, are placed upon an altar-tomb 
of uncertain date, beneath the south-east chancel 

S. Helen's Churchy Sephton. 59 

screen, which rests upon the slab, and separates 
one. of the figures from the rest. Sir Richard's 
first wife was Eleanor, daughter of Sir Alexander 
Raddiffe, by whom he is said to have had eight 
daikgbters and five sons, represented upon a 
separate brass. His second wife was Eleanor, 
daughter of Robert Maghull, by whom he had a 
second family of five sons and one daughter. A 
defective and misplaced strip of brass contains an 
epitaph, which, if restored to its proper sequence, 
would read: ** Ye bodyes of Richarde . . . ghte 
'* and Dame Elenore his wyffe.'* According to 
Baines, a further strip was until recently in exis- 
tence, which added, '* whose soules God p'don.'* 
A plate at the feet of the figures contains the 
following quaint inscription : — 

" Dame Worshope was my guide in lyfe 

and did my doinges guyde 
Dame Wertiie left me not alone 

whan soule from bodye hyed 
And thoughe that Deathe with dinte of darte 

hath brought my corps on sleape 
The eternall god my eternall soule 

Eternally doethe kepe" 

Sir Richard Molyneux was knighted on the 
occasion of the coronation of Queen Mairy, and 
died in 1568. He is represented as bare-headed, 
and 'in the armour of the period. His wives wear 
long robes beneath long over-gowns, puffed at the 
shoulders. The sleeves are tight, and probably 
belong to the under-robe. They wear frills and 
rufiles, and the head-dress known as ** Paris heads," 
depressed in the centre. This brass marks a decline 
in the art. The early brasses represented their 
figures as recumbent, frequently with the feet 
resting against an animal ; the later ones represent 
a pavement or soil at the feet of the figures ; if the 
latter, often, as in the present instance, with flowers 

6o " S. Helena's Churchy Sephton.- 

growing out of it, conveying the idea of an upright 
and standing position. If Thomas Ashcroft, of 
Lydiate, was an accurate observer in 1819, the 
slab on which the brasses are now placed can 
scarcely be the original one; as he writes of one 
the surface of which was ** nearly covered with 
** brass ornaments and devices, and round the 
** border it is evident there have been inscriptions 
** in brass inlaid.*' 

A brass commemorating Margaret Bulkley lies 
upon the floor of the church, beneath a window in 
the south aisle. She was the daughter of Sir 
Richard Molyneux, who was slain at Bloreheath 
in 1459. Her elder brother was Sir Thomas, 
father of Sir William Molyneux, of Flodden fame ; 
and her younger brother, James Molyneux, was 
Rector of Sephton in 1489. She is represented 
upon the brass, which is in a good state of preser- 
vation, beneath a pinnacled and crocketted double 
canopy. On either side of it are two shields: of 
thovse on the right hand, the upper one is charged 
with the cross moline (Molyneux), the lower with a 
chevron between three bulls^ heads (Bulkley) ; of those 
on the left, the upper one has quarterly the arms 
of her first husband (Dutton), the lower a cross 
moline. At each corner of the slab is a circular 
hollow, which evidently at one time contained a 
brass, of which the device must remain a matter 
of conjecture — possibly the symbols of the four 
Evangelists, in token that the departed died in the 
communion of the Church. An inscription beneath 
the canopy and feet of the figure runs as follows :— 

*' Orate p ala Margarete ffilie Rici Molyneux miliP qndam 
ux lohis Dutton Armig^ dni de dutton et postea ux^ Willmi 
Bulcley Armig^ que hie catariam pptuam fudauit ac reddiP 't 
terras suffieP p uno capellao imppetuu dia celebratur^ ac p 
aiab3 eiusdem Margarete paretu 't benefactor^ suor^ exoraturum 
stabiliit 't dotauit que obiit xxi die februarii a° dni xv^ xxviii 
cui'^ ale ppicietur deus." 

. S. Helenas Church j.Sephton. 6i 

[Pray for the soul of Margaret, daughter of Richard Molyneux, 
Knight, at one time wife of John Button, Esq., lord of Diitton, 
and afterwards wife of William Bulkley, Esq. ; who founded here 
a perpetual chantry, and established and endowed it with rents 
and lands sufficing for one chaplain to celebrate for ever ; and 
that he should pray for the souls of the said Margaret, her 
parents and benefactors, who died the 21st of February, 1528 ; 
on whpse soul may God have mercy.] 

In the window is an inscription — 

** of yor Charity pray for the soul of Marg^ett Bulcley daughter 
of Ric Molynex knyght and Wiff unto Johe dulton & Witt'm 
Bulcley Esqere Whose goodness caused this window to he made 
of the will of S"^ Rob Pkynson executor^ to the said Marg^ett 
the yere of o"^ lord mdxliii^" Which said Marg^ett decessed the 
xxi° daye-of ffebruar^ the yere of o"^ lord mdxvii of Whose saule 
Jhu have mcy. Ame" 

The erroneous date is a later insertion. The 
executor was **. Robert Parkynson/' whom she had 
appointed ** chapellayn '' and priest of the chantry 
which she founded. Margaret Bulkley is repre- 
sented as wearing a ** pedimental '' head-dress; a 
long robe, falling in ample folds around the feet, 
the sleeves wide at the wrist and with cuffs of fur ; 
a girdle, apparently clasped with three roses, from 
which hangs a chain, having at the end an orna- 
ment * or tassel ; and round her neck a shorter 
chain, to which is attached a S. Anthony or 
T-shaped cross, seemingly with jewelled arms. In 
the neighbouring church of Childwall, on the brass 
of Henry Norris, 1524, the figure of Ckmence, his 
wife, is attired in a manner strikingly similar, 
except that she wears an outer cloak, the girdle 
being identical in fashion. 

Some other rectangular brass plates are to be 
found in various parts of the pavement of the 
church. On a brass plate at the east end of the 
south aisle is the following inscription : — 

.** Here lyelh Elizabeth the fift daughter of S^ Ric^ .NFollinex 
Knight & Barfonett ^^^hQ married Richard Sherbvrne son and 

62 S. Helenas Churchj Sephton. 

heyre apparant of Richard Sherbvrne of Stonihurst in the 
Countie of Lancaster Esq*" the 19'^ of October 1613 and was 
delivered of a daughter the 30'^ of June 16 15 and died in 
childbed the 3 of July next ensvinijj which davghter was named 
Elizabeth who died on Christmas daye in the same yeare 16 15." 

On a plate in the south aisle, near the brass of 
Sir Richard Molyneux, is the following inscrip- 
tion : — 

** Hie jacet corpus Dnae Mariae filiae Domini Alexandri 
Barlow de Barlow in comitatu I^ncastriae Equitis Aurati uxoris 
Prsenobiiis Do Diii Carill Vicecomitis Molyneux Quae obiit vii® 
Idus Feb S'^* Dorotheae Sacro Ano Domini mdclxi Cujus animae 
misereatur omnipotens De^ " 

On a small brass plate affixed to a slab on the 
north side of the chancel, commemorating Alice 
Morton, is inscribed — 

" Marg' : the daught*" : of Jo" : Torbock late Curate of Sephton, 
died the 16'^ Jan : 1676." 

" Here lyeth y* body of Jo 
hn Torbocke clerke M' 
of Arts & late Curate 
of Sephton who depar 
ted this life June y* 12 


And on the adjoining slab, one inscribed — 

" Here lyeth y« body of y* Reverend Edward Moreton D' 
in Divinity & late Rector of Sephton who dejiarted this life 
Feb" y« ?8 : 1674." 

This plate is affixed to the slab which covers the 
grave of his widow, Margaret Moreton, who died 
in 1699, and was, no doubt, replaced upon the 
stone after the inscription had been cut which 
records her death. 


The wording of the inscription upon the brass 
of Margaret Bulkley calls attention to a matter 
connected with the church, and more especially 

S. Helenas Churchy Sephton. 63 

with her name. A parish church in mediaeval 
times frequently had dependant upon it one or 
more minor foundations, commonly known as 
chantries. The purpose which these chantries 
was intended to serve was the celebration of Mass 
for the repose of the soul of the founder, and 
often of the souls of his or her kinsfolk. They 
were supported either by a permanent and assured 
endowment, or by payments liable to be withheld 
or altogether withdrawn, at the will of the founder 
or of his representatives. They were localized, 
sometimes in separate buildings, sometimes in 
chapels forming part of the structure of the 
church, sometimes in portions of it separated off 
from the rest of the building by a screen or parvise. 
Their endowments, in addition to the stipend of 
the chantry priest, usually provided them with the 
vessels and vestments required for the celebration 
of Mass. 

Two chantries were founded at Sephton, one of 
them by Margaret Bulkley. By a deed of enfeoff- 
ment she empowered certain '* full trusty fr}^ndes *' 
to receive the rents and profits of all her lands, 
applying them to her own use during her lifetime, 
and after her death to discharge with them all 
her debts, and, this done, to apply them to the 
** fynding and kepyng of an able and honest prist 
** to say and celebrate Mass and other Dyvyne 
** s*uyce in the poche Church of Sefton at the Alter 
** of our blessyd Ladye of petye.'* He was further 
to pray, she directs, ** for the saule of the seid 
** Margaret, and for the saules of John Button and 
** Will Bulcley Esq. my husbands, for the saules of 
*'myffader and nioder, brethren and susters, my 
** uncles, the saule of S"^ Wyll'm Leyland Kngyht, 
*' my nevewe, and all other my p'genyte and good 
'*frynds, and for all Cristen saules for evermore." 
The deed shews her anxiety that the service of an 

64 5. Helenas Churchy Sephton. 

able priest should be secured, and not of one of 
the ** Sir Johns** and **Jack Latins/* who too 
frequently discredited their calling in her day. 
Her choice, made in her lifetime, fell on Robert 
Parkynson, at the time of her foundation about 
forty-two years of age. His duties also included 
the saying of ** Mass upon Saynt Margaretts day 
*' yerely for evir afore the ymage of Saynt Margaret 
** within the said church.'* Where this ** ymage ** 
was situated is uncertain ; the altar of Our Lady 
of Pity was probably in the south aisle. Another 
qualification which the chantry priest was to 
possess, was that he should be ** lerned to syng his 
'* playn song,** and be able **to helpe to syng in 
**the quere at Matyns, Masse, Evensong, and 
** other dyvyne S*uyce on festful days.** He was 
provided with a chalice weighing six ounces, a 
mass-book, and two vestments. The intentions of 
Margaret Bulkley were, however, frustrated by the 
suppression of all chantries in 1548 ; but Robert 
Parkynson, although deprived, was allowed an 
annuity from the king of very nearly the full value 
of his stipend, although the sundry tenements and 
acres, and the^V* wynde mylle standing in Thornton,** 
passed into other hands. 

The other chantry was founded by Edward 
Molyneux, Rector of Sephton 1509-1535, in order 
that the priest should ** celebrate ther for his soule.** 
Its first and only priest was Thomas Kyrkeby, who 
held it until the suppression of the chantries, and 
was granted ** a certain annuity or yearly pension ** 
from the king *' to the determination of his life,** 
of somewhat less value than his previous stipend. 
Both he and Robert Parkynson received a sum 
equivalent in the present day to about ;^I30 apiece. 
The Commissioners of Edward VI were unable to 
lay their hands on either the plate or vestments 
of the Molyneux chantry. 

S. Helenas Churchy Sephton. 65 


The two effigies of knights which lie in the 
north chapel are the earliest and most interesting 
of the monuments in the church. Of these, the 
one beneath the niche is the earlier, as well as the 
least injured of the two. Their cross-legged 
attitude is not a distinctive mark of a crusader, 
but one commonly used in the effigies of the 
founders and benefactors of churches, in no way 
connected with the crusades. Whatever purpose 
the niche may have been designed to serve, it was 
not originally that of receiving the figure now 
placed within it, as its mouldings have been cut 
away in order to admit the slab. The cross moline 
upon the shield of the figure beneath the canopy, 
points out that its bearer was a member of the 
Molyneux family ; but an approximate decision as 
to his identification can be obtained only by the 
consideration of some other points. The figure is 
that of a beardless and clean-shaven recumbent 
knight, having his head supported by cushions, and 
his feet resting against a lion. He is attired from 
head to foot in a suit of mail, his head is covered 
by a hood or coijfe dc maille, his hands are encased 
in mailed gloves, having well-defined and separated 
fingers, and to his heels are fastened *' pryck " or 
single-pointed spurs. He wears over his mail 
hauberk a surcoat reaching to the knees, which are 
protected by genoinlleres or knee-plates. There is 
an opening in the mail chausses on the inner side 
of the thighs, probably made up with leather, for 
greater ease in riding. His shield is by his side, 
and a belt girt around him supports the cross- 
headed sword which he is in the act of drawing. 
The shield is triangular, with curved sides, of the 
later fashion, reaching only to the middle of the 
thighs. The cross moline is not pierced at the 

66 5. Helenas Churchy Sephton. 

It was a knightly fashion, lasting from the first 
quarter of the fourteenth century until the first 
quarter of the fifteenth, to wear both beard and 
moustache, or what might be called an *' imperial.'' 
If the clean-shaven efiigy is assumed to be a 
portrait one, the lifetime of its original is conse- 
quently excluded from the period lying between 
1325 and 1420, and must be placed either before 
or after it. That it cannot be placed after it, is 
indicated by the fashion of the armour. Plate 
armour, towards which genouilleres were the first 
step, came into use about 13 10 ; and as the knight 
is clad in mail, he may be safely assumed to have 
lived before that date. It is true that the mailed 
gauntlet with separated fingers is not generally 
seen until late in the thirteenth century, but an 
incised slab at Bitton, representing Sir John de 
Bitton, with the date 1227, shews the back of the 
open hand with the fingers both mailed and 
separate ; so that the fingered gauntlet would not 
appear to absolutely require a late thirteenth 
century date, or to negative an earlier one. The 
personal appearance of the knight, conjointly with 
the fashion of his armour, seem to point to a 
period ranging from about 1227 to 13 10. A Sir 
William de Molineux was knighted in 1255, and 
another Sir William de Molineux was also knighted 
in 1289, by Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Lan- 
caster. To one of the two the effigy must be 
assigned, and a nearer approach to identification 
is perhaps impossible.* 

The triangular shield of the more westward figure 
bears no device, nor any trace of one having been 
erased. It is consequently a matter ot conjecture 

« The pedigree in Baines' History of Lar.cashire states that Sir William 
Molyneux, sixth in descent from the original grantee of Sefton, was knighted 
in 1255. He had a son, Richard, whose son William w^is knighted in 12S9. 
His son, Sir Richard, had a son Sir William, who had Sir William, knighted 
^\ Navarret, by Edward the Black Prince, in 1367.— Editor. 

S. Helenas Churchy Sephton. 67 

whether the effigy, which is much defaced, is one 
of a Molyneux or not.^ The effigy lies cross-legged, 
with the head resting on two cushions, and the feet 
upon a small crouching, robed and girded human 
figure, of which the head has disappeared. The 
armour is of mail, but the head is covered by a 
conical bonnet or bascinet^ the visor of which is 
raised. The thighs are encased in a gamboised 
or quilted defence, reaching to the knees, which are 
protected with genouilleres, and the lower part of 
the legs, before and behind, by iron plates or 
jambarts. The feet are covered with chain mail, 
and '* pryck *' spurs are worn. The hands are in 
fingered gloves of mail. A short surcoat reaching 
to the knees covers the body. The figure is repre- 
sented a,s drawing his sword. Both beard and 
moustache are worn, and this circumstance places 
the date of the personage represented somewhat 
after 1325 — a time when the use of plate armour 
was extending. 

Upon the east wall of the north chapel, and 
above the piscina, a marble monument is affixed to 
the wall, as a memorial of Charles William, third 
Earl of Sefton, who died on the 2nd of August, 1855, 
aged 59. On the opposite and south side of the 
church, in what was probably the Bulkley Chantry, 
a tomb, somewhat raised above the floor, is covered 
by a slab of white marble, on which the Molyneux 
arms — with supporters, coronet, and motto Vivere 
sat vincere — together with a skull, cross-bones, and 
hour-glass, are cut in relief. This tomb bears 
the names of the Right Hon. Caryll, Viscount 
Molyneux, who died on the 2nd of February, 1699- 
1700, aged JJ ; and also of his son, the Right Hon. 
William, Lord Viscount Molyneux, who died on 
the 8th of March, 17 17-18, in the 62nd year of his 

3 Both effigies are drawn on the vellum pedigree at Croxteih, the earliest 
part of which was written in Queen Elizabeth's time. — Editor. 

F 2 

'^ S. Helenas Church] Sephton. 

age. After each inscription, the words,*' May his 
** soul rest in peace. Amen,*' occur. A further 
inscription commemorates the Right Hon. Richard, 
Lord Viscount Molyneux, who died on the 12th 
of December, 1738, aged 60; and Mary, Lady 
Molyneux, his wife, who died on the 19th of 
March, 1766. 

Another adjoining monument of black marble, 
of similar character, is to the memory of the 
Right Hon. Bridget, Lady Viscountess Molyneux, 
daughter and heiress of Robert Lucy, of Charlcote, 
CO. Warwick, Esq., wife of William, Lord Molyneux, 
who died on the 23rd of April, 1713, bearing also 
the words Requiescat in pace. On the same slab 
is commemorated Caryll, Lord Viscount Molyneux, 
who died on the nth of November, 1745, in his 
62nd year. A small stone on the floor bears the 
name of William Molyneux, son of the Hon. 
Richard and Mary Molyneux, who died on the 
15th of February, 1706-7. Another flat stone 
nlarks the grave of the Hon. Bridget Molyneux, 
youngest daughter of William, Lord Viscount 
Molyneux, who died on the i6th of October, 1733 ; 
with the words, '* May her soul for ever rest in 
*' peace." Near to this is a flat stone, bearing in 
low relief, on a shield surrounded by an incised 
line, the arms of Sherburne and Bayley quarterly, 
inipaling Molyneux.* The inscription on a brass 
plate let into this stone is given at the foot of 
page 61. This stone was discovered on the 
removal of a pew floor in 1893, and was moved 
to its present position, within the rails at the east 
end of the south aisle, by order of the Right Hon. 
the Earl of Sefton, K.G., for its greater security, 
and to avoid its being concealed by a portion oif 
the organ. 

4 First and fourth — [Argenf\ a Hon rantpant guardant[Vert]t Sherburne ; 
second and third — [Argent^ an eagle displayed [VerlJ, Bayley; impaling— 
[Azure] a cross moHne pierced in the centre \pr\ — Editor. 

S, Helen's Churchy Sephton. 69, 

The portion oif the church known as the Blundell 
Chapel lies west of the Molyneux Chapel in the 
north aisle, from which, and from the more westerly 
portion of the aisle, it is separated by screens. A 
stone, inscribed ** Robart Blundell, 1656,"^ lies just 
within the doorway. Another Robert Blundell^ 
died in March, 1616, and was buried at Sephton 
on the 23rd of that month. He left precise 
directions in his will with regard to the position 
of his grave, desiring that he should ** be buried at 
** Sephton in the usual place where my ancestors 
** have been buried, that is to say under or near 
** unto the form where I do usually sit, standing 
*' in the north aisle of the said church." This 
may refer to the seat forming three sides of a 
square which is still standing in the chapel. In 
this chapel also William Blundell,^ known as ** the 
** Cavalier," who died on the 24th of May, 1698, 
was buried. Here besides are the graves of Robert 
Blundell,^ who died at Liverpool, on the gth of 
August, 1807 ; and of Henry Blundell, Esq.,^ who 
died on the 28th August, 1810, aged 86, to whose 
memory a marble monument of elaborate sculpture 
is placed above the north door. 

This monument, depicting the deceased relieving 
Genius and Poverty, was designed and executed 
by John Gibson, R.A., during his apprenticeship 
to Messrs. Franceys, of Liverpool, before he had 
gone to study in Rome. The inscription, said to 
be from the pen of William Roscoe, runs as 
follows : — 

" O I Blest with all that life to man endears, 
Belov'd, respected, crowned with length of years ; 
Formed to enjoy what taste could e'er impart 
From scenes of nature or from works of art : 
Works that e'er while in polished Athens known, 
Yet live in lasting brass, or breathing stone : 

5 Of the incc family. 6 0| the Crosby fa^mjly. 

70 S. Helen's Church J Sephton. 

But those no more now charm his cultur'd eye, 

Frail flowers of earth that only bloom to die I 

'Tis Charity survives the general doom, 

Springs with perennial growth, and triumphs o'er the tomb." 

A tablet on the north wall of the chapel com- 
memorates Elizabeth, wife of Henry Blundell,^ who 
died on the 25th of February, 1767, in the 33rd 
year of her age ; Robert Blundell,^ her husband's 
father, who died on the 5th August, 1773, aged 78 ; 
Catharine, his mother, who died on the ist of 
October, 1749, aged 52 ; and Margaret, his father's 
second wife. It was with reference to this chapel, 
in which so many members of the Blundell family 
are laid, that Nicholas Blundell,^ who died in 1631, 
complained that Sir Edward Molyneux, Parson of 
Sephton, among other ** wrongs and ingerys " done 
by him, had taken away his ** right of the church, 
** that is to say of knely'g and tary'g in a chapel 
** y*^ north side of the said church.'' On an altar 
tomb on the south side of the chapel are inscribed 
the names of Mary Coppinger, who died on the 
6th of August, 1734, aged 30; Nicholas Blundell, 
of Crosby, died on the 21st of April, 1737, aged 
66 ; William Blundell, died on the 20th of May, 
1740, aged 6 months ; Christopher Pippard, died on 
the 6th of May, 1771, aged 35 ; Henry Pippard, died 
on the 29th of November, 1771, aged 79 ; Frances 
Pippard, his wife, died on the 17th of April, 1773, 
aged 67 ; Nicholas Blundell, their son, died on the 
6th of January, 1795, aged 55. On a flat stone 
are the names of Nicholas Blundell of Little 
Crosby, Esq., who died on the 21st of April, 1737, 
aged 68 ; and of Mary Coppinger, his daughter, 
who died on the 6th of August, 1734, aged 20. 

A marble slab is afiixed to the south wall of the 
chancel, in memory of the Rev. Antony Halsall, 
Master of the Free School, Crosby, a Manxman, 

9 Of the Ince femily« 6 Qi the Crosby family. 

S. Helen's Church J Sephton. 71 

who died in 1755, aged 63 ; and also of his sister 
Catharine. A flat stone in the chancel floor further 
records that he was ** singularly beloved '' by his 
** truly Christian Diocesan, Dr. Thomas Wilson." 
On the north wall of the chancel, and near to the 
aumbry, is the monument of Edward Moreton, 
Rector of Sefton in 1639, dispossessed in 1643, 
and reinstated in 1662. The inscription runs : — 

" Pi« Memoriae S. Edwardi Morton, S. T. P. Guil. Morton de 
Moreton in agro Cest. Armig. Filii tandemq. Haeredis. Collegii 
Regal, apud Cantabrigienses quondam Socii. atq. Eccles. Cathedr. 
Cestr. Prebendarii. Qui per triginta sex plus-minus annos, (nee 
iis quidem Exceptis quibus quasi Exul Bonisq. Omnibus spoliatus 
vixit.) Hanc sollicite regebat Ecclesiam. utriusque Fortunae hand 
equidem aeque particeps. At Vtriq. par. Qui bene novit secundis 
rebus sobrie uti. Atq. adversis fortiter, Primitivae Pietatis atq. 
etiam Disciplinae Perpetuus Vindex. Tantum non Martyr fuit. 
lllustre certe et rarum Exemplar. Obiit Feb. xxviii Anno Domini 
MDCLXXiv. Atque ^tatis suae Ixxvi.*' 

[Sacred to the pious memory of Edward Morton, S.T.P., 
son, and at length heir, of William Morton, Esq., of Moreton, 
in the county of Chester, formerly a Fellow of King's College, 
Cambridge, and also a Prebendary of the Cathedral Church at 
Chester, who, for thirty-six years more or less, not even those 
being left out in which he lived as if a banished man, despoiled 
of all his goods, was wont anxiously to rule this church. Of 
fortune, by no means equally a sharer, but to either equal. One 
who well knew how to use prosperity soberly, and, more, 
adversity bravely. A constant maintainer of primitive piety, 
and, moreover, learning. He was all but a martyr. Assuredly 
a bright and rare example. He died February 28th, in the year 
of our Lord 1674, and in the year of his age 76.] 

Upon the plinth is added — 

"Moestissima Conjux Margareta, Guil. Web Eq. Aur. filia, 
hoc Monumentum dilectissimo Marito poui curavit." 

[His most sorrowful wife Margaret, daughter of Sir William 
Webb, caused this monument to be placed to her most beloved 

Another marble monument in memory of a 
former Rector, the Rev. Richard Rothwell, his 
wife, and several of his children, has been placed 
on the north wall of the chancel by his son and 

fz. S. Heten's Churchy Sephtof^. 

successor, the Rev. Richard Rainshaw Rothwell. 
The Rev. Richard Rothwell was Rector for 40 
years, from 1761 until 1801. His son held the 
rectorship from 1801 until 1880, a period of 62 
years ; the total tenure of the father and son added 
together amounting to 102 years. The latter is 
buried in the chancel, having reached the age 
of ga. 

Beneath the north-eastern screen of the chancel 
a much-defaced alabaster slab rests upon an altar 
tomb. This latter, and also the one facing it on 
the south, may possibly be old, but have been at 
some time ** restored,'' to the obliteration in conse- 
quence of all traces of antiquity. The chapel is 
said to have been used at some period as a school ; 
if such were the case, it would account for the 
injuries which the slab has received. Its surface 
is incised with some elaborate tabernacle work, and 
has an inscription running round it. The incised 
lines have been originally filled with some black 
material, which has so largely disappeared that the 
inscription is with difficulty legible. It commemo- 
rates Johanna, wife of the Sir Richard Molyneux 
who was knighted on the field of Agincourt, 1415. 
It appears to run as follows, when the blanks have 
been filled up :— 

" Hie iacet dna lohna qu/?//dam u^ Petr/ Z<fgh militis et posiea 
u§ Molineux mJlitis que fuit dna de Bradley Haydik et lib'' Pen 
partis villa? de Weryngton Mykill Sanky 't Bartohwod . ^ , y 

de .^ . ,.. , . /«fra villa* de Newton Goldbue Lofton 

-^olde *t Walton in le dal> ^//e obiit in fo sci Sulpicii epi a^dni, 
niillmo cccc*"® iricesimo nono ciiius aie ppicietur Deus. Amen?*- 

This inscription, which furnishes a fair example* 
of the abbreviations adopted by the old inscribers' 
when pressed for space, reads as follows : — 

** Here lies the Lady Johanna, formerly wife of Peter Legh, 
Knight, and afterwards wife of Molyneux, Knight, who was 
Lady of Bradley Haydbck, and freeholder ef part of the townships 

S. Helen's Churchy Sephton. 73 

of Warrington, Great Sankey, and Burton Wood. .... 

of ... . within the townships of 

Newton, Golbourne, Lowton, Bold, and Walton in the IXile. 
Who died on the festival of S. Sulpice the Bishop, in the year of 
our Lord 1439. '^^ whose soul ^nay God be gracious. Amen." 


Some remains of grisaille work will be found in 
a corner of the eastern light of the square-headed 
window in the north aisle, though the devices, 
consisting of oak leaves, acorns, and roses, have 
become nearly corroded away. The quarries do 
not appear to occupy their original positions. 
Upon a lower one appears an inverted three-fold 
stem, whence, probably the foliage branched, which 
is now neither continuous nor connected. A ruby 
and a green quarry, each bearing a device, probably 
fragments of a coloured border, still remain in a 
nook of the upper portion of the tracery. The 
eastern light of the next window towards the west 
is made up of fragments of yellow-stained glass, with 
here and there a coloured piece. Tracesof a straight- 
lined gable, having beneath it a series in steps of 
round-topped arches and the outline of a canopy, 
are just distinguishable in the upper portion. Two 
pinnacles in yellow stain, edged with black, adjoin 
tjie muUion, and in the centre is more yellow 
apcading ; beneath are the remains of some scroll- 
work. A black-letter inscription runs across the^ 
QefitTip .of: the glass, in which the words ** Sact'' 
*> Nicola^'' are decipherable. This window-opening 
has sonietime undergone structural alteration. 

Robert Parkinson, the chaplain, chantry priest,: 
and executor of Margaret Bulckley, appears, from 
inscriptions still remaining, to have inserted a 
window in the south aisle. On the next window is 
also an inscription-^ 

74 S. Helenas Churchy Sephton. 

" Orate p bono statu gulielmi [a later and mistaken insertion 
for Lawrentii] Ireland de Lydyat* armigeri et Elene ano dni 
M**cccccxL° tercii." 

[Pray for the good estate of William Ireland, Esq., of Lydiate, 
and of Ellen, a.d. 1543.] 

Another inscription in the east window of the 
same aisle runs thus — 

" Orate pro bono statu Gulielmi Molyn" militis qui ista fieri 
fecit anno dni Mill™°cccccxlii." 

[Pray for the good estate of William Molyneux, who caused 
this to be made. 1542.] 

On scattered quarries the instruments of the 
Passion appear — the hammer, nails, pincers, the 
pillar, the ladder, a cock, either a paten and 
chalice or basin and ewer, a sword with an ear 
attached to it, and heads of Judas, Pilate, and 
the High Priest.^ Here also are to be found the 
remains of two seemingly identical examples of a 
** Trinity'' window, a crowned head representing 
the Heavenly Father, while below the hands of 
our Lord are affixed to the Cross, on which rests 
a Dove, symbolical of the Holy Spirit. In a lower 
corner some bones have apparently formed part of 
a Golgotha. In this window are two coats of arms, 
the one Sable, a lion rampant Argent, crowned Or, 
impaling Gules, a lion rampant lozengy Ermine and 
Sable, crowned Or. Another shield bears, quarterly, 
Gules and Argent, in the first and fourth quarters 
a fret Or, being the arms of Button. 

Some curious and interesting details are to be 
found in the windows of the sanctuary. In the 
upper part of the lights of the south window are 
indications of groined canopies, probably in their 
original position. In one, the canopy, supported by 

7 A small quarry, on which wai depicted a lantern, was found hy Mr. 
W. E. Gregson in the parvise, and placed on the cill of this window, whence 
it was abstracted in the year 1895.— Editor. 



S. Helen's Churchy Sephton. 75 

a centre and two side-pillars, forms a background 
to three heads, each wearing the pilgrim's cockle- 
shell, all that is left of a group of figures. Above 
them, on a label, are the words, ** O stulti et tardi 
** corde ad credendum/* [** O fools," &c., S. Luke 
xxiv, 25.] The word ** apparuit " is also legible, 
probably part of ** apparuit Simoni," from verse 34 
of the same chapter. On portions of other labels 
occur ** Benedictus Deus,'* S. Luke i, 68, ** Sanctus,'' 
and ** Oliveti." All that remains of a figure holding 
a staff are the two feet, which appear beneath a 
fragment of a white robe, covered by a blue mantle 
lined with yellow and embroidered with gold. 
Portions of a green and lavender robe are also 
discoverable. The upper portion of the sanctuary 
window on the north side contains fragments of 
labels in black-letter, large and small, among which 
the word ** quotidianum '* is discernible ; probably 

; tte breviary rendering of ** daily" (bread) in the 

: t#ord's Prayer. 

With these are mixed up, in utter confusion, 

.fragments of canopies, the remains of a pavement 
and steps, part of a white robe with a gold border, 

' a small hand, and a gold cross. Upon some loose 
pieces of glass, said at one time to have formed 
part of an early east window, two female figures 
are depicted, evidently a representation of the 
Salutation, S. Luke i, 36, 39, 40 ; the emblems also 
of three of the Evangelists, and two circular pieces 

'Ijrf* glass, bearing the letters respectively a and m. 
^The east window of the chancel and the three 

'Endows at the west end of the church have been 
filled with modern glass. 


The central chancel screen is the chief object 
which attracts attention upon entering the church, 
but its history is, unfortunately, both scanty and 

76 S. Helen's Churchy Sephton. 

obscure. A writer named Rasbotham describes a 
screen in existence in 1774 as ** a canopy of extra- 
** ordinary beauty, now going to decay," yet still 
retaining some indications of its early ** splendoer.'* 
The history, however, of the chancel screen may be 
traced back much further, if reliance can be placed 
on the detail given in Bridgens' plates, in which 
the letters i.m., carved upon the adjoining stall-end, 
are represented as occurring also in the carved 
woodwork of the doors. If these are the initials 
of James Molyneux, and the doors the original 
ones, it may be inferred that the screen was in 
existence, or was erected, during his rectorship, 
which extended from 1489 until 1509. Between 
the latter date and 1774 the screen seems to have 
sustained some injury, either from neglect or 
violence, but was still standing in 1818 in its 
original shape. It had, however, been somewhat 
blocked up, as a faculty was issued in that year, 
authorising the removal of a pew on the north side 
** occupied by the wardens,'' in order that the pulpit 
might be removed from the nave and placed upon 
this site ; and also the removal of another pew 
allotted to Lord Sefton, in order to ** make room 
** for a commodious staircase thereto." A clerk's 
desk stood on the south side of the screen, and 
also a pew originally intended for the wardens, and 
which they were to re-occupy when a Mr. Hill, 
who was in possession, had obtained a pew in the 
south aisle, where Lord Sefton's pew was also to- 
be placed. No mention is made of a reading-desk, 
and the position of a book in Bridgens' view oi 
the chancel would seem to indicate that the reader 
occupied a ** cantor's " western stall. 

A comparison of Bridgens' plates with the screen 
as it now stands, shows that in 1818 and the 
following years some extensive structural changes 
were effected. After that 4ate the original doors, 

S. Helenas Churchy Sephton. 77 

with their trace ried panels and elaborate pendants, 
entirely disappeared. Plain panels and framework 
were substituted in the lower portion of the screen, 
in place of carving similar to that at Lydiate, 
which dates from 15 15 ; and the shapely octagonal 
pendants in the bays were replaced by others, the 
work of the turner. The tracery beneath the 
canopy underwent much alteration, and the original 
canopy itself gave place to one of modern and 
inferior workmanship ; fortunately the elaborate 
cornice of the western front was allowed to remain 
to a great extent untouched. On its eastern face 
the appearance of the screen was entirely altered. 
According to Bridgens* representation of it, which 
can hardly be utterly misleading, it had above its 
bays an overhanging slope, panelled by ribs and 
bosses. This has been replaced by a canopy, 
similar to the one upon the western side. The 
cornice was repaired with sham carving, formed of 
lead or composition, while the deception was con- 
cealed by a coat of paint. A skeleton framework, 
some altered tracery, the western cornice, and part 
of the eastern one form nearly the whole of the 
actually remaining original material of the pre- 
Reformation screen. That structure, if it occupied 
the same position, may have been intended for a 
rood-loft, but so entirely did the ** restorers " of 
1818 lose sight of that possible intention, that 
they built up, with cumbrous timbers and abundant 
ironwork, a gabled roof stretching from wall to 
wall. In 1842-3 some further work was carried 
out, and the bay at the back of the pulpit was filled 
up with modern carved work. Some light seems to 
be thrown upon the subject by the churchwardens* 
accounts for 1819-20. The faculty cost ;j^i3, the 
sum of ;^i88 IS. 4d. was laid out on timber, 
;;f 124 gs. 8d. was spent on ** carveing,'' a joiner 
received ;f 120, and a blacksmith ;f 19 3s. Much 

78 S. Helen's Churchy Sepkton. 

was done, or rather undone, by this outlay, which 
reached the total of ;f45i 14s. It might yet be 
possible to reproduce a fair representation, in 
honest workmanship and sound material, of the 
form and richness of the sixteenth century structure, 
but it would not be the original, and would widely 
differ from the present screen. 

A fine screen, extending across the east end of 
the south aisle, separates it from what was formerly 
the chantry founded by Margaret Bulckley. It 
retains its original features nearly intact, but 
stands possibly in an altered position, having been 
evidently cut and damaged in order to adapt it to 
its present place. The easternmost pillar, and the 
south wall opposite, show traces of holes cut to 
receive the ends of a beam ; whether of a rood- 
beam or of the screen itself in its first position, 
must remain uncertain ; if of the latter, the chapel 
would have been of somewhat smaller dimensions 
than the one on the opposite side of the church. 

The woodwork of Lord Sefton's pew, placed, in 
accordance with the faculty of 181 8, in the south 
aisle, probably formed at an earlier date a portion 
of a screen standing on the north side of the 
church, as it corresponds in character and detail 
with the one which separates the Blundell Chapel 
from the northern aisle. In this chapel an oak 
panelling is now affixed to that portion of the wall 
which adjoins the screen, while another screen 
separates the Blundell from the Molyneux Chapel. 
Between these screens stands a curious three-sided 
desk-like erection, having its open side to the south 
and a bench along the wall and sides. Its bench- 
ends, with their rounded tops, are of a later period 
than those in the chancel and body of the church ; 
on the wCvStern one the Tudor rose, and the squirrel 
sejant, the crest of the Blundells of Ince, are con- 
spicuous. The screen and panelling are ornamented 

S. Helenas Church, Sephton. 79 

with bands of vine leaves. The removal of some 
baize on the western side of the screen disclosed 
some similar carving, sharp and fresh as when the 
craftsman ceased from his work, but in which, it 
may be noted, the vermilion background introduced 
elsewhere is wanting. The screen which separates 
the Blundell from the Molyneux Chapel has been 
much injured, but the details of the ornament on 
all these screens furnish evidence that they and 
the carvings at Lydiate Hall were probably the 
work of the same hand. 

The screens which divide the chancel from the 
chapels are fine specimens of open-work carving, 
but are surmounted by crestings of comparatively 
very recent date. Holes, now plugged with stone, 
can be seen at the spring of each arch, immediately 
above the capitals of the pillars. They, no doubt, 
received the ends of beams, and indicate either 
that the screenwork itself was originally higher 
than at present, or that they received the supports 
of canopies which have disappeared. Wooden 
stanchions and saddlebars are now to be found in 
the compartments of the screens. It has been 
conjectured that they replaced others originally of 
iron (figures of which have even been published), 
but an examination of the woodwork does not give 
much support to the theory. The existing bars 
have, nevertheless, a very imitative character. 

It would appear probable that at some time a 
screen or rood-beam crossed the chancel at the end 
of the arcade, as two holes, now filled with clay, 
are to be found in the wall on either side, close to 
the Morton and the opposite tablet. A border of 
oaken carved work still remains within the opening 
of the arch of the aumbry in the north wall of 
the chancel, but is of a different style and character 
to the other carved work in the church. A promi- 
nent feature is the frequent introduction of tendrils 

8o S. Helenas Churchy Sepkton. 

into the design of vine leaves and grapes. Traces 
of old hinges indicate the existence of an earlier 
door, but this has disappeared, and is replaced by 
a panel door of modern workmanship. 

A classical structure in oak, covering the east 
wall and rising above the level of the window sill, 
represents the outcome of the bequest of Mrs. Ann 
Molyneux, in 1729, for the erection of an ** altar- 
*' piece.'* This instance of good intentions - and 
<lisastrous results, although a fair example of the 
taste of its period, yet utterly incongruous with its 
surroundings, appears to have received further 
ornamentation in 1820, when a gilded representation 
of the Host, surrounded by rays, was affixed to the 
centre panel ; and a certain Mr. Loyen, according 
to the wardens* accounts, received £1^^ ** for ^ ^^^ 
** carpet and fixing the Glory.'' This classical 
altarpiece bears a strong resemblance to the one 
in the University Church of S. Mary-the- Virgin, 

The bench-ends in both chancel and nave form 
one of the most remarkable features of the building. 
In the chancel, those attached to both the ** decani '* 
and ** cantori " stalls bear the initials i.m. with a 
twisted cord or *' ceinture " between them. If 
these letters stand for James Molyneux, they fix 
the date of the stalls at about the concluding years 
of the fifteenth century. The bench-ends on the 
south side of the nave and in the south aisle 
severally display each a letter of an elaborately 
designed alphabet, wanting, however, w, x, and z. 
The ** poppy-heads " of the whole are of bold 
design, and the carving on the ends shows the 
work of a skilful hand. The vine, the pomegranate, 
the rose, and the lily, the latter sometimes crowned, 
are favourite subjects frequently repeated. Tfhe gro- 
tesque element, rarely absent in such work, finds 
expression in the chancel in the figures of . an owl 


S. Helenas Churchy Sephton. 8i 

attacked by two smaller birds ; in two strange figures 
beneath a crown or canopy each playing upon a pipe ; 
in the figure of a feeding goat, over which a second 
is taking a flying leap ; while a goat, a grifiin, an 
unicorn, and an eagle ** displayed " are also repre- 
sented. A curious example of a figure-subject 
occurs on a bench-end now near the door in the 
south aisle, on which a man or youth brandishing 
a scimitar is represented as seated upon a dro- 
medary. The ** points " of the animal could hardly 
have been so accurately rendered had not the carver 
seen a living specimen, and the temptation to 
connect his work with an entry in A Cavalier's 
Note-Book is strong. ** A man," writes William 
Blundell, of Crosby, ** who shewed a dromedary 
**in most parts of England, told me (1662) that 
** he found more profit thereby in Lancashire than 
** in any other county." On the stall-ends of a seat 
appropriated to the wardens are carved the lion 
and the unicorn, and a shepherd's or pastoral crook 
crossed by a spear or goad. The material is old, 
but has been put together in its present form at a 
recent date. ** The linen pattern" on the panels 
is another indication that the date of the seating 
is to be placed in the fifteenth century. 

In the north aisle several of the bench-ends bear 
representations of the instruments of the Passion, 
the pillar of scourging, on which a cock is conspi- 
cuous, the nails, hammer, and pincers, crown of 
thorns, and reed and spear. Two bench-ends at 
the east end of this aisle are somewhat enigmatical. 
On one appears a mitre, and beneath it either a 
chalice or a covered cup. The latter was a device 
of the Mascy family, and the name of James 
Molyneux, as a witness, appears on a Mascy deed 
of 1501.' The other bench-end has upon it a head 
and shoulders, the face bearing somewhat of the 
expression of the usual representations of our 


8a S. Helenas Churchy Sephton. 

Lord. The head is covered by a peculiarly formed 
plumed cap, and the shoulders are protected, appa- 
rently by a breastplate. Beneath are two objects, 
variously described as caps, as corn, or as flames. 
The intention of the designer of the whole is by 
no means obvious. Two isolated seats remain in 
the south aisle ; the remainder were possibly 
removed at the introduction of the square pews. 
Two others have at some time been placed in the 
north chapel, one of which, facing a substantial 
desk, has had its ** linen pattern '' panels reversed, 
and conceals a massive seat of earlier date. Frag- 
ments of bench-ends, of far smaller dimensions and 
of totally diff'erent patterns, have been found among 
the timbers of the roof of the clock-room. A 
portion of one of these bench-ends is now in the 
north chapel. 

The roof of the porch probably furnishes an 
indication of the general character of the roof of 
the whole church, but as the timbers of the nave, 
chancel, and aisles are hidden by boarding, its real 
nature is uncertain. The roof of the south aisle 
has evidently undergone alteration, as holes 
intended for beams are bricked-up in the south 
arcade. In 1754, £g is. was expended on ** timber 
** for the Portal " — probably the inner porch. In 
1801, the wardens' accounts record, ** letting'' and 
** finishing the new roof,'' and William Parr received 
£igg for ** completing the new roof." How or 
where this sum was expended is uncertain. It may 
refer to the deal boarding, which is now all that 
meets the eye. 


Many matters, ranging from the communion 
plate to the bells, may be conveniently noticed 
under the head of the furniture of the church. 
The church plate consists of a paten, 8J inches in 

$. Helen's Churchy Sephton. 83 

diameter, standing upon a low foot, 2j inches in 
height. Engraved upon it are the letters e.m., 
separated by a star, and having another m placed 
above, together with the following inscription : — 
"The gift of Mrs. Ann Jackson and Mrs. Alice 
" Morton to the Church of Sephton, 1695.'' The 
flagon, also of silver, is 15 inches in height, and 5J 
in diameter at the lid, and is of plain workmanship. 
An inscription on the side runs thus : — " The gift 
" of Mrs. Ann Jackson, of Sephton, 1715," Alice 
Morton had died in 1712, and is buried on the 
north side of the chancel, not far from her father's 
monument. The cost of this gift appears to have 
been £17 los. 

In 1729, Mrs. Ann Molyneux left £40^ for the 
purpose of erecting an altar-piece and of purchasing 
a chalice. The latter is a plain silver, flat-bottomed 
cup, with nearly upright sides, 10 inches in height, 
of which the cup portion measures 6, and 4! inches 
in diameter at the lip. On one side is engraved — 
" The gift of Mrs. Ann Molyneux to the Parish 
" Church of Sephton, 1729.'' Inserted among the 
plate-marks upon a shield are the initials (b.b.) of 
Benjamin Branker, a Liverpool silversmith of good 
repute, to whom reference is made in the extracts 
from Blundeirs diary published in the Transactions 
of the Historic Society? The church also possesses 
two smaller pieces of plate, the one a small cylin- 
drical cup, 3 J inches high, with a handle. Engraved 
upon it is a crest of three arrows, the points resting 
on a wreath, having the shafts tied together with 
a ribbon at their crossing. The other is a small 
thin silver paten, 5 inches in diameter, which exactly 
fits and forms a cover to an old silver chalice, 
now among the church plate at S. Luke's, Great 

8 Vol. xxxivi p. 8, Diary of Nicholas BlundeU of Crosby, 
G 2 

84 S. Helen's Churchy Sephton^ 

A new organ, built by Messrs. Hill, the cost of 
which was defrayed by subscriptions and collections, 
was opened on the 14th of September, 1893. It 
partly stands above the screen, beneath the eastern- 
most arch on the south side of the chancel, and 
has two manuals and a pedal organ. The latter 
is placed in the south chapel, where the old organ 
case has been utilised to protect both its pipes and 
so vulnerable a portion of the instrument as the 
bellows from the risk of injury, until such time as 
the new case may be carried out in its entirety. 
The swell and great organ are cased towards the 
chancel and the west in English oak, at the cost of 
the Earl of Sefton, K.G. The designs of the old 
carving in the screens have been skilfully copied in 
this elaborate case, designed by Mr. W. D. Caroe. 
with a slight introduction of Renaissance ornament, 
sufficient to mark the case as the work of a later 

A book, commonly spoken of as ** the chained 
** Bible," is secured by a chain to the desk of the 
stall on the north side of the chancel. The accounts 
of the churchwardens of Sefton for 1802 contain 
an entry of the sale of the ** old Bible '' for the sum 
of £2 7s. Why, or to whom it was sold does not 
appear, but it is not altogether unreasonable to 
entertain a suspicion that at this date the original 
black-letter chained Bible disappeared from the 
church. The existing book, the title-page of which 
is missing, is a copy of the Expository Notes and 
Practical Observations on the New Testament^ by 
William Burkitt, M.A., a work published in the 
eighteenth century, and of which several editions 
subsequently appeared. 

Three brass chandeliers, each adapted to carry 
numerous candles, are suspended from the roof 
down the centre of the church. They bear the 
inscription — ** Richard Rothwell, M.A., Rector and 

.S^. Helenas Churchy Sephton. 85 

'* Parson. John Whalley, Richard Goore, Church- 
" wardens, 1773.'' The wardens accounts for that 
year contain an entry for ** candlesticks '' — probably 
these chandeliers— costing £i9> 12s. ; and in 1807, 
** repairing the candlesticks and lackering " cost 
£1^ 15s. 6d. 

A brass " eagle " lectern, designed by Mr. W. D. 
Caroe, stands in the nave, on the south side 
of the chancel door. The following inscription 
runs around its base — ** To the greater glory of 
" God, and in token of regard for the well-beloved 
" Rector of Sephton, Edward Horley, M.A. The 
•' gift of his parishioners and friends. 1889." 

The font, which stands below the tower arch, is 
of sandstone, and octagonal in shape, having a 
quatrefoil enclosing a plain shield on each face of 
its upper portion. It is probably contemporaneous 
with the existing nave, if not of later date. It 
shews traces of having had at one time a flat 
cover ; this has been replaced by a pyramidal one 
of oak, with a lettering and date at the base — 
*' R.R. H.M. c.w. 1688.'' Indication of colour, 
white, vermilion, and gold, were found upon the 
cover on the removal of the thick coats of paint 
which had been laid upon it. 

Under the authority of a faculty issued in 1818, 
the pulpit, which was originally affixed to the 
central pillar of the north arcade, was removed to 
its present position on the north side of the screen, 
where it is now supported on four carved pillars. 
Its panels are filled with a scroll pattern, in low 
relief, of the Renaissance period. Traces of blue 
and gold yet remain upon its mouldings. It bears 
the date 1635, and an inscription in gold letters on 
a blue ground runs round its upper portion : ** He 
**that covereth his sinne shall not prosper, but 
** whoso confesseth and forsaketh them shall have 
^ mercy. Happy is the m . ." The continuation 

86 S. Helenas Church, SephtOn. 

.is now hidden, but probably ran, *' man that feareth 
** alway/' {Proverbs xxviii, 13, 14.) A sounding- 
board of a similar character, now attached to the 
screen, bears the inscription — ** My sonne feare 
/*thou the Lorde and the Kinge and medle not 
** with them that are given to change." 

A series of inscriptions in black-letter upon the 
-spandrils of the arches of the nave, executed in 
distemper colour, and surrounded by a scroll- 
pattern border in black and red, were disclosed 
by the removal, in 1892, of the thick coatings of 
whitewash which disfigured the church. These 
inscriptions were not made upon the stone itself, 
but on a thin coat of colour-wash, and probably 
date from the year 161 1, when an injunction was 
issued directing that churches should be ornamented 
after this fashion. The inscriptions on the north 
wall^ beginning with the one nearest to the screen, 
succeed each other as follows : — II Timothy i, 13, 
'** Hold fast,'' &c. ; II Corinthians v, 20, ** Now 
** then,'' &c. ; I Timothy i, 15, '' This is a faithful," 
&c. On the south wall : vS. Matthew v, 20, ^^ Except 
** your righteousness," &c., and an illegible text, 
apparently taken from Proverbs iii. Traces of the 
Lord's Prayer, surrounded by scroll-work, are to 
be found upon the wall of the north aisle, near the 
upper portion, toward the east, of its westernmost 

Six bells now hang in the upper stage of the 
tower ; of these, four were cast and placed in the 
bell-chamber in 1601, and two in 18 15. An entry 
in the churchwardens' accounts, dated the 17th of 
March in that year, records a vestry meeting, at 
which it was ordered that *^two new additional 
** bells shall be hung in the steeple, and that Mr. 
** Dobson of Downham-Market furnish the same." 
Further on, under the same year, is an entry, *^ Paid 
** Mr. Dobson for the bells £igg iis. 4d." The 

m • ■ 

5. Helm's Churchy Sephton. 87 

expenses incurred ** at opening the bells,'' on the 
26th of December, 1815, amounted to £16 i6s. lod., 
and a Mr. Fisher received for ** engraveinge " and 
examining the bells £$. William Parr, a builder, 
was paid at the same time, ** as by bill," £^g 12s. 
Some re-arrangement of the position of the peal 
was evidently made when the two bells were added, 
and the existing beams, which are clumsily adapted 
to the old massive corbels, which project from the 
walls, were probably inserted at that period. The 
old Hall of Sephton once stood in a field to the 
south of the church, but after it had ceased to be 
the residence of the Molyneux family gradually fell 
into decay, and was dismantled early in the 
eighteenth century. The beams now in the tower 
are full of mortice and other holes, and have 
plainly been used elsewhere, possibly in the old hall. 
Each bell bears an inscription ,5 which severally run 
as follows : — 



3. " ^ Hec Campana Beata Trinitate Sacra Fiat," and, on a 
small medallion, ** + Fere God Henri Oldfelde made thys 

4. " Hec Campana Trinitate Sacra Fiat," and the same medal- 
lion and legend. 

5. " Richard Rainshaw Rothwell Rector Tho* Johnson Curate 
Peter Blackburn Christopher Richmond Churchwardens elect 
W. Eccleston and R. Rose Chwdns 1815 William Dobson 

6. " Richard Rainshaw Rothwell Rector Tho^ Johnson Curate 
Peter Blackburn Christopher Richmond Churchwardens 181 5 

" Our voices shall with joyful sound 
make Hills and vallies Eccho round." 

The clock was procured in 1818, to replace an 
older one, and cost ;f 167. 

9 These were copied, on the 2nd of May, 1896, by Mr. W. E. Gregson and 
Mr. R. H. Kirk.— Editor. 


S. Helenas Churchy Sephton. 





Richard , . . 



Richard . . . 



William de Kirkdale. 



Richard . . . 


Richard Molyneux. 



^ ohn de Mascy. 



Jordan de Holme. 



!lichard Molyneux. 


Richard Molyneux. 


;ohn Totty. 


/chn Molyneux. 



James ^folyneux. 



Edward Molyneux. 


i5lh October, 1509. 


Anthony Molyneux. 



Robert Ballard. 

2nd September, 1557. 


John Finche. 



John Nutter. 



Gregory Turner. 

17th July, 1602. 


Thomas Legh. 


Edward Morton. 


2ist June, 1639, and 
3rd April, 1640. 


Joseph Tompson. 



Edward Morton. 



John Bradford. 


8th September, 1675. 


Jonathan Brideoake. 


3rd August, 1678. 


Richard Richmond. 


3olh August, 1684. 


Thomas Egerton. 


13th April, 1722. 


Richard Rothwell. 

i2lh January, 1763. 


Richard Rainshaw Rothwell. 



R. D. Dawson-Duffield. 


Englebert Horley. 


Edward Horlev. 


George William Wall. 

The names of the earlier rectors in the foregoing 
list are, from the nature of things, in several 
instances, names only, and nothing more. The 
Christian name is followed in early documents by 
the designation ** Parson of Sefton,'* and the same 
description is added even when the surname has 
been given. A period of fifty-seven years elapsed 
between the first Richard of 1224 and the second 
Richard of 128 1. It may be that another rector, 

S. Helenas Churchy Sephton, 89 

of whom no trace has been found, intervened 
between them, but the supposition is not absolutely 
necessary. The earlier names occur in legal 
documents, in which their owners figure either as 
principals or witnesses. '° 

Some further brief information is appended in 
reference to some of the rectors. 

(i) Richard, 1024, is mentioned in a deed of 
that date. 

(2) Richard, 1281, is mentioned in a document 
of the tenth year of Edward I. 

(3) William de Kirkdale, 1292, appears to have 
been rector, from his description as such in his 

(4) Richard Molyneux, 1315, is mentioned in a 
document of the tenth year of Edward II. 

(5) The name of John de Mascy, 13 10, occurs 
at that date. 

(6) Jordan de Holme, 1364, was previously 
Rector of Stockport, and became Rector of Sephton 
by exchange. 

(7) John Molyneux, 1450, uncle of Margaret 
Bulckley, was also a Prebendary of Lichfield. 

(8) James Molyneux, 1489, was inducted on the 
22nd of March of that year. His name occurs in 
a deed relating to the Mascy family, 1501. He 
was also Archdeacon of Richmond, and resigned 
the rectory of Sephton. He was the brother of 
Margaret Bulckley, and died about 15 16. 

(9) Edward Molyneux, 1509, was also Prebendary 
of Farndon, Sarum. He founded the Molyneux 
Chantry, Sefton, 1535. 

(10) Anthony Molyneux, 1535, was the builder 
of the ** revestry,*' and possibly of a portion of 

10 Many of ihe names have been supplied by Mrs. Arthur Tempest, 
Mr. T. N. Morton, Mr. W. Fcrgusson Irvine, and Mr. W. E. (Iregson, from 
the Bishop's Registry, Chester, the archives of the Liverpool Corporation, 
and the muniment rooms at Croxteth, Crosby, Ince Blundeil, and Broughtoo 
Hall in CrayeD.~£DiToR. 

90 S. Helenas Churchy Sephton. 

the church. He was also Rector of Walton, and 
apparently resigned in 1557, and died in 1558. 

(11) John Finche, 1564, was a priest at Walton 
in 1554, and paid ** first-fruits " at Sefton on the 
23rd of November, 1564. 

(12) John Nutter, 1568, was also Rector of 
Bebington and of Aughton, and also Dean of 
Chester in 1589. Queen Elizabeth, possibly, bor- 
rowed from Apuleius the title of ** The Golden 
**Ass," which she bestowed upon him as appro- 
priate to his wealth. He died suddenly at Sephton. 

(13) Records remain of two institutions of 
Rector Edward Morton, the one on the 21st of 
June, 1639, ^he other on the 3rd of April, 1640. 
Whether the earlier one was invalidated by any 
informality, which rendered the second necessary, 
is not stated. He was a Prebendary of Chester, 
and Rector of Tattenhall in 1637, ^^d was ejected 
from Sephton in 1643, and re-instated in 1662. His 
son became Bishop of Kildare and Meath. 

(14) Joseph Tompson, 1643, said by the Parlia- 
mentary Commissioners to be ** an able and godly 
** minister, painfull in his cure," was inducted into 
the rectorship in place of ** Doctor Moreton a 
** Delinquent, late Rector." His ministrations do 
not appear to have been in request, as in the 
year 1648 he appends his name to a note — ** None 
*' married by the Minister of the Parish, but divers 
** were married out of the parish." 

(15) John Bradford, 1675, exchanged from Sefton 
to Bexhill, 1678. 

(16) Jonathan Brideoake, 1678, exchanged from 
Bexhill. He was also Rector of S. Wilfrid and 
S. Mary, Mobberley. 

(17) Richard Richmond died at Walton, and was 
buried there on the 19th of September, 1721. 

(18) Thomas Egerton, 1722. The following 
note, evidently shown, by comparison with entries 

S. Helen's Churchy Sephton. gi 

in the register, to be in the handwriting of Mr. 
Egerton, has been made on the inside of the 
cover at the end of an early register book, 
1717-1780 : — ** Jus patronatus, held in this chancel 
** upon Wednesday y« 17^^ day of March 172 1 
** betwixt Mr. Egerton of Warrington and Mr. 
** Hartley of Irland for this x^^ and living, but Mr. 
/'Egerton obtained it.'' The **jus p3.tronatus '' 
was an ecclesiastical procedure, to which recourse 
was had when the right of patronage was disputed. 
If two different presentations were made on the 
occasion of one and the same vacancy, the church 
was said to be litigious, and the Bishop issued a 
commission, usually addressed to his Chancellor, 
by which a jury, consisting of an equal number of 
clergymen and laymen, was summoned to make 
inquiry and decide as to the right of patronage. 
Mr. Richard Hartley, in the year 1721, received a 
presentation to the rectory of Sephton, and the 
document is yet preserved in the diocesan registry 
at Chester, endorsed — ** Hartley's Presentation to 
** the Church at Sefton, which had not effect." 
Mr. Thomas Egerton also received a presentation, 
from the Earl of Cardigan, and recourse was had 
in consequence to the process of ** Jus patronatus." 
In the Diary of Nicholas Blundell, ly 02-28, printed 
for private circulation, the following entry occurs : — 

*' 1722. March 7. I was in Sefton Church where there should 
have been a trial between Parson Egerton and Parson Hartley, 
but Parson Hartley soon gave it up. Lawyer Blundell and Lawyer 
Starkey were there. There were nine clergymen and nine 
laymen on the jury. They gave the cause to Parson Egerton. 
So that he is now to be Rector of Sefton." 

*' Parson Egerton'' evidently made a mistake as 
to the year in his entry at the end of the register 
book. The diary gives 1722, and the record at 
Chester of his institution places it on the 13th of 
April, 1722. The preceding rector did not die 

92 5. Helen's Churchy Sephton. 

until the igth of September, 1721, and a Mr. Acton 
subsequently appears as ** Curate and Sequestrator." 
Thomas Egerton held the living for forty-one years, 
but, whatever may have been the cause, entries in 
the registers in his, handwriting cease after a short 
period from his institution, and no entry occurs of 
his burial at Sefton. The churchwardens' accounts 
from 1746 until 1763, are invariably signed ** Thos. 
** Mercer Curate." 

(19) The Rev. Richard Rainshaw Rothwell, 
1 80 1, held the rectorship for the lengthy period of 
sixty-two years, and died, somewhat suddenly, on 
Easter Sunday morning, 1863, at the advanced 
age of ninety-two. His marked and vigorous per- 
sonality made an impression on those around him, 
which cannot yet be fairly said to have passed 


The earliest volume of the parish registers 
contains entries headed respectively Baptizate^ 
Connubia, Sepulti. The first entry under the heading 
of Baptizate, occurs on the 7th of February, 1597, 
and records a baptism *' de Crosbia magna." In 
the year four baptisms are recorded ; in the 
following year two only are entered, and in 1599 
nine. The entries in the register, seemingly, do 
not fairly begin until July 1600, when, from that 
date until the. close of the year, thirty-nine occur. 
In 1601, thirty-three are entered, and in subsequent 
years much the same ratio prevails. The localities 
specified are various, such as " de Crosbie magna" 
and **de Crosbie parva," *'de Lunt," "de Thorne- 
** ton," **de MayguU." These baptismal entries 
come to a sudden close on the 25th of April, 1604, 
when two blank pages follow, and a third page 
contains only three entries for 1614. The rector 
during this period was Gregory Turner. From 

5. Helen's Churchy Sephton. 93 

1615 the regular course of entry is resumed and 
continued. From 1644 until 1666 the Latin form 
of entry is superseded by the use of ** son '' or 
** daughter '' of such and such a father. This 
period coincides with the rectorship of the Non- 
conformist Joseph Tompson, together with four 
years of the restored rectorship of Edward Moreton. 
Latin entries again follow from 1666 until 1687, 
after which date the two forms are intermingled 
for a year or two, with an occasional lapse in the 
spelling of ** filliai " and ** fillia/' until the use of 
the vernacular finally prevails. In some early 
instances the name of the father of the baptized 
child is entered with an added alias: an intimation, 
probably, of some uncertainty as to his descent. 

The entries of Connubia commence in the year 
1600, but are discontinued from 1603 until 1615, 
when they reappear in the form, for example, of 
*' Paulus Lunt et Margareta Pinnington, conjugate." 
In 1630 an honorabilis vir marries a generosa femina. 
In 1639 the form obtains that such an one uxorein 
duxit, and is continued until 1645. In 1641-2 only 
one marriage took place in each year ; in 1643-4 
none occurred ; in 1645 one only. In 1646-7 the 
note is entered, *' None made by the minister,'' 
with the addition, in 1648, of, ** but divers were 
*' married out of the parish." One marriage occurs 
in 1649, and no further entries are made until 1657, 
but a note informs us that, ** Anno 1653, 1654, 
** 1655, all marriages made by justices of peace." 
In 1665 a note is inserted, ** that act of marrying 
** by justices was to continue but six months after 
** the first sessions of the Pliant ended in Decem- 
'^ber." The phrase ** duxit uxorem " reappears 
until 1701, with the occasional derangement of 
language of '* ambo of this parish." From 1685 
some pains were taken to specify whether the 
marriage was by licence or ** after bands," and to 

94 S. Helenas Churchy Sephton. 

notify that it took place *' according to y® Rubricke'' 
and ** within the cannonical houres/' or, as other- 
wise expressed, *^ according to y« Cannons of our 
** Church." 

The entries of Sepulti commence with the 13th 
of June, 1600, and continue until 1605, when a gap 
occurs. A few entries are recommenced in 1613 
and 16 14, but the register is not fully kept until the 
year 16 15. In the year 1645 no entries occur, but 
a note appears, ** a time of warr, neglected " ; and 
under 1646, **a time of warr nothing found," a 
statement which seems to infer that the register 
was compiled from memoranda subsequently miss- 
ing. From 1647 until 1659, ** Joseph Tompson, 
** Rector," is inscribed at the foot of each page, 
but a later hand has crossed out the ** Rector " in 
a very decided manner. On the 6th of, apparently, 
September, 1654, ^^ entry records, without further 
note or comment, ** Anne Rothwell widy (widow) 
*■ of Much Crosbee, hanged and buried." Descrip- 
tions are rarely added at this period, though widows 
are particularised, and here and there ** a young 
*'man" and ** a little wench." After 1666 the 
entries relapse into Latin, as, for example, '^Thomas 
** fil Jacob Roberts peregrini," with an occasional 
admixture of English in the same sentence, which 
in the opening of the eighteenth century asserts 
itself more fully, until the whole register is written 
in the vernacular. At the latter end of the seven- 
teenth century a curious addition to the entries is 
not unfrequently found — **Jur," or ** Jurat exhib 
** fuit," or ** Jur de sepult in san exhib fuit." An 
English rendering, here and there to be met with, 
explains that ** Jur exhib " means that a certificate 
had been produced that the corpse had been buried 
in a woollen shroud. The desire that the body 
should be wrapped in linen (5. Mark xv, 46) was 
very common, but an Act of Charles II, in 1678, 

»S. Helenas Church, Sephton. 95 

designed to benefit the woollen industry, made the 
custom punishable by fine ; and the ** Jurat " was 
to be tendered to the parson within eight days after 
the interment, as a proof of compliance with the 

The later register books present no remarkable 
features, but under the burials the very frequent 
entry may be noted of the interment of the bodies 
of various persons unknown ** found on the shore,'' 
from which it may be inferred that a lack of lights 
and buoys in past years added very considerably 
during stormy weather to the perils of the naviga- 
tion of the Mersey. 

At the end of the earliest volume of the register 
a list of churchwardens and overseers from 1654 
until 1660 has been entered, and notes of various 
collections made under the authority of a Royal 
brief or letter for various charitable purposes, either 
to aid distress in various localities or for affording 
personal relief. The minutes are also entered of 
various meetings held from 1656 until i66g, for the 
consideration of the repairs of the church. In 
some circumstances some of those present have 
made their ** mark " in a manner which would rival 
a mediaeval mason. It is a curious circumstance 
that until 1669, or seven years after the re-instate- 
ment of Rector Moreton, these minutes are signed 
by the nonconformist **Jos. Tompson,'* with, 
however, the significant omission of ** Rector." As 
it is evident that **Jos. Tompson'* remained on 
the spot after his deposition from office, it may 
have been that besides being an **able minister'* 
he was a capable business man, and that, possibly, 
a friendly division of labour was made between 
him and Rector Morton, who, while he was wont 
to ** anxiously rule the church," committed to 
Joseph Tompson the supervision of some of the 
more secular parochial work, such as presiding 

96 5. Helenas Churchy Sephton, 

over meetings summoned ** to view the decays of 
** the church and to provide money for repairs.'* 

THE churchwardens' ACCOUNTS. 

The parchment-covered volume which contains 
the eariiest churchwardens' accounts, records their 
expenditure only from the year 1746. The book 
ends with the year 1820, and affords only very 
fragmentary indications bearing upon the history 
of the church. Entries of payments, often of 
considerable amount, made to the mason, the 
plumber, or the glazier, as ** per his bill," frequently 
occur, but as no such documents are now in 
existence, the details of their work must remain 
unknown. The frequent employment of the glazier 
is noticeable, and it would be interesting to have a 
more definite explanation of such an entry as £g 
paid in 1773 to a mason for ** work and stones for 
** top, and raising foundations." ** Levelling the 
** flags " is a constant item of expenditure, rendered 
necessary, no doubt, by intra-mural burials, and 
having, perhaps, a bearing on the change of floor- 
level. An entry made in the year 1761, ** Paid for 
** mugs for whitewashing is., rearing the ladders 
** 2s. lod., two bushels of lime 2s. 2d., white- 
** washer's bill £2 15s. 3d.," tells its own story. 
Fragments of such ** mugs," encrusted with the 
limewash, were found in the loose soil of the south 
chapel, at the erection of the organ, in 1893. 
The tantalising hints as to the **roof" in 1801, 
and the destination of much of the '* timber" so 
largely bought in 1819, have already been made 
the subject of comment. 

But these records, although they throw but little 
light on the history of the building, are in other 
respects by no means devoid of interest. The bells 
were well looked after; ** oil for the bells" is a 
constant entry, and the amount of new rope which 

5. Helenas Churchy Sephton. 97 

Ihey required is surprising. One entry states a 
sum ** spent when bought 'em.** Another is inva- 
riably to be found from 1748 onwards, '* spent when 
** stretched the bell-ropes**; elsewhere with the 
significant addition ** spent that night ** ; and in 
one instance it runs, ** splicing the bell-ropes,'* a 
phrase which has a distinctly nautical flavour. 
Whenever ** a strange parson preacht,** or if his 
name is given, a sum of from two to three shillings 
was expended, in what manner is left unexplained. 
The wardens, with a commendable desire to keep 
the parson dry, bought in 1782, probably for use at 
funerals, ** a new umbrello.** This was superseded 
in 1803 by a second ** new umbrella,** which, 
however, required repairing in the following year. 

The singers, who evidently were a ** mixed choir,*' 
as in 1768 a sum is discreetly recorded as ** spent 
** on the male singers,** were not uncared for, but 
were paid, and liberally supplied with ** candles.** 
A payment for ** a singing master,** by no means 
illiberal in amount, is entered in 1763 and in 
subsequent years. A bassoon was purchased in 
1768, at a cost of £^ 12s. ; the number of reeds 
which that instrument constantly required is worthy 
of remark. ** To playing the hautboy ** is an entry 
which frequently recurs, and **stringe for the 
** base viol ** cost four shillings in 1816. Beside 
these three, no mention is made of any other 
instruments. Singers from ** Duglass,** Kirkby, 
Aughton, Altcar, and elsewhere, who seem to have 
occasionally visited the church, did not return 
home empty-handed, nor were instrumental perfor- 
mers unrewarded. In 1776, five shillings were 
** spent when Auldrey Wilkenson played the double 
** base,*' and the same sum ** when Mr. Segar 
'' played the Clarenett.** Jn 1808, William Rushton 
received three shillings ** for pricking tunes,** and 
in the following year earned £2 iis. 6d. for 


gS S. Helenas Churchy Sephton. 

** wrighting music, and reeds for the bassoon." 
Edward Parr was also paid for *' pricking tunes,'* 
and, in 1817, £1 7s. for **wrighting music 81 pages 
** at 4^ a page/* 

In connection with the word ** spent,*' a modest 
entry recurs again and again, ** spent on ourselves,** 
but it rarely exceeds 2s. When the wardens were 
occasionally hospitably inclined, ** spent on ourselves 
'* and some of the Parish *' runs to a higher sum. 
At Easter, '' Nelly Barker,** of the '' Punch Bowl,** 
has been paid as much as £y 4s. 8d., and larger 
sums at other times. The occasions on which 
varying sums were ** spent** did not lack variety, 
as the following entries show: — 1751, ** Spent 
** when the writings were laid up in the chest,** 
2s. id. 1752, ** Spent when agreed what to give 
** towards propagating the Gospel in forreign parts,** 
2s. 1759, ** Spent on a 2^ rejoicing day for the 
** taking of Quebec,** £1. 1801, ** Spent on letting 
** the Church roof,** igs. 4d. But the parochial 
feast-day was pre-eminently the 5^^ of November, 
when considerable sums, such as £8 3s. 7d. in 
1816, were expended. The quantity of wine 
procured appears to have been three gallons each 

Some of the entries are of a curious description. 
In 1746, various expenses were incurred in con- 
nection with the Militia, such as for ** ale and 
** cockades ** is. gd., ** for part of a new gun and 
** Bayonett for Odd-man ** i is. 6d. In the preceding 
year the ** Odd-man ** had received ** a cartridge 
** box.** In the year 1781 the wardens enter their 
** Expenses to Liverpool with a Bill of Damage in 
** the Vestry, done by the Press-Gang.** The 
** dog-whipper ** received ten shillings yearly until 
1820. In the year 1805, 5s. 6d. was " paide for 
** shot and powder for the use of the church,** and 
an entry occurs in 181 1, ** Disburst, paid John 

5. Helenas Church, SephUnt. 99 

** Lurtin his expenses for standing up for the 
** school at Crosby, by the order of the Parish/' 
;^I5 4s. yd. A not infrequent item is '* for cleaning 
** S. Helen's Well/' An entry occurs at intervals, 
** gave to the children when said catechism,*' 5s; 


On two red sandstone slabs, now concealed by 
the new organ, in the south aisle, are the following 
inscriptions," rudely cut. On one, below a cross 
moline : — 

" I M Gent : 

R M 


Here Lyeth y« BoDjr 
of M' Richard Moly 
neux of Altgrange 
who departed this Life 
the 2 7 of January 1 7 1 2 
in the 50 year of his 
Age." « 

On the other, below a cross incline pierced at the 
centre : — 

" Copied by the Editor, in August, 1893. 

12 See Diary of Nicholas Bluvdell of Crosby^ 1895, P* **o» under date 
29ih of January, 1713:—"! went to ye Funerall of Mr. Moline [x]: of 
**y« Grange, there was Mr. Wofold [VVolfall] of More-hall, Mr. Ilarington, 
" Coz : Molin[ex] : of Mosburgh, Parson Letus, Mr. Nicho : Fazak[erley] : 
" Mr. Formby &c. I lent Capt : Rob: Faz[akerley] : a Mare to ride on to 

H 2 

•* rf 

too 5. Helen's Churchy Sephton. 

" Here Lyeth interr'd the Body 
of Rich^ Molyneux Esq of New hall 
in West Derby who departed 
this life the twenty-sixth of Feb 

Likewise his son Rich^ died 

the first of March following 

" 13 


In the Blundell Chapel is a mural tablet, 
inscribed: — ^-pj^jg 


was erected to 

the memory of 

Robert Blundell Esq*" 

of Liverpool 

who died in his 53^ year 

as a tribute 
of grateful remeniberance 


Stephen Tempest Esq*" 


Broughton Hall 

In the County of York 

Aug' 9th 1807." 

On a stone, now cut in two, and the pieces laid 
apart in the floor of the Molyneux Chapel, in the 
north aisle, is the following : — 

" Here lieth y* Body *'y« 30^^ of Decb'' 17 17 

of Mrs. Teresa Booth in \* 42^ year of 

who went to Wiga" her age 

upon y« 28'^ of Octb^ Requiescat in Pace 

being S' Simon and She was House 

Judes day to have keeper at Croxtel\" 

her Breast cut for 
a Cancer which was 

taken off y^ 9'^ of 
Novb^ and she died 

13 The following entries appear in the paiish legisters : — 

** 1648. Mr. John Afollineiix of Grange, bur. 3 Mar. 

•* 1686. Richd Molineux, genii, de West Derby, bur. 7 May. 

** 1692. John Mollinex de West Derl>y genii, bur. 28 Jan. 

** 1693, Mrs. Margaret Mollinex de Ince Blundell, bur. 5 June. 

*' 17 12. Mr. Richard Mollineux de Grange bur. 29 Jan. 

*' 1734. Mr. Richard Molyneux of Grange died at New Hall in Darby 

bur. 28 Feb. 

** 1734. Richd son of y* above Rich<l Molyneux bi^r. 3 Mar^'j 

S. Helen's Churchy. Sephton. loi 

On the east wall of the north aisle is a tablet 
inscribed : — 

" Here is buried 

Chailes William 3rd Earl of Sefton. 

This Tablet is placed here by 

his sorrowing Wife and Children 

who love to cherish the memory 

of his warm and noble heart. 

He died 

August 2, 1855. 

Aged 59. 

In or about the year 1756, the art of printing on 
tottery from engraved copper plates was discovered 
3y John Sadler, of Liverpool, whose father, Adam 
Sadler, said to have served under Marlborough, 
established the Print House in Liverpool. They 
and other members of the family are commemorated 
by inscriptions on two gravestones, lying in the 
angle between the chancel and the south aisle on 
the exterior of Sephton Church, as follows : — 

[gravestone no. I.] 

** Here lies the Body 
of Elizabeth Sadler 
wife of Adam Sadler 
who departed this life 
the 10'^ of May 1760 
aged 87. 

** Here lieth the body of John Adam 

Sadler Lieut in the Royal Navy 

who departed this life 30'^ Janv 

1816 aged 37 years. 

May he rest in peace. 

" Here are deposited the remains 

of the Rev^ James Parker Catholic 

Priest who departed this life on the 

' 29'^ day of October 1822 in the 75^^ 

Year of his age. 
(sic) Requiscant in pace. 

**No more to be interred in this grave." 

102 S. Helenas Churchy Sephton. 

[gravestone no. 2.] 

" Here lies the body 

of. Adam Sadler who 

departed this Life 

the 7'^of October 1 765 

aged 83. 

" Here also lies the Body of M"^ 
John Sadler from Liverpool who 
departed this life the 10'^ of 
December 1789 aged 69. 

" Here also lies the Body of Jame^ 
son of the said M** John Sadler 
who departed this Life the 27'^ 
of December 1594 aged 8 J years. 

" Also the body of Elizabeth widow of 
M' John Sadler who depaited this life 
the 25*** of May 1842 aged 88 years. 

"Also of Elizabeth Mary Sadler 

of Aintree Daughter of the above 

who departed this life the 19''' of 

June 1857 aged 75 years. 

Kequiescant in Pace. 

"No more to be buried in this grave." 


The Norman capital found in i8g6 outside the 
northern wall of the churchyard of Sephton, proves 
to be of exceptional interest for the decipherment 
of the structure that preceded the earliest portions 
of the present building, which belong to the style 
usually called " Decorated." The capital was 
found in a pile of debris from the ancient school- 
house, which stood within the churchyard, to the 

104 Norman Remains found at Sephton Church. 

north of the church, and which was taken down 
about eight years ago. In the first place, its style 
enables us to date the Norman church with some 
accuracy as about 1170. The fragment has been 
re-used for a building stone, and the upper surface 
has been set (as the weathering shows) as the face 
of the ashlar, the projection of the upper member 
of the abacus having been cut away at each side, 
so as to square the stone, which was then set in 
the wall with the capital turned inwards and lying 
on its side. 

The capital, as we find it at present, is adapted 
for a single shaft. There is no trace of mitreing 
of the abacus moulding at the sides that would 
indicate that it formed part of a clustered pillar or 
respond, composed of three or more shafts, though 
the paring down at the sides may possibly have 
removed some such indications. The probability 
is that it was from the first made as the capital of 
a single wall pillar, che rear part of the stone being 
left square and set in the wall. The abacus is 
square, and the first member of it is a flat vertical 
one, below which is a scotia or hollow moulding, 
slightly undercut. The third member is a plain 
bead moulding. This forms the front of the 
abacus. On the proper right of the capital the 
hollow and bead are not continued, but are changed 
for a nail-head ornament of seven pyramidal nail- 
heads. Below the abacus is a small square 
member, and below this the square is brought down 
to the round necking, which is broken away, by 
four large leaves springing from it, each terminating 
in a depressed ogee form, which at each point is 
curved again to right and left into a small volute. 
In the space between the bell moulding and the 
large leaves are set small lozenge-shaped and 
triangular leaves, clearly and boldly cut, completing 
the foliated ornament of the capital. • 

Norman Retftains found at Sephton Church. 105 

These features are minutely detailed, because 
they appear to give good evidence of date. The 
slightly undercut hollow mould, the conventional 
yet flowing lines of the large leaves, and the 
decorative suggestion of the smaller ones, combine 
to show the coming influence of the early pointed 
style, and to place this capital within the period of 
the transition from Norman to the Pointed style- 
Capitals of similar type are to be found, with 
slightly later features, in Furness Abbey ; also, 
with a further development, at Cartmel Priory, 
circa 1188. 

If, as is probable, this capital was made for a 
single column, and not for a grouped or clustered 
one, its use would be adapted either for a wall 
arcade or it could have formed a dividing column 
between a group of windows. The former is its 
most probable purpose, as windows and doorways 
were most commonly furnished with nook shafts, 
set in the re-entering angles of the orders or 
recessings of the arches. In either case, the 
presence of this capital would indicate a church of 
considerable richness of decorative detail. There 
is reason to think that part of the foundations of 
the church tower are Norman, and if this Norman 
church had a tower, wall arcades would not be 
used at the west end. They would be appropriate 
to the exterior of the chancel, at the east end, or 
to the internal side walls of the nave and chancel, 
at their lower stage. Some further evidence of 
the elaborate decoration of the Norman church 
is to be found in the fragments of string courses, 
with the star ornament, built into the tower and 
south aisle of the existing structure. The discovery 
of the foundations of a cross wall, a few feet to 
the westward of the chancel screen, most likely 
indicates the eastward extent of the Norman 
church, which was extended by lengthening the 

io6 Norman Rettt^aifts found at Sephton Church,. 

chancel in the fourteenth century, and subsequently 
further extended in the fifteenth and early sixteenth 

There are also indications on the tower that the 
south side of the church was without an aisle until 
the latest alteration, and that the external wall was 
on the line of the present south arcade. Thus it 
is possible that a portion of the south Norman 
wall remained, with fourteenth century alterations, 
until the latest rebuilding, and that this was the 
position of the arcade to which the capital belonged ; 
and during the fifteenth or sixteenth century, when 
the present south aisle was added, it was used for 
wall ashlar in building the schoolhouse. 

Until further investigation is made, the dimen- 
sions and plan of the Norman church are to a 
great extent conjectural, but their indications may 
be more fully discussed when the whole architectural 
history of the structure is properly considered. 

Edward W. Cox. 




By Wm. Fergusson Irvine. 

Read 19th December, 1895. 

ONE often hears the question asked, ** When 
** was such-and-such a church built ? '* and 
one always feels tempted to reply, ** It was not 
'* built, it grew/* The questioner evidently expects 
to hear a clear and succinct account, how some 
Lady Bountiful of a bye-gone age supplied the funds 
for the building of the particular church, much as 
we see it now, and at the same time presented it 
with lands sufficient to maintain a priest. Among 
the ten thousand old parish churches of England 
there are a few of which such a plain and definite 
history can be given, but in by far the greater 
majority of cases, the story of the foundation is 
lost in the blue distance of the ages. 

If we wish to think of the beginning of one of 
our parish churches, we must at once put from 
our minds any picture resembling what we con- 
stantly see to-day, a church rising in a few 
months, complete in all its parts, nave, chancel, 
transepts, even to clerestory and tower. In its 
place we must conjure up a vision of a little wattle 
arid daub structure, standing in its croft beside the 

io8 Notes on the Parish Churches of Wirral. 

village, hardly so large as and possibly not unlike 
one of the smallest thatched cottages of our country- 
side, in which, perhaps, not ten men could kneel, but 
large enough to cover the altar and to shield the 
sacred elements from rain and storm. This is 
the tiny germ, and as the village grows and 
prospers, the villagers add a loftier and better 
building at the western end, and the little thatched 
hut becomes a chancel and the new part the nave. 
But still all is wood, wattle, daub, and thatch ; 
years, it may be centuries, pass, until from over 
the seas comes some travelled son of the hamlet, 
who in Normandy has seen men rear houses of 
stone, as his fathers had done of wood ; and he and 
his fellows go up to the hill, and there with their 
wood-cutting axes, hew the rough sandstone into a 
semblance of square blocks. And if you look at 
some of the earliest masonry in our churches, you 
will still see the broad wound made by the axe, 
before our English forefathers learnt the use of 
the chisel. Thus the building becomes more 
permanent, rough but sound and good. And as 
year by year England is drawn more and more 
into contact with the larger world across the sea, 
the skill and knowledge of the men who work in 
stone becomes more widespread, and the buildings 
more elaborate in detail, until, in Eadward's time, 
the Norman masons travel in bands up and down 
the land, rearing structures some of which we 
have with us to-day. 

Then the Conquest. And the new lords, with 
some of their new-found riches, build grand piles, 
like St. John's in Chester, and many another massive 
monument. And the grandsons are not content 
simply to follow in the footprints of their fathers, but 
develop the details, and the work becomes more 
ornate ; and one day a builder sees the beauty of 
the pointed arch, and others follow,, and breaking 

Introduction. 109 

away from the methods of the continental masons, 
they stamp their individuality on a style which has 
since been called by our national name, Early 
English. But still the process of elaboration goes 
on, the size of the window increases, and men see 
the exquisite tracery of the decorated work spread 
like the veins in a leaf across the blank space of 
light. And as the wealth of the country grows, 
and men begin to lavish it in every way they can 
on their church, they soon seize the chance of 
further beauty offered by the broadening light, and 
the windows begin to glow and sparkle with that 
marvellous jewel-like glass which is the wonder and 
despair of modern church-builders. And as the 
taste for this grows, there comes the desire for 
yet broader spaces, until the spreading arch of the 
fourteenth and fifteenth century window requires 
the straight support of the slender mullion, and the 
characteristic feature of Perpendicular is attained. 
The tendency goes on increasing, until in some of 
the churches built in the early sixteenth century 
the walls are nothing but one blaze of light. 

Then fell the fierce storms of the sixteenth 
century, when practically all building ceased, and 
the only trace of it is to be found in such repairs as 
were necessary to keep the churches sound. The 
seventeenth century came and went, leaving but 
few structures to mark its degraded style, and 
ushered in the eighteenth, which has left, alas, too 
many. And how shall I speak of this century ? 
The century of restorations we might call it, but 
of that we shall speak later. 

And thus we have to-day not the creation of a 
single mind and the effort of a year, but the 
accretion of a millennium and the countless efforts 
of thirty generations ; so that one feels there is 
truth in saying, ** That church was not built, 
** it grew.'* 

no Notes on the Parish Churches of Wirral. 

There can be little doubt that all our fifteen old 
parish churches of Wirral, with the possible excep- 
tion of Eastham, were standing at the time of the 
Norman Conquest ; of course not as we see them 
now, but churches were standing then where we 
see them stand to-day. Little is now left of the 
actual structures of this period, but with these 
we shall deal later. How much earlier than the 
Conquest the various churches date it is impossible 
to say, but we may, I think, lay claim to a very 
high antiquity for some of them ; and in order 
that we may have a clearer idea of the founding 
and early history of our parish churches in Wirral, 
you will forgive me if I sketch very rapidly the 
early story of this neighbourhood. 

It is a matter of history that Christianity was 
established in Britain some time before the with- 
drawal of the Romans from our island, but the 
evidence seems to point to the fact that it was 
almost entirely confined to the ruling race, and 
that the native British were not affected by it to 
any great extent. We have a parallel in the India 
of to-day, or perhaps I should say of one hundred 
years ago, where, before missionary societies started 
their work, Christianity found its sole adherents 
among the English rulers, while the natives 
followed Bhudda or Mahomet. 

In 410 the Romans retired from Britain, and 
from that date for almost exactly two hundred 
years (that is, until the Battle of Chester, in 613) 
our district may be described as British pure and 
simple. It was during this period that Christianity 
was first planted in Wirral, and it is probable that 
to the earlier of the two centuries we can assign 
the founding of some of our parish churches. We 
know that between the years 440 and 450 St.' 
Germanus was evangelising North Wales, and 
Denbigh in particular, and it is not unlikely that 


Introduction. ill 

Wirral may have come in for a share in his 
ministrations ; and it is within the bounds of 
possibiHty that he founded the parish church of 
Wallasey, and dedicated it to the great saint 
in whose footsteps he strove to follow, St. Hilary. 
But of this presently. 

Certainly in the following century the surrounding 
neighbourhood was thoroughly Christianised, and 
it is hardly conceivable that there could exist 
within fifteen miles of Wirral the great monastery 
of Bangor Iscoed, with its two thousand monks, 
not to mention churches and monasteries in 
Chester itself, without some effort having been 
made to win over Wirral to the faith. And we 
have, I think, definite proof in our midst in the 
place-name Landican. Surely the first syllable of 
this name can be none other than the Celtic Llan, 
meaning a church ; a word with which we are all 
so familiar in Welsh place-names. 

Then the dedication of Wallasey Church to 
St. Hilary, of which I spoke a moment ago, is 
most significant. The dedication is a rare one,' 
and only occurs, so far as I can find, in eight 
other cases in Great Britain, six of which are in 
WaleSj one in Cornwall, and one in Lincoln ; all, 
except the last, in places where the Celtic element 
is supreme ; and in the Lincolnshire case there is 
a neighbouring church dedicated to St. Germanus, 
a suggestive fact. St. Hilary, it will be remem- 
bered, was the great opponent of the Pelagian 
Heresy, which agitated the Church during the 
latter half of the fourth century. Britain was 
supposed to be infected somewhat, and it was 

I The following is a list of the ancient parish churches in England and 
Wales detiicated to St. Hilary. In England— St. Hilary in Cornwall, 
Spri.llingioii in Lincoln, and Wallasey in Cheshire ; in Wales- l.lanilar and 
Trehlan in ( Cardiganshire, Eglwys Khos in Carnarvonshire, the Casile chapel 
in- Denbigh town, Erbistock in Denbighshire, and St. Hilary in Glamorgan- 

112 Notes on the Parish Churches of Wirral. 

partly to exterminate it that the Gallic Church 
sent over St. Germanus. He preached in Denbigh 
and Anglesey we know, and it is far from unlikely 
that he founded the churches in Denbighshire 
which are dedicated to St. Hilary, in spite of the 
usage of the British Church, which only permitted 
dedication to St. Mary, St. Michael, or the founder ; 
and I submit it as possible that he or one of his 
disciples founded Wallasey, and perpetuated once 
more the name of the then popular Saint. 

But the British rule was shortly to come to an 
end. For a century and a half the English invaders 
had been encroaching gradually on the territory of 
the Britons, and if you will look at Mr. Green's map 
of Britain in 580, in his Making of England, you 
will see that, roughly speaking, England was 
divided from north to south by a line drawn from 
Berwick to the Isle of Wight, to the east of 
which lay the English, and to the west the still- 
unconquered Britons. This line represents the 
natural barrier of hills that runs through England 
like a backbone, and that had long held the 
English at bay ; and it was not until 613 that 
iEthelfrith, the Northumbrian king, anticipating 
by nearly 500 years the famous march of the 
Norman William, broke through the boundary and 
pushed over the bleak moors of Ribblehead, to 
sweep down on what we now call Southern 
Lancashire. His object was to break in two the 
long unwieldy British confederacy that stretched 
north and south along our western coast, and he 
chose as striking point Chester, the capital of 
Gwynedd, a district which then embraced the greater 
part of the present North Wales. At the news of the 
danger of Chester, Brocmail, the Prince of Powys, 
marched from Shrewsbury to its rescue. Two 
thousand monks from the huge monastery of 
Bangor Iscoed, after a three days' fast, made their 

Introduction. ' . it^ 

way to the field, to pray for the success of the 
British arms. King iEthelfrith, says Bede, being 
informed of the occasion of their coming, said, 
'* If, then, they cry to their God against us, in 
*' truth, though they do not bear arms, yet they 
*' fight against us, because they oppose us by their 
'* prayers/' He therefore commanded them to be 
attacked first, and then destroyed the rest of the 
*' impious army,** not without much loss to his own 
forces ; and, continues Bede, there made a very 
great slaughter of that ** perfidious nation." This 
victory was followed by the capture of Chester 
itself, while the district around it fell into the 
hands of the Northumbrians ; and so the Wirral 
passed into the possession of our English fore- 
fathers, and I doubt not there are many living in 
our midst to-day in whose veins runs the blood of 
the victors in the Battle of Chester. 

With the Anglian conquest of Wirral came, in 
all probability, a wave of heathenism, and it may 
be — but this is, of course, the merest conjecture — 
that all the British churches, with one exception, 
of which I shall speak in a moment, were desolated 
and forgotten ; so that when for a second time the 
Gospel was brought to us, either by St. Aidan or 
St. Chad, or by their missionaries (who can tell ?) 
the original dedications having been forgotten, 
fresh churches were built on or near the old 
foundations, and new and English dedications 
found for them. Thus when the new church was 
reared at Landican, or Woodchurch as it soon 
became, the old British saint's name being lost, 
the new dedication to the Holy Cross was made. 

The one exception to which I alluded a moment 
ago is Wallasey. The Northumbrians, holding 
Chester as a base, probably had but little difficulty 
in subduing the great part of Wirral, which 
possesses few natural features that could be turned 


1 14 Notes on the Parish Churches of Wirral. 

to account in a scheme of defence. The triangle 
of Wallasey, however, must have been nearly 
impregnable, backed as it was on two sides by the 
sea, and protected on the third by the Pool and 
the impassable morass which is now Bidston Moss. 
Here the Britons made their last desperate stand, 
and it would seem to have been a successful one, 
since the English conquerors have dubbed it 
Wallasey, the Welshman's Island. The English 
probably found that even a Briton, when he got 
his back to the wall and could retreat no further, 
was not a creature to be played with ; and so, 
surfeited with the extent of their gains, they settled 
down, content to acknowledge tbe existence of the 
plucky band in the low, rock-crowned hill across 
the marsh. And here we find what we might 
expect, that the old dedication was not forgotten, 
and St. Hilary to-day is perhaps the only local 
example that we have of a church that can 
claim an unbroken history of fourteen hundred 

And whence did the preachers come who brought 
the Gospel a second time into our neighbourhood ? 
Did St. Chad, or St. Cuthbert, or St. Aidan preach 
to our English forefathers, for all three were at 
different times within a few miles of Wirral ? or 
did one or other of them send missionaries to us ? 
One likes in imagination to dwell on the picture of 
one of this noble trio, with a devoted band, landing 
from over-seas, perchance, at the north-western 
corner of the Wirral, and planting the Cross on 
some rising ground, and there preaching to the 
hardy English settlers as they crowded round to 
see the strangers ; and are there not, in West 
Kirby Museum yonder, some scraps of the stone 
cross which soon rose to mark the spot where the 
throng first gathered ? 

Introduction. 115 

Whoever may have brought the message back 
again among us, it is clear that very soon churches, 
minute ones and insignificant no doubt, began 
to rise in different spots throughout the peninsula. 
From the presence of a monumental inscription in 
runes at Overchurch, near Upton, asking for the 
prayers of the passer-by for iEthelmund, it may be 
fairly deduced that when this monument was reared, 
in the seventh century, there was a church there. 
Further, the name itself, which means the church 
on the shore {i.e., the shore of the lake or mere 
that at this early period probably covered all the 
flat land from what is now Great Meols Station 
to the foot of Wallasey and Bidston Hills) must 
have been given to it prior to the ninth century, 
when the Norsemen landed and settled here. 
Again, in 642 King Oswald fell at Maserfield, near 
Oswestry, fighting against Penda, the heathen king 
of the Mercians, and within a short time of his death 
was canonized and, as St. Oswald, became one of 
the most popular Northumbrian saints. Now in 
Wirral we have two churches dedicated to his 
name, at Bidston and Backford ; yet about 660 
Wirral must have passed from the hands of the 
Northumbrians and become part of the kingdom 
of Mercia ; so that it looks as if these churches 
must have risen between the two dates. 

Between this time and the coming of the 
Norsemen at the end of the ninth century, the life 
of the Church in Wirral doubtless flowed on with 
little to agitate or disturb it ; and when the wild 
heathen did pour from over-seas, though they may 
have spread famine and desolation around, they 
have preserved for us, in the name they gave to 
Wallasey (Kirkby, or the Church town), the fact 
that at their coming, at all events, they found a 
church there. It would be interesting to know 
whether it were they who gave the dedication to 

I 2 

1 1^5 Notes on the Parish 'Churches of Wirral. 

the parish church of West Kirby, St. Bridget, 
or whether this marks the work of the eariier Irish 
missionaries of whom I have already spoken. The 
fact that the Norsemen called it West Kirkby, to 
differentiate it from Kirkby in Wallasey, looks as 
if it were later, but it may be that they conquered 
Wallasey first, and not knowing of the church on 
Caldy Hill, gave Wallasey the distinctive title. 

That the Norse settlement in Wirral must have 
been a very complete one, is obvious to anyone 
who looks at the map. Its completeness is shewn 
by the fact that the Norsemen actually introduced 
their own system of local government, and met at 
one common centre, at Thingwall, where the busi- 
ness of the district was transacted, new laws pro- 
mulgated, and their annual ** thing" or parliament 
held. The more carefully one looks into the matter, 
the more complete appears to have been the occupa- 
tion. In addition to the Norse place-names (as Irby, 
Greasby, Frankby, Pensby, and so on) we find, on 
more detailed examination, that the whole country- 
side teems with Norse names, names of fields, 
brooks, and lanes ; and even in the common 
speech of the countryfolk we find many words to 
which a Norse origin must be assigned. 

One wonders whether the Norsemen were 
Christian when they came. It is impossible to 
say, but the probability seems to be that if they 
were not, they became so very shortly after their 
final settlement, the date of which may probably 
be placed towards the end of the ninth century. 

We have seen Wirral, and with it our parish 
churches, pass successively through the hands of 
Briton, Angle, and Norseman, and now it is to 
change its lords once more, and, let us trust, for 
the last time. Angle and Norseman, closely related 
as they were, must very soon have become welded 
into one common family, and formed together th^t 

Introduction. 117 

splendid race that held the Norman William at 
bay till every other part of England had stooped 
its neck to the Conqueror, and gave to Chester the 
proud position of being the last English city to 
yield up its freedom. The last hopes of the 
English ceased, saj^s Green, on William's arrival 
at Chester. This was in 1070. In 1086 the 
great Domesday Book was drawn up, and now, 
at last, we emerge from the mirk and mist of 
conjecture, and can gaze clearly on that thing dear 
to the historian's heart, documentary evidence. 

We turn eagerly to Domesday, to hear of the 
condition of the Church in Wirral, and we are 
disappointed. There is much in Domesday, far 
more than anyone has yet attempted to explain, 
but on the matter of the Church it is exasperatingly 
silent. You must remember that the great survey 
was made by the king to ascertain the military 
strength and financial resource of the country, and 
so unless a priest happened to be a holder of land 
in his individual capacity, he was not necessarily 
enumerated in the returns. And so it comes to 
pass that only four priests are mentioned in Wirral — 
at Eastham (this probably refers to Bromborough), 
Neston, Landican or Woodchurch, and Poulton or 

Seven years later than this we have the founda- 
tion charter of the Abbey of St. Werburgh in 
Chester ; and in this definite mention is made both 
of Bebington and Woodchurch, and, by implication, 
several other of our parish churches. But from this 
period onward, in addition to voluminous ancient 
records, we have the evidence of the buildings 


We cannot do better than commence our sur- 
vey with the Church of Wallasey, dedicated, as 
has been already said^ to St. Hilary the Bishop,, 

Ii8 Notes on the Parish Churches of Wirral. 

and which I fain would think has an unbroken his- 
tory of 1400 years. It will be noticed that there 
are two towers standing ; the one to the south of 
the present building being that of the old Church, 
which was burnt down in 1857 — this tower alone 
being left. The tower was built in 1530, just before 
the suppression of Birkenhead Priory, which held a 
mediety of the Rectory and appointed a chaplain. 
One of the features of our Wirral Churches is the 
square tower, and it has often been pointed out 
how close the resemblance is between some of them, 
particularly Bidston, Wallasey, Backford, and Shot- 
wick, while Heswall, Neston, Woodchurch, and 
West Kirby have each special features of their own. 

The structure that was burnt down in 1857 had 
no points of interest whatever, having been built 
exactly one century before, in 1757, at a time when 
the lamp of ecclesiastical architecture burnt low. 
*' The building,*' says Mr. Cox,^ '*was really every- 
'' thing a church should fwt be, and the whole 
'* combined, in an eminent degree, the ignorance of 
'' the eighteenth with the pretentious meanness of 
'' the nineteenth century, and constituted what used 
'* to be called, in one's boyhood, an extremely neat 
'' edifice ! '' 

Time would fail us to go into all the re-buildings 
that must have taken place at Wallasey, traces of 
which were found when the burnt church was pulled 
to pieces ; but there is no doubt some truth in the 
old tradition among the villagers that it has been 
thrice burnt, having been twice a church without a 
tower, and once a tower without a church. 

There lived at Wallasey, towards the end of the 
17th century, an interesting old man, named Robin- 
son, the village schoolmaster, and he loved his old 
church, and jotted down all he knew or could learn 

2 " Notes on the History of Wallasey Church." by E. W. Cox, p. 66, vol. i, 
(new series), Jour, of Chester Arch, and Hist. Soc, 

Wallas^. 119 

about it, and the result is a most valuable and 
picturesque account of the parish as it was about 
the year 1700, and withal some strange and won- 
drous traditions, one of which I cannot refrain from 
quoting : — '* When this present church was built," 
says Robinson,^ *' being built at several times, 

* several strangers came and worked, some a week, 

* some a fortnight, at their own proper charges, 

* and went away without any pay or reward. More 
'particular one man, as a master workman and 
' others dependent on him, came and got stone 

* and dressed them, and built that arch of the 

* church next to Bird's, Gills and Balls forms, the 

* workmanship being different from the other 

* arches, and departed without any pay. When 
' the neighbours asked them whence they came, 
' tjiey answered, ' out of the woods.' The steeple,'' 

continues Robinson, '' was built in 1530. I have 
' heard old Richard Watt say that his old aunt 

* Tomlinson told him that when she was a little 

* girl she carried drink in a pitcher to the workmen 

* building the steeple, and that the master work- 

* man had but threepence per day." One would 
like to spend some time in trying to unravel these 
strange old-world stories, and I doubt not something 
could be made of them ; but we must refrain. 

Robinson also tells us that there was a fine tall 
cross (16 feet high, he says) standing, within his 
memory, in the churchyard, but that it was much 
injured in the civil wars by soldiers shooting at it, 
and was afterwards broken in three pieces in King 
William's war, by the men of the galley called 
'' The Charles " ; and '* finally," concludes Robin- 
son, *' it was irreligiously employed by Thos. Cotton 
'* for steps to the church stile, and he hewed off all 
'* the curious cuttihgs that was on it." 

3 ♦* An account of Wallasey, etc," by Mr. W. C. Asbby Pritt. Vol. xliii, 
Trans, Hist, Soc, Lane, and Chesh, 

120 Notes on the Parish Chtirches of Wirral. 

One relic of Norman times is left in the shape of 
a fine large font, which, after a lengthened sojourn 
in the rectory garden, now lies within the sheltering 
walls of the church. At Eyam church, in Derby- 
shire, there is another such font, so like, indeed, 
that one is almost tempted to believe that they were 
cut by the same mason. 


Crossing the marsh or moss, over which, until 
fifty years ago, the tide used to flow, we reach 
Bidston, and here again will be noticed the close 
resemblance between the towers of Wallasey and 
Bidston. The tower itself was built about the year 
1520, ten years earlier than that of Wallasey, the 
date being fixed for us by the charges on the shields 
over the west doorway. The three in the centre 
are bearings of the Earls of Derby, the eagle claw 
of Lathom, the arms of the Isle of Man, of which 
the Derbys were kings, and the maunch of the 
Hastings. This last coat fixes for us the date 
within certain limits, as it is that of Dame Anne, 
daughter of Lord Hastings of Hungerford, and 
wife of Thomas the second Earl of Derby, who 
died in 1521. The other two shields are puzzles — 
the one to the left being possibly a sculptor's error 
for Strange of Knockin, who owned the manor 
before the Stanleys, while that to the right is almost 
certainly the coat of the Masseys of Bidston, who 
held the manor in very early times, and who gave 
their name to Saughall-Massey, to distinguish it 
from the Saughalls near Chester. ' ,- 
. The Church itself has no special features of 
interest, having been entirely rebuilt in 1856, mainly 
on the old lines. The building which it replaced 
contained some fine Early English work, and there 
is documentary evidence of the existence of a church 
here in the 13th century, though there can be little 

Bidston. j2i 

doubt that there was a church here at an earlier 
date, possibly as early as the time of the North- 
umbrian over-lordship, as the church is believed to 
have been dedicated to St. Oswald. 

Next to the church is a charmingly picturesque 
old house, which in the Ordnance Survey is called 
the old vicarage, and I have made this flimsy claim 
to ecclesiastical distinction the excuse for introdu- 
cing it here, even though I have to dismiss it at 
once by saying that there is ample evidence to 
prove that no vicarage existed at Bidston until the 
present century, and that this house was built by 
one of the tenants about 1670. The gable to the 
east, however, is the end of a fine old tythe barn. 

Bidston parish had one peculiarity, and that was 
that it contained within its boundaries the only 
ancient chapel of ease in the hundred, if we except 
one that may have stood at Arrow; and just outside 
stood Birkenhead chapel, which, after the dissolu- 
tion of the Priory, was occiasionally used until the 
present century, when St. Mary's Church was built. 
Nothing is now left of the chapel at Moreton, but 
at Birkenhead the chapel still stands— the oldest 
complete ecclesiastical building in Wirral. On the 
south side is the only original Norman window 
which is left, though inside an interesting groined 
Norman roof remains. This was probably the 
original church of the Priory of our Blessed Lady 
and St. James, founded by Hamo de Massy in 1150; 
but when the ; Priory enlarged its borders in 1272, 
and an early decorated church was built, it became 
the chapter house, and so continued . until- the 
Dissolutiony when "it was converted into a chapel 
once more. 

The Priory does not, strictly speaking, come 
within the limits of this paper, but I cannot refrain 
from alluding to it in passing. Special mention 
deserves to be made of the crypt, under what was 

122 Notes on the Parish Churches of Wirral. 

the refectory ; it is, of its kind, one of the most 
interesting and complete examples of mediaeval 
work in Cheshire, and is worthy of a better fate 
than being allowed to crumble to pieces as a coal- 
hole. In a recently-published paper,^ Mr. Cox has 
put forward a suggested reconstruction of the 
dormitory and cloisters, being deductions drawn 
from the few scraps of masonry and traces that 
remain. The result, as shewn in a two-page 
drawing, is extremely interesting, and when we 
read the evidence he brings to bear, we are com- 
pelled to agree with him that the drawing probably 
reproduces very closely what actually stood at 
Birkenhead before the time of H^nry VIII. One 
often wonders how many of the hundred thousand 
inhabitants of Birkenhead have any idea of the 
beautiful old ruin still standing in their midst. 


From Birkenhead, with its unutterable modern- 
ness, to the childhood of England in the seventh 
century, is a far cry. In Upton village, a few years 
ago, was discovered the now famous Overchurch 
Runic stone, the only stone with a Runic inscrip- 
tion as yet found in Cheshire. The old church of 
Overchurch stood about three-quarters of a mile to 
the north of Upton, and close to the present More- 
ton church ; but, falling into great decay, it was 
taken down in 1 8 13, and a new church erected in the 
village of Upton, the old stones being used up in the 
new building. This little church stood until 1887, 
when (it having been in the meantime superseded 
by the present one, built by the late Mr. Inman), it 
was taken down and the material sold. Among the 
stones was found this most interesting early Chris- 
tian monument, which experts have pronounced 

4 ** Birkenhead Priory," by Mr. E. W. Cox, p. 123, vol. xlvi, Trans, Hist. 
Soc. La tic. and Chesh, 

Over church. 123 

to be of the seventh century. The inscription 
reads — 


[The people reared the monument pray for Athehiiund.] 

It is curious to note that every one of the words 
used in the epitaph are current speech to-day, 
'' Folk reared beacon bid or pray for Athelmund." 

To show what wild suggestions even respectable 
antiquaries will sometimes make, I may mention that 
one distinguished professor read this inscription to 
be — *' So and so, struck dead for telling a lie.'* To 
the ordinary laymen it would appear as improbable 
that people would take the trouble to rear a monu- 
ment to a gentleman of this description. There is 
nothing to show who Athelmund was, he may 
have been a priest or a distinguished soldier. 

Upton is in the curious position of having three 
churchyards. There is the yard about the present 
church ; there is, across the road, the burial-ground 
which surrounded the little whitewashed building 
put up in 1813 ; and there still is, though known 
to very few, the old churchyard, where sleep the 
dead of more than a millennium. Those who have 
not seen it can have little idea of the strange, 
almost weird solitude of this forgotten spot. 
Among the stones taken out of the little church, 
which was pulled down in 1887, were found 
sufficient remains to enable Mr. Cox to reproduce, 
in a paper on the church,^ a drawing of the inter- 
esting Norman priest's door. 


Our next journey is to Woodchurch, and here, on 
the north side of the chancel, is a small scrap of early 
masonry, including a very early Norman window, 
so rude in its construction, and in the curious 

5 ** Cverchurch,'* by E. W. Cox. Vol. xlv, Trans, Hist* Soc* L, attd C* 

J 24 Notes on the Parish Churches of Wirral. 

method of dealing with the arch, that it is thought 
to be earlier than the Conquest. The tower is 14th 
century, with a later casing ; the extraordinary 
buttresses appear to have been added about 1680 
to strengthen the old tower. The north wall is 
Norman, with later inserted windows, and i$ Hke- 
wise supported by massive buttresses. The south 
aisle is late perpendicular, to which period the porch 
also belongs. The interior is interesting, much of • 
the old roof is left, and there are a few scraps of 
very good oak carving — four bench ends in the 
chancel are specially worthy of mention. It is 
noticeable that the orientation of the nave and 
chancel differ. There are also some curious hatch- 
ments, commemorating various members of the 
family of Hockenhall of Prenton, who for three 
centuries were the chief people in the parish. 

Woodchurch and Heswall share the distinction 
of being the only two churches in the hundred 
which, throughout the ages, have remained in the 
gift of lay patrons. All the others, one by one, fell 
into the hands of the great monastic bodies, and 
so, to a large extent, lost their individuality. The 
patronage of Woodchurch was vested for centuries 
in the two great Cheshire houses of Praers and 
Fullshurst. During the reigns of Henry VIII and 
Edward the advowson changed hands several times, 
but finally came into the possession of a family of 
the name of Adams, one of whom, Richard Adams, 
was rector during the greater p^rt of Elizabeth's 
reign, and from whom it has djbscended, through 
ten generations, to Canon Robin,ythe present rector. 
A curious feature in the descent is that, in the ten 
generations, the property pa^ed through no less 
than five heiresses to a diflfef^nt name. 

Dr. Sherlock, the fajndus divine, was a native of 
the parish ^andr^ related to the Adams, as was also 
the mother pf Thomas Wilsoo, the saintly bishap 
of Sodor and Man. 


Bebington. 125 


Crossing the bounds of Woodchurch parish, in 
an easterly direction, we get into Bebington. And 
here we have what is, without question, the most 
interesting parish church in Wirral, from an archi- 
tectural standpoint. The chancel and part of the 
south aisje are very late perpendicular, but excep- 
tionally good work for the period. It has been 
suggested, and with some show of reason, that the 
abbot of St. Werburgh, who owned the advowson, 
becoming alarmed at the dissolution of the smaller 
houses in 1535, hastened to lay out the surplus 
funds of the abbey in church extension, lest their 
existence should tempt the rapacious Henry ; and 
this was one of the churches which he commenced 
to rebuild. The blow, however, fell before he was 
able to complete the work, and so the rebuilding 
left off abruptly ; and if you will go round to the 
south exterior wall of the church you can see 
exactly where the new work ceases ; and in the 
interior it is shewn by a curious temporary arch in 
the arcade, which breaks off at a slight angle from 
the old Norman work to meet the later pillar, since 
the church was being widened and raised as the 
rebuilding proceeded. 

Whether the suppression of Chester Abbey were 
the cause of the cessation in rebuilding or not it is 
difficult to say, but it is abundantly clear that some 
one commenced early in the i6th century to rebuild 
the church from the east end, and for some cause 
was not able to finish. It is also clear, from the 
large number of different masons' marks on the 
new work, that a perfect army of men must have 
been employed on the rebuilding. 

In the chancel one sees the stately, high-soaring, 
late perpendicular work, and, as a contrast, in the 
nave the massive Norman arcading which it was 
replacing. The font is Norman. 

1 26 Notes on the Parish Churches of WirraL 

There is documentary evidence to prove that 
there was a church in 1093, and Domesday men- 
tions a priest here, under the manor of Poulton. 
Tradition says that it was called ** the white 
** church," a name given in early days by the Eng- 
lish to stone churches, when they first began to rise, 
to distinguish them from the old wooden buildings. 

Opposite the church, on the west, is a lane called 
Kirket or Kirkup Lane, which seems to have been 
the lane by which the Storeton folk came to their 
parish church. A similar mule track is to be found 
on the other side of Storeton, leading to it from 
Prenton, and it is possible that these two sets of 
stones were laid down in the days when the 
undivided family of Stanley, the hereditary foresters 
of Wirral, lived at Storeton, before they broke up 
and settled at Hooton, Lathom, and Alderley 

Passing over Bromborough, where now no traces 
remain of the original church, which doubtless 
stood at the time of the Conquest, we come to 


Here Domesday mentions a priest, though it is 
thought by many that this priest must have been 
located at. Bromborough, which as late as 1281, 
(when Pope Nicholas' Taxation was drawn up) ap- 
pears to have been regarded as the mother church. 

It is stated that Earl Randle, about 1150, built 
a church here, and that this is the church which he 
mentions in 1152 in his gift of the manors of East- 
ham and Bromborough, together with the churches, 
to the abbey of St. Werburgh. There are remains 
in the north wall of the Stanley Chapel of the 
original Norman building — the font is also Norman. 
The tower, chancel, and south aisle are 14th cen- 
tury work. The north arcade early English, and 
the north wall perpendicular, 

Eastham. 127 

In the churchyard stands a famous old yew tree 
of great antiquity. A tradition in the village says 
that when the church was handed over to the 
monks of St. Werburgh, presumably in 1152, the 
villagers asked that care might be taken of ** their 
** old yew tree." If it were old then, how much 
more so to-day ! 

On the exterior of the east wall of the chancel is 
to be seen a much- weathered inscription, which 
was long a puzzle to antiquaries, until the Rev. 
Francis Sanders pointed out its true meaning. The 
letters to the right are ** Jhon Anglizer died,'' and 
to the left *' A Anglizer May xxiii," evidently simple 
monumental inscriptions to some of the rude fore- 
fathers of the hamlet. There could be little 
reasonable doubt that this was the correct expla- 
nation, but we were able to put it beyond question 
by finding at Chester the will of John Anglizer, 
dated 1628, in which he says — '* I desire to be 
** buried near unto the place where my dear father 
** was buried, viz., at the east end of the chancell 
*' amongst my ancestors,'' and then specially re- 
quests that ** my funeral expenses be done sparingly 
** in regard to my debtes which are great." So this 
was the method adopted by his friends to save 
expense, by utilizing the church wall as a tomb- 
stone ! 

Ormerod, the historian of Cheshire, who, though 
a man of wide general knowledge, was ignorant of 
the principles and history of mediaeval architecture, 
read the last four letters of Anglizer's name to be 
** 17E.R." i.e. Elizabethce Regince, and so dates the 
building of Eastham chancel as 1574, and adds 
that this proves it was not built by Inigo Jones ! 

In the Stanley chapel are some interesting 
tombs, and in the south aisle are three oak panels, 
exquisitely carved with heraldic devices— the arms 
of Capenhurst, Poole, and Buerton, probably 15th 

128 Notes on the Parish Churches of Wirral. 

century work. Eastham is now one of the most 
beautiful of our Wirral churches ; there is some 
fine modern iron work, and several exceptionally 
beautiful windows, designed by Mr. Kempe. 


In Backford church there is practically nothing 
left of the old building except the tower, the 
nave and chancel having been rebuilt within the 
last few years, though some of the old stones 
have been worked up into the chancel again, and 
it is mainly on the old lines. The tower bears a 
close resemblance to those of Bidston, Wallasey, 
and Shotwick, which was more apparent before the 
new finials were added. Some curious mason's 
marks are to be seen on the tower, particularly 
around the west doorway, and the decorations 
round the string-coursing are quaint. 

In the church is an interesting chained Bible, 
the only one in the Hundred, dated 1617, and 
printed by Robert Barker, London. 

A substantial altar tomb, of the family of Coven- 
try, of Mollington, still stands in the churchyard, 
at the east end of the chancel, though the fulsome 
Latin epitaph, which Randle Holme copied in 1656 
{Harl. MS. 2 151) has long disappeared under the 
action of the weather. The coat of arms is still, 
however, faintly visible. 

The advowson was, about 1300, given to the 
priory of Birkenhead, who retained it until the dis- 
solution. The dedication is to St. Oswald. 


Stoke is perhaps the least known of our Wirral 
churches, though it contains not a little to interest us. 
It lies amid flat meadow land, which in the middle 
ages must have been mere and fen. These level 
tracts have a special! beauty of their own, and there 

Stoke. 129 

are few pleasanter walks than across the marsh 
from Stoke to Thornton church on a summer 
evening, after the hay has been cut and the fresh 
grass is springing new and green, as the long 
shadows from the sinking sun slant across the 

The church, which used to possess some inter- 
esting Norman details, was almost entirely rebuilt 
in 1827, ^^^ \\\X\t of interest in the structure now 
remains. The walls are hung with a large number 
of hatchments, mostly commemorating various 
members of the Bunbury family, some of which 
appear to have come from the hand of one of the 
Randle Holmes. In the tower are hung three 
interesting old bells, dated 1631, 1615, and 1642 ; 
and built into the exterior wall, on the south side, 
is a whitish stone bearing the inscription, in very 
early lettering — 

[Magistjer Andre : cui' : aie ; ppitiet ; Ds 
[Master Andrew on whose soul may God have mercy.] 

The church, which for centuries belonged to the 
abbey of St. Werburgh, is dedicated to St. Law- 
rence, a comparatively rare dedication in this 


Shotwick village is perhaps the most thoroughly 
countrified of our Wirral villages : there is a quiet 
old-world flavour about it, and the church is one 
that has suff"ered but little at the hands of the 
restorer. The tower very closely resembles those 
of Bidston and Wallasey, and is also not unlike 
Backford. On the south side, high up on the 
shoulders of the tower, are the letters D . C . M . D . 
in relief. What these letters stand for I am at a 
loss to conceive ; it is possible that M.D. is the 
date 1500. Higher up still is a stone on which an 
incomplete inscription is to be seen — it appears to 


130 Notes on the Parish Churches of Wirral. 

read *' Thomas, Abbot," but it is too high to be 
easily deciphered. 

Under the quaint porch is a very nice specimen 
of a Norman doorway, the details of which, until 
last year, were completely hidden by successive 
coats of whitewash. These have since been care- 
fully removed, however, and the door-head now 
presents a very interesting example of Norman 

The interior has several points of interest ; the 
old three-decker pulpit still stands, and is the only 
example of the kind in the hundred. Within the 
chancel rails is a curious gravestone, which the 
sexton used to tell us was that of old squire Hock- 
enhall, who, in the days of Good Queen Bess, used 
to be a keener sportsman and ride straighter to 
hounds than any man in the county. One day 
when out hunting his horse stepped in a rabbit 
hole, threw his master, and rolled on him. The 
old squire was carried back to Shotwick to die, and 
on his death-bed ordered his son that no other in- 
scription should mark his last resting place than a 
bridle bit and a pair of stirrups ; and ** this is his 
** tombstone," the sexton used to say. 

The story is a pretty one, and might have been 
left to interest future generations, if a certain learned 
antiquary had not recently pointed out that the bit 
and stirrups were merely the letters I or J . C . C ., 
and probably referred to some local landowner or 
yeoman. The difficulty, however, at once suggested 
itself, that in the i6th century such a thing as two 
Christian names was almost if not absolutely un- 
known. This was, however, explained on finding, 
in Ormerod, the name of an incumbent in 1570, 
entered as John Carter Curate. Though this prac- 
tically settled the question, I was fortunately able 
to place the matter beyond dispute by finding the 
Rev. John Carter's will at Chester, and in the pre- 

Shotwick. 131 

amble he desires to be buried within *' the chancel 
** of the church of Shotwick," and the date of the 
will and probate is 1587. 

In one of the east windows are some scraps of 
mediaeval stained glass, and there is an interesting 
old churchwardens' pew with canopy. 


Our next parish is Burton, as we come along the 
Dee shore. There is unfortunately little left of the 
original structure, with the exception of the Massey 
chapel, as the church was rebuilt in 1721. The 
tower was also practically rebuilt, though we know 
from the Harleian manuscripts that the church 
possessed a tower, built in 1500 by two of the 
Massys of Puddington, and probably resembling 
our other Wirral towers. This fact is gleaned from 
Randle Holme's MSS. in the British museum, 
which I have recently examined. He visited it in 
1668, and says — ** Over the door that goes into the 
** steeple on the arch of the door on the outside are 
** these two coats cut in stone.'' Here follows a 
rude drawing of the Massey coat and another. 
** Over the steeple door," he continues, ** and so 
** along for two sides of the steeple, this writing in 
*' old letters." He then tries to imitate the old 
letters — the result is not a striking success — but the 
inscription appears to mean (it is in Latin) : *' In 
** the year 1500 William and Thomas Massy, sons 
*' of John Massie, Esquires, began to build this 
** tower, on whose souls may God have mercy." 
Examples of the habit of cutting coats of arms in 
this position, it will be remembered, are also to be 
found at Bidston, and West Kirby. 

In the Massy chapel, Randle Holme describes a 
beautiful alabaster tomb, to the memory of William 
Massy of Puddington, who died in 1579, and Ann 
his wife. William Massy in his will, still preserved 

K 2 

132 Notes on the Parish Churches of WirraL 

at Chester, gives minute directions as to his burial, 
and says — ** My will ys that my executors shall 

* within one yeare nexte after my decease cause one 

* conveniente tombe or monument of alabaster for 

* my degree or vocation, wherein my corpes [may] 

* be buried and laid in the North He or chappell of 

* the said Parish Church of Burton for the makinsf 

* whereof I give by this my will xiij^^- vj^- viij^- to 
' be imployed on the same, also I give for the 

* making of better lightes and windowes in the said 

* North He or chappell vj^'- vj^ viij^- 

In Burton village was born Thomas Wilson, the 
saintly Bishop of Sodor and Man. Among the 
many deeds of charity he performed, probably none 
has done more solid and lasting good than the 
school which he founded in his native village. 

In the woods behind the church are to be seen 
two solitary graves, called the Quaker graves. 
There is no reason to doubt that this is a correct 
description, though I have not been able to discover 
any documentary evidence relating to the matter. 


From Burton we pass to Neston, and notice 
again one of the square towers. Neston should be 
one of the most interesting of our Wirral churches, 
but it is so restored that none of the interesting 
features now remain. 

The church is dedicated to Our Lady and St. 
Helen, but there must have been a chantry altar 
here, dedicated to St. Martin, as Thomas Haward, 
of Neston, in his will, dated 1525, says — *' Also I 
** bequethe to Saynt Martin a hyve of beene to the 
** kepeing of a light before him.'' In this bequest 
we get a curious glimpse at the question of relative 
values 370 years ago. There used to be some 
interesting Norman wprk in this church, but nothing 

Neston. 133 

is sacred to the hand of the restorer, and it has 
gone, or, rather, a modern reproduction has taken 
its place. Domesday mentions a priest here, and 
Ralph de Montalt, seneschal of Cheshire, granted 
the advowson to the abbey of St. Werburgh about 
1 170. Some eighty years after this, Roger of 
Montalt, his grandson, ** violently attacked" (so 
writes the indignant chronicler in the Annates 
Cestrienses) ** the property of the abbot and convent, 
*' and the monks were only able to retain possession 
*' of Neston rectory and much more of their property 
**by granting some of their manors to the robber 
** in exchange. And,'' adds the monk, **the eldest 
** son of the said Roger died within 15 days. Many 
** other notable misfortunes befell the said Roger 
*^ not long afterwards. Roger himself died in 
** poverty within two years, the common people 
'' being ignorant of the place of his burial." 


But the Neston restorer is quite put in the shade 
by him of Heswall. Except the old tower nothing 
now remains of the original work. One thing to 
be said for the rebuilder of Heswall is, that the 
church pulled down had little of interest to recom- 
mend it, having passed through the hands of suc- 
cessive generations of restorers. 

In the tower are some interesting monuments to 
the Gleggs of Gayton — one in particular to John 
Glegg, who died in i6ig, which is in the form of 
an acrostic, the first letters of the lines making his 

Heswall, as I have already said, is one of the 
two churches in the hundred that never fell into 
the hands of any monastic body, but has always 
remained in the gift of private patrons. 

134 Notes on the Parish Churches of Wirral. 


It grieves me that we have to move on from church 
to church and have no opportunity of walking 
through the fields between them. We have just 
passed over one of the most charming country 
walks in Wirral, from Heswall to Thurstaston by 
the field path. 

Thurstaston is not only entirely modern but 
stands on a different site from the original church, 
which must have been a most interesting speci- 
men of Norman work, the chancel ending in an 
apse. The Lysons, in their history of Cheshire, so 
describe it. It was rebuilt in 1824, and again about 
twelve years ago. The new church is by Pearson, 
the architect of Truro Cathedral, and is a beautiful 
example of modern ecclesiastical architecture on 
mediaeval lines. 

All that now stands of the 1824 rebuilding is the 
ivy-covered tower, built into the walls of which is 
part of an ancient inscription, which reads — Sancti 
Berthlmi, John Wittmor, Wiliam Hoe . . . 
here the lettering breaks off incomplete. It should 
probably be — Sancti Bartholmi, John Wittmor, 
William Hoe gardiani ; or John Whitmore and 
William Hoe churchwardens of St. Bartholemew — 
St. Bartholemew being the saint to whom the 
church is dedicated. 

In digging the foundations . for the new church 
an interesting stone coffin of a small size was 
discovered, which takes us back to very primitive 

The earliest mention of the church is in 11 25, 
when Matthew de Rhuddlan, the son of the famous 
Robert of Rhuddlan, to whom so many fat Cheshire 
acres fell in the dividing of the land, granted the 
advowson of the church at Thurstaston to the 
abbey of St. Werburgh. 


Wesi kirby. I35 


Our journey round the hundred is now rapidly 
drawing to a close, and passing unnoticed another 
charming walk, we stop finally at West Kirby. 

As I said in my introduction, Christianity must 
have been planted in this parish many centuries 
ago, certainly earlier than the Conquest, possibly 
as early as the fifth century. In the group of 
stones preserved in the museum we have the 
earliest records that exist of the parish. Several 
of them are of extreme interest, especially the 
famous hog-backed stone, and have been dated by 
competent authority as ninth century work. Some 
remains of the Norman church were visible before 
the restoration, and the base of a Norman pillar is 
still in situ. 

The tracery of the chancel window is peculiar ; 
it is said that only one other church in England, 
that of Shifnal in Staffordshire, possesses a window 
of a similar pattern. It is a curious coincidence, 
however, that several such windows are to be seen 
in different monastic ruins in the south of Ireland. 
Now St. Bridget, to whom West Kirby church is 
dedicated, was abbess of Kildare. Needless to say 
this is merely a coincidence, as St. Bridget flourished 
about 560, and this style of tracery did not begin 
to be used till some 800 years later. Still it pro- 
bably goes to confirm what is already well enough 
known, the close connection there was in the middle 
ages between West Kirby and Ireland. 

The tower is late perpendicular, and was pro- 
bably built about the year 1500, and like Bidston 
and the old Burton tower, it has coats of arms cut 
in stone over the west door, and as in the case of 
the two other churches, it is not very apparent to 
whom all the coats allude. The one on the left is 
evidently meant for Meols of Meols (a bend between 

136 Notes on the Parish Churches of WirraL 

two lions' faces) ; but unfortunately the mason has 
cut a bend sinister instead of a bend dexter. The 
next is probably Banastre of the Bank. The third 
is the one that fixes the date of the tower, if it be 
what it seems, the arms of William Smith, bishop 
of the diocese (1493-5), the munificent founder of 
Brazenose College. 

In the chancel wall the old priest's door, dating 
from the 13th century, still remains. 

In the chancel is an interesting tomb to the 
memory of John Van Zoelen, late of Bristol, who 
was buried here in 1689. He was probably one of 
the officers under Marshal Schomberg, who, on the 
1 2th August in that year, embarked at Hoylake for 
Ireland, with an army, to re-conquer Ulster. 

In a rare old book (Leigh's Natural History of 
Lancashire and Cheshire^ printed in 1700), the writer 
mentions that Marshal Schomberg's army was 
encamped for some time on the flat sands by the 
sea, ** called the Mels " (probably what is now the 
golf links), and that they obtained abundant water 
by digging in the sand, *' which shows," says Leigh, 
** that the salt water is filtered by coming through 
'' the sand." 

And so our journey ends, perhaps not inappro- 
priately on the sands by the sea shore, with the 
wondrous past behind us, and the future limitless 
as the sea before ; and our time has not been 
wasted if we have realized a little more than we 
are in the habit of doing, how much we owe to 
that splendid past which is the heritage of every 
Englishman. And as our lives are but links in a 
chain, may it be given us so to forge our link that 
those who come after us may remember us with 
honour and not with shame. 


By A. M. Robinson^ F.R.G.S. 

Read 7th November, 1895. 

CHESHIRE took a prominent part in the great 
struggle between King and Parliament, and 
Cheshire men influenced the course of English 
history more than would be anticipated from the 
geographical position of the county, or its size or 
its population. Whilst the King was at York, at 
the end of May, 1642, with thirty-two peers against 
forty-two who remained at Westminster, the Houses 
passed an ordinance for settling the Militia in such 
hands as they could confide in. The King, how- 
ever, charged this to be against law, and required 
none should yield obedience thereto. He issued 
his Commissions of Array to the respective coun- 
ties, appointing several persons of quality to array, 
train, and muster the people. This commission 
the Houses declared to be unlawful. As Rushworth 
says, the persons in the counties, acting by these 
opposite authorities, had many bickerings one with 
another. The King's proclamation given at York, 
20th June, 1642, informed ** all our loving subjects 
** of the lawfulness of our Commissions of Arra)', 
** issued into the several counties of our realm of 
*' England and dominion of Wales, and com- 
'* manding them to obey our commissions therein 

138 Cheshire in the great Civil War. 

*' named." Both Houses of Parliament issued, on 
the 1st July, 1642, a long '* declaration " to prove 
the illegality of the King's action. And according 
to Hallam, the King's Commission of Array, al- 
though not strictly conformable to law, was ** justi- 
** fiable, as the means of opposing the Parlia- 
** ment's ordinance for the militia, at least equally 
** illegal.*' It appears that during June, July, and 
August of that year, ** petitions " against the im- 
pending resort to arms were addressed to the King 
by the county palatine of Lancaster, and by other 
counties, and were all duly and separately acknow- 
ledged by his Majesty's order. Cheshire did not 
volunteer any such petition, but waited the course 
of events. 

On Monday, August 22nd, 1642, his Majesty left 
his forces before Coventry and, with some lords 
and others in company, rode to Leicester, where 
he dined at the Abbey, the Countess of Devonshire's 
house. After dinner, again took horse and rode to 
Nottingham, where was great preparation for 
setting up his standard that day. The standard 
was taken out of the castle and carried into the 
field, a little on the back side of the castle wall. 
The likeness of the standard was much of the 
fashion of the city streamers used at the Lord 
Mayor's Show, having about twenty supporters : 
on the top of it hangs a flag, the King's arms 
quartered with a hand pointing to the crown, which 
stands above with this motto, ** Give Caesar his 
** due." But efforts by men of light and leading 
to circumscribe the area of war still continued. 

In some counties, as in Yorkshire, Cheshire, and 
Lancashire, there was an endeavour to make an 
association of neutrality. Lord Fairfax, Mr. Bel- 
lasis, Sir William Savile, and others in Yorkshire 
sent the heads thereof on the 29th September, 
1642, to Parliament, but in vain. Parliament, by 

Cheshire in the great Civil War. 139 

a formal declaration in October, ordered that no 
such neutrality be observed. And so the eventful 
struggle proceeded. 

A rare and valuable collection of Civil War tracts 
relating to Cheshire, which has lately been secured 
for the Birkenhead Free Library, throws a good 
deal of light on the inner working of events con- 
nected with the county. They range from 1642 
to 1659. 

No. I is a folio broadsheet, printed in London by Edward 
Husbands and John Frank, and is dated 20 July, 1642, a 
month before Charles raised the Royal Standard at Notting- 
ham. It is a " Declaration of the Citizens and Inhabitants of 
" the City of Chester whose names are subscribed summoned to 
" appear before his Majesties Commissioners for the Array at the 
" Roodey within the liberties of the said city for their cleer 
" manifestation of their Allegiance to his Majesty, and duty to 
" his parliament," and appears to be a well-meant protest against 
the civil war into which the nation was drifting : pointing out that 
" in the Cordiall Union of his Majestie and his Parliament 
" consists the safety glory and the happiness of the Kingdom," 
&c. No names are in fact attached to the document ; but it was 
" delivered by the Citizens of Chester to His Majesties Commis- 
" sioners for the Writ of Array." 

No. 2 is the "Advice and Direction of Both Houses 
** of Parliament to Sir William Brereton and to the rest of the 
** Deputy Lieutenants for the County of Chester with orders of 
*' the Lords and Commons Assembled in Parliament for the 
** regulating of those Souldiers that are gon or shall goe under 
" the Command of His Excellency Robert Earle of Essex Lord 
" Generall for this Expedition," and was printed in London under 
date 19 August, 1642, by order of both Houses. Commencing 
with the argumentative preamble that the King, "Seduced by 
" Wicked Counsell intends to make War against the Parliament," 
it proceeds to give in six pages highly practical orders and instruc- 
tions both as to the discipline of the forces, and as to the action 
to be taken against the "Popish Recusants in Cheshire who did 
"not confine themselves to their dwellings according to the 
" Statute in that case provided," &c., &c. 

No. 3 is a brief order, printed in London, by order of the 
Lords and Commons assembled in Parliament, on the 2nd 
September, 1642, " for the Suppressing of Publike Stage Playes 
"throughout the Kingdome during these Calamitous Times." 

140 Cheshire in the great Civil War. 

It recites in quaint language that " Whereas publike sports doe 
" not well agree with Publike Calamities nor Publike Stage Playes 
" with Seasons of Humiliation this being an exercise of Sad and 
** pious Solemnity and the other being Spectacles of Pleasure too 
" commonly expressing lacivious mirth and levitie," ** It is there- 
"fore ordeined,*' &c., «*that Stage Playes shall cease and bee 
"forborne,'* &c. "Instead of which are recommended to the 
" people of this land the profitable and seasonable Considerations 
" of Repentance, Reconciliation and peace with God," &c., &c. 

No. 4 embodies two declarations of the Houses of Parlia- 
ment, — one concerning the release of certain Ministers in 
Cheshire, imprisoned for refusing to obey the illegal Commission 
of Array ; the other for the Appropriation of Delinquents* fines ; 
printed in London by order on the 9th September, 1642. The 
names of the Ministers are not given; but their discharge is 
ordered. Incidentally, as a postscript, the Lord General is re- 
quested to "take special care for the restraining and punishing 
" disorders in the Souldiers according to the custome of War " ; 
so complaints had evidently been made by the peaceable Cheshire 
folk as to the want of discipline in the Parliamentary forces 
stationed in their midst. 

No. 5. — The indecisive battle of Edge Hill — where, in fact, 
the moral advantage rested with the King — took place, it will be 
remembered, on the 23rd October, 1642, about six weeks after 
the issue of the above Parliamentary paper ; and our next is 
headed " Neutrality condemned by declaring the reasons why 
" the Deputy Lieutenants intrusted by the Parliament for 
" Cheshire cannot agree to the Treaty of Pacification made by 
" that County. And may serve to prevent the like in other 
"Counties." It was printed in London for Henry Overton, 
and " are to be sold at his shop in Pope's Head Alley, 
" December 6, 1642." It is a closely-printed pamphlet of 
eight pages, in the style so admirably travestied by Scott in his 
Peveril of the Peak and in Woodstock, The argument is difficult 
to follow. There is a good deal of reference to the Old Testa- 
ment as a matter of course, and the author was apparently proud 
of his acquaintance with dog Latin. A brief quotation or two 
v.'ill, however, no doubt, be sufficiently entertaining for this 
Society : — " Doe we not finde Abraham and Lot, Paul and Bar- 
" nabas, contending and divisions 'twixt the nearest relations 
" occasioned even by the Prince and Gospell of peace when in 
" the meantime we see Simeon and Levi. Fratres in malo — the 
" rulers taking councell. Sanballat and Tobiah conspiring to- 
" gether and the Jews unanimously crying out * Crucifiye,' and all 
" against our Saviour and his living temples. Peace therefore in 
" itselfe is like riches," &c., &c. " It is observable that things of 

Cheshire in the great Civil War. 141 

" the neuter gender are without life . . . bats are beasts when 
" they are upon the earth and birds when in the ayre, but these 
**nien are altogether unresolved how to name themselves: in a 
" time of peace they can be content like the planet Mercury even 
" to follow the motion of that starre to which they are conjoined, 
" but in dayes of triall this Proteus cannot hide himselfe under 
" the variety of shapes," &c., &c. " The well affected of this 
" country to the proceedings of Parliament being jealous of the 
" safety of their religion lawes and liberties and withall weary of 
** their taskmasters resolved to get up and be doing and to couch 
** no longer like Issachar betwixt their burdens. In number and 
" strength they presently exceed their adversaries which makes 
" their opposers first flie for refuge to Chester and being there for 
" policy to the Bishop's Palace at the desire no doubt of the 
" Popish party who conceived that what came from thence was 
" e cathedra and not capable of errour or miscarriage." . 
" No sooner had tlie new Governour taken possession of his place 
" but some of the people wondering to see another sun in their 
*• meridian were afraid it might portend some fatality to the 
** famous Citie which their Recorder once told me was niore 
** ancient than the mooneJ" Then follow eight articles ^ as they are 
called, advocating the ** absolute cessation of armes, all prisoners 
** on both sides to be released and the fortifications at Chester, 
** Namptwich, Northwich, Stopford, Knutsford, and any other 
** towne in Ciieshire lately made by either party to be speedily 
** demolished." It is further desired that a Joint Petition to His 
Majesty and both Houses of Parliament be presented with the 
renewed object of " putting an end to the great distractions and 
*' miseries fallen upon the Kingdom." Signed by Robert Kil- 
morre, William Marbury, Orlando Bridgeman, Henry Main waring. 
I find by Rush worth that Parliament alleged this "Agreement for 
** neutrality was made without due authority and prejudicial to 
** the public and declared against the same and set it aside 
** as they had done another before of the same nature in 
" Yorkshire." 

The two names which are coupled together in 
the next Tract are those of the two Cheshire gentle- 
men who come most prominently forward in these 
troubled times ; and I had better here give you the 
leading dates of their careers. Sir William Brere- 
ton, son of William Brereton, of Handforth, Che- 
shire, by Margaret, daughter and co-heiress of 
Richard Holland, of Denton, in this county (Lan- 
cashire\ was born in 1604, and was created 

142 Cheshire in the great Civil War. 

Baronet on the loth of March, 1626/7. The Diary 
of his travels on the Continent (Holland principally) 
was published by the Chetham Society in 1844, 
and is interesting reading. It shows a strong 
puritanical bias. The original diary, which it 
appears attracted the favourable attention of Sir 
Walter Scott, who was much interested in it, and 
urged its publication, was in the possession of the 
late Sir Philip Egerton, Bart., who lent it to the 
Chetham Society for publication. Sir William 
Brereton married Susanna, fourth daughter of Sir 
George Booth, of Dunham Massey, and was elected 
to represent Cheshire in 1627/8, and again in 
1639-40. On the first symptoms of civil war he 
took the lead in Cheshire against the King : and 
the Pamphlet No. 2, already mentioned, is ad- 
dressed to him as a Deputy-Lieutenant. He was 
appointed Commander-in-Chief of the forces in 
Cheshire and neighbouring counties to the south, 
and on the 28th January, 1642/3, defeated Sir 
Thomas Aston near Nantwich, which place he 
occupied, whilst ChcvSter was fortified by the 
Royalists. Brereton's personal popularity seems 
to have served him in good stead in obtaining in- 
formation from the country people ; and six weeks 
later, viz., on the 13th March, he again defeated 
Aston at Middlewich, as will appear by Tract No. 7. 
But after the arrival of the Irish troops, Brereton 
was himself worsted at the same place. In the 
summer of 1643 he went southward, and during 
his absence Nantwich, while held by Sir George 
Booth, was besieged by Lord Byron ; but with the 
assistance of Sir Thomas Fairfax, Brereton, on 
14th February, 1643/4, routed the besieging forces ; 
and in August he defeated Prince Rupert at Tarvin. 
Brereton's next important engagement was at Den- 
bigh, in November, 1645, when he defeated the 
King's forces under Sir William Vaughan. In the 

Cheshire in the great Civil War. 143 

following March he captured Lichfield, and in May 
Dudley Castle. After the conclusion of the war he 
received various appointments and emoluments. 
Amongst other properties which came into his 
possession, was the Archiepiscopal Palace of 
Croydon. In one old pamphlet he is described as 
** a notable man at a thanksgiving dinner, having 
'* terrible long teeth and a prodigious stomach, to 
'* turn the Archbishop's garden at Croydon into a 
'^ kitchen, also to swallow up that palace and lands 
** at a morsel.'' He died at Croydon after the 
Restoration, namely, on the 7th April, 1661, and 
his body was removed for burial in the Handforth 
chapel in Cheadle church : but there is a tradition 
that, in crossing a river, the coffin was swept away 
in a flood ; and as a matter of fact there is no entry 
of the burial in the Cheadle registers. 

The second of these Cheshire worthies, Sir 
George Booth, whose daughter married Brereton, 
was one of the first Baronets created by James I. 
He was born in 1566, and achieved the patriarchal 
age of 86 years, dying at Dunham Massey, 24th 
October, 1652. His pedigree is in Ormerod. He 
was a strong Presbyterian, and '* a person of the 
*' best fortune and interest in Cheshire." His more 
famous grandson I will refer to later on. 

No. 6 embodies the *• Instructions agreed upon by the Lords 
" and Commons" for Sir William Brereton, Baronet, one of the 
Members and for Sir George Booth, Knight and Baronet, and 
the rest of the Deputy Lieutenants of the City and County of 
Chester. It is printed in London on the nth January, 1642, 
by order. 

The anxiety of the Parliament leaders is plainly increasing as 
the area of the war was widening during the winter, whilst the 
King, from his base at Oxford, had a firm hold on the Midland 
Counties, and the arrival of the Queen in Yorkshire with arms 
from Holland had strengthened the Earl of Newcastle, who was 
threatening the Eastern Counties. It commences by urging the 
Deputy Lieutenants of Chester to "arme traine and put in readi- 
" nesse all and every the inhabitants of that County fit for the 

144 Cheshire in the great Civil War. 

** War as well trained Band as other Volunteers, both, horse and 
" foot," and to take ** special care that the ordinance concerning 
" the militia be put in execution," .... and to lead and 
conduct the same against all ** Forraigne forces that shall in 
" hostile manner invade the said Countie." . . . They are also 
given full power to " search and examine all suspicious persons and 
'* carriages and to seize upon all horses armes and ammunition, 
" money plate or other provisions whatsoever : and to suppress and 
" oppose all rebellion and commotion whatsoever within the said 
** County of Chester or in any other Counties in assotiation with 
** the said County of Chester." And as the instructions proceed 
they gain in strength of language, and the Deputy Lieutenants 
are ordered to ** kill and slay all such as shall by force oppose you 
" or any of you . . . and you shall pursue the said Traytors and 
" Rebels and their adherents in the said County of Chester" . . . 
" or in any other places into which they shall retire themselves." 
But to conciliate the weak-kneed there is a special instruction to 
declare unto all men " That it hath ever been and still shall be 
" the care and endeavour of the Parliament to provide for his 
" Majesties safety and that they do not nor never did know of 
"any evil intended towards His Majesties person," &c. They 
are further authorized to " fortifie the City Towne of Chester or 
** any other place of the said County in such manner and sort as 
" you shall think fit. Clemencie and favour'^ may be extended to 
any person who ** shall come in within ten days, excepting only 
" the Earle of Bristoll, the Earle of Cumberland, the Earle of 
** Newcastle, the Earle Rivers, Secretary Nicholas, Mr. Endymion 
" Porter, Mr. Edward Hide, the Duke of Richmond, the Earle 
" of Carnarvon, the Lord V. Newark, the Lord V. Falkland." 
Such is the gist of this important Parliamentary Paper. 

No. 7. — Two letters were ordered by the House of Commons 
to be printed, under date 24th March, 1642 : one was from "Alis- 
" bury," in Buckinghamshire, signed by Colonel Godwyn, Colonel 
Bulstrode, Colonel Hampden, and Thomas Ferrill, Esq., and 
related the appearance off that town of the King's forces from 
Oxford, under General Ruthin, Princes Rupert and Maurice, &c., 
and the apparent great relief of the Parliamentary forces, who 
were inferior in numbers, when the town was not attacked. The 
other letter was from Sir William Brereton, giving an account of 
a " Great Victory" on the 13th of March ** at a Town called Mid- 
" dlewich in Cheshire,** ... ** and took prisoners Col. Ellis, 
" Sargeant Major Gilner, Sir Edward Mosseley, ten Captans and 
" five hundred others." Sir Edward relates that he was at North- 
wich, which place he ** had begun to fortifie," and as the enemy 
" took the bouldnesse** to encamp themselves at Middlewich, he 
*• conceived this attempt of most dangerous consequence,** and 

Cheshire in the great Civil War. 145 

accordingly he sent out a party of horse to give them an alarm 
on the Saturday night, the 12th of March, but they were ordered 
not to attack, " they being very strong in foot and well armed, 
" and we had no foot at all then there." However, Sir William 
arranged to be joined by forces from Namptwich on the Monday 
morning ** at six of the clock," and so the joint attack was made, 
the troops from Namptwich entering one end of the town and 
Sir William's forces the other end. The prisoners named as cap- 
tured were all taken in the church and steeple, to which they had 
betaken themselves; and Sir William triumphantly records that it 
was "the most compleat victory and the largest number of 
" prisoners taken since the beginning of this unnaturall war." 

No. 8 is **An addition to the Relation of some passages 
" about the Englis-Irish Army before they came to the siege 
** at Namptwich wherein are set down the occurrences at 
" Harwarden Castle. Done for the satisfaction of some gentle- 
" men and upon their request. Published by Authority in Lon- 
** don and Printed for Robert Bostocke dwelling at the signe of the 
" Kings Head in Paul's Church Yard 1643" ; but no more precise 
date is given. A Preface adddressed to the Commanders, Mini- 
sters and Inhabitants of Namptwich is signed " your servant to 
** pray and doe for you to his power P.J.*' It recites the landing 
at Mostyn of the English-Irish army, who from thence marched 
up to Hawarden ; Major-General Sir Thomas Middleton in 
command of the Parliamentary Forces in North Wales being in 
possession of •* Holt and Wrexam with all the Countries of Den- 
" bighshire and Flint neer about those places." And then it gives 
copies of the summons to surrender Harwarden Castle by Sir 
Michael Morley and Colonel Wilson, dated 22nd November, 
^643 — with a further summons by Lord Capell, who came in the 
following day with additional forces, with the threat that "no 
" quarter would be given if you shal hold out untill by force or 
" other meanes I gain the same." The replies are unsigned, and 
the first boldly states "Whatever old wives may tell you, our 
"provisions will outreach your patience of a siege," &c. ; and 
the second even more emphatically says " All this adoe might be 
" spared ; our greatest want will be of inke and paper to answer 
" your demands if you multiply paries ; if you continue the siedge 
" we shall drive that fancy of our necessities out of your head. 
" . . . Sir, spare your paper and use your weapons and we will 
" use ours and make good the Castle were your force ten times 
" more than they are." Then followed what Rushworth calls an 
"absurd letter" from Captain Sandford, without date, and ad- 
dressed "To the officer commanding in chiefe at Harden Castle 
" and his Consorts there." It commences — " I presume you very 
" well know or have heard of my condition and disposition, and 

I46 Cheshire in the great Civil War:. 

" that I neither give nor take quarter. I am now with my fire- 
** locks (who never yet neglected opportunity to correct rebels) 
^' ready to use you as I have done the Irish, but loath I am to 
" spill my countrymen's blood wherefore by these I advise you 
" . . . to deliver the Castle into my hands for his Majestie's 
" use. . . • I vow all hope of reliefe is taken from you and 
** our intents are, not to starve you, but to batter and storme you, 
*' and then hang you all, and follow the rest of that Rebell crew. 
" I am now no bread and cheese rogue, but as ever a Royalist, 
^* and will ever be whilst I can write or name, Thomas Sandford" 
— all in the best Bombastes Furioso vein. This letter was en- 
dorsed with the comment — **This we counted unworthy any 
" other answer than laughter and contempt." But it appeared 
the Castle did eventually surrender to Sir Michael Ernly with 
fair quarter for the lives of the garrison, and "a safe convoy to 
" Namptwich or Wem or any other garrison within two days* 
** march." Captain Thomas Sandford, I find, was killed before 
Nantwich on the i8th of January, 1643/4, and his body was 
removed to Chester and buried in the Cathedral. — See Burghalls 
Memorials^ Record Society, 1889. 

No. 9 is entitled "The True Informer containing a collec- 
" tion of the most special and observable passages which have 
" been informed from several parts of his Majestie's Dominions 
" from Saturday January 6 to Saturday January 13, 1643." Amongst 
them is a " Resolution from Cheshire of Sir \V. Brereton's late 
"successes against the Cavaliers and taking 900 of the Irish 
"forces prisoners": and it recites how, on Friday, January 12, 
" Colonel Ashton was marching from Lancashire with his forces 
" towards Middlewich, when Lord Biron sent forth a party from 
" Chester, consisting of 3000 foot and 600 Horse — and they 
" treacherously surprized Colonel Ashton's Regiment and tooke 
** 4 or 5 of his Companies . . . but the rest escaped away." 
" The alarum of this skirmish " being brought to Sir William 
Brereton, he drew forth his forces from Namptwich, meeting the 
Irish forces and routing them, and taking 900 prisoners . . . 
so that it is hoped that when he joins Sir Thomas Fairfax's forces 
he will be able to "stop the current of the outrageous proceedings 
"of the Irish and English Cavahers." The rest of this Tract 
recites proceedings of the Parliamentarians at Arundel, Bristol, 
London, and a relation from Rotterdam of the doings of their 
ships at Brill. 

No. 10 is " Magnalia Dei " : A Relation of some of the 
many remarkable passages in Cheshire before the Siege of 
Namptwich, printed in London by Robert Bostock, 1644, at the 
fequest of " I'ho Middleton, Gilbert Millington, Will Ashurst," 
y rider date 3. Febr. 1643. These detail the relief of Namptwich 

Cheshire in the great Civil War. 147 

by Sir Thomas Fairfax and Sir Win. Brereton, and the defeat of 
Lord Byron, whose army in great part escaped to Chester. 
Amongst the prisoners taken were Major-General Gibson, Sir 
Michael Ernly, Sir Richard Fleetwood, Colonel Monk (after- 
wards Duke of Albemarle), Colonel Warren, Lieut. -Col. Gibbs, 
Major Hamond ; and slain were Lieut.-Col. Vane and Lieut.-Col. 
Boulton; and amongst the further taken are noted ** Sir Ralph 
''Done, Master Shurlock Chaplane to a Regiment, 120 women 
*' many whereof had long knives, 1500 common souldiers, 20 
''carriages and rich plunder.'' And a postscript mentions the 
defeat given by Colonel Massey to the enemy at Skepston, January 
24, 1643, when were taken prisoners "Sir Henry Talbot, 3 cap- 
" tains, 3 lieutenants, 3 Irish Reformadoes . . . and 60 common 
" souldiers. Also there was taken a great barge with great stores 
" of sack and other wines ... by a friggot which was man'd 
" by the souldiers of Colonell Massey." 

No. 1 1 consists of the Mercurius Aulicus for the week ending 
loth February, 1643, "communicating the intelligence and 
'•affaires of the Court to the rest of the Kingdom." A page 
of this news sheet — the predecessor of our present daily 
newspapers — measures 7 inches by 5 inches, and there are 
eight pages. Under date of the sth there is given copy of a 
warrant by " Jecamiah Abercromiy," sent from Hilsden in Buck- 
inghamshire, " to the Constable of Brackley and other the 
" inhabitants," on which the Mercurius comments that Abercromiy 
will plunder ** as compleatly as Sir William Brereton's Deputy 
" Rebells did the Lord Cholmondley's house (till at last they were 
" beaten thence), where they not onely pillaged whatever was in 
" the house, but most maliciously puird downe the walls, spoyled 
" all the fruit trees, and cut down the very timber of the Ban- 
" quetting house to bume, though plenty of good wood lay in the 
" yard, and then (to shew they were the worst of Rebells) they 
" utterly spoiled that excellent garden, which cost the noble owner 
" many a large summe, and never left till they had made up their 
" basenesse in pulling down and spoyling His Lordship's Salt 
" Workes ; for which the country will hereafter curse them as 
" Rebells that devote themselves to mischiefe the publicke as well 
" as particular persons." On the 6th it is recorded that Captain 
Steele, the Parliamentarian commander at Beeston Castle, and 
who surrendered that stronghold to the King's forces, was after- 
wards taken at Namptwich, accused of having betrayed the castle, 
and there shot to death " last week " ; but not before, as is 
stated, he had " confessed many pretty particulars belonging to 
" his profession.'* 

Full particulars of Steele's execution are given in the Record 
Society's volume for 1889, pages 117, 118; and Earw'aker's 

L 2 

148 Cheshire in the great Civil War. 

History of Sandbachy pages 17-20, contains a pedigree of his 
family. There are four more pages of the Mercurius dated 9th 
and loth May, 1645, giving an interesting letter from the un- 
fortunate Montrose, written on the 20th of April, and brought 
by express from Scotland, but it bears no direct reference to 
Cheshire matters. 

No, 12 is a Parliamentary paper, printed by order of the 
House of Commons, 29 September, 1645, ^'^^ entitled ** The 
** King's Forces totally Routed by the Parliament's Army, 
" under the command of Major Generall Poyntz, and Cheshire 
" Forces on Roulton Heath within two miles of Chester 
" Sept. 24." It consists firstly of a letter addressed to Speaker 
Lenthall by *' G. Boolhe, P. Mainwaringe, and Rog. Wilbraham," 
from ** Chester suburbs Sep. 25 at 3 post meridiem," enclosing, 
secondly, an account of the great fight, written out by the Chap- 
lain, as the Commanders themselves had ** such earnest businesse 
** upon us" they had not time to write full particulars themselves. 
To this is appended a list of prisoners taken. The incidents of 
this battle are so well known that I need only note, as a matter 
of historical accuracy, that the Chaplain in his haste mentions 
the 20th of September as " Saturday morning," and on the next 
page he says the King was at Chirk Castle on '•^Monday 
"Sept. 21." 

It is curious that, after such a disastrous over- 
throw of the King's forces and his flight to Newark 
and Oxford, and after the surrender of Beeston 
Castle on the i6th of November, 1645, the garrison 
having had to eat cats and such small deer during 
the continuous siege of eighteen weeks, Chester 
was able to hold out for nearly three months longer. 
Lord Byron being buoyed up with continued hopes 
of relief from Ireland. At last, however, commu- 
nications were opened between the two commanders 
at the end of January, 1645/6, and finally the city 
was delivered up on the 3rd of February, under 
elaborate conditions, carefully detailed in eighteen 
long articles, signed by twelve commissioners, 
authorized by Lord Byron. Colonel Jones was 
left Governor for the Parliament. Holt, Hawarden, 
and Ruthin Castle were all surrendered not long 

Cheshire in the great Civil War. 14$ 

That the allusions in the next two tracts may be 
followed more clearly, it is necessary to point out 
that it was in the years between 1645 and 1659 that 
so much had happened in the making of England : 
which had witnessed the conquest of the West by 
Fairfax, the defeat of Montrose, the delivery of 
Charles by the Scots to the English Commissioners, 
his flight to the Isle of Wight, his trial and execu- 
tion, the period of the Commonwealth, with the 
brilliant foreign policy of Cromwell, his death, the 
short protectorate of his incapable son Richard, 
the deposition of the latter on the 22nd of April, 

1659, and the restoration of the Rump of the old 
Parliament, with Lenthal still Speaker. 

It was midway during this period, viz., in 1652, 
that the old Sir George Booth had been gathered 
to his fathers, and was succeeded by his grandson 
in the baronetcy ; and this second Sir George Booth 
was 37 years of age in 1659. He took an active 
part in the abortive Cheshire rising this year, being 
one of the Cromwellian malcontents, called the 
New Royalists, who, with the Cavaliers, got up a 
plot for the restoration of Charles II. After the 
seizure of Chester by Lord Derby, Col. Egerton, 
and Booth, he, whilst on his way to York, was 
attacked by Lambert, and defeated near Nantwich, 
Booth escaping disguised in female attire ; but his 
disguise being penetrated by an innkeeper at New- 
port Pagnell, he was apprehended and conveyed to 
the Tower. There is a pamphlet in the British 
Museum giving a '* True narrative of the manner 
** of taking of Mr. George Booth on Tuesday night 
**last, being disguised in woman's apparel.'' 

At the restoration. Booth was the first of the 
twelve members to carry to King Charles, in May, 

1660, the reply of the Commons to His Majesty's 
Declarations. He received ;f 10,000 as a reward 
for his services, and with five others was raised to 

150 Ch^hire in the great Civil War, 

the peerage at the King's coronation, under the 
title of Baron Delamer. He was also appointed 
Custos Rotulorum of Cheshire, and survived until 
•1684, when he died at Dunham Massey, and was 
buried at Bowdon in the family vault. 

Before taking up the next pamphlet, of consider- 
ably later date, I may first mention that 1647 was 
the year when Chester, according to Rushworth, 
was visited severely by the plague — *' in every 
** parish and part thereof, very few families being 
** clear." And Parliament ordered that ** whereas 
** the county of Chester is exceedingly impoverished 
** by the late war whereby they are disabled for 
*' affording them any considerable relief,'' it is 
ordered that the respective ministers of every parish 
of London and Westminster, within the counties 
of Chester, and ten other southern and eastern 
counties, do upon the next Lord's Day publish the 
distressed condition of the poor inhabitants of the 
said city of Chester, and earnestly move their 
people to contribute to so charitable a work for the 
relief of the poor distressed inhabitants of Chester. 
We now come to 

No. 13, which was printed in London in 1659. It is entitled 
** One and twenty Chester Queries or Occasional Scruples reflecting 
** upon late affairs in Cheshire by Officers and Souldiers under 
** Lord Lambert,'' and is placed with an undated ** Dialogue 
** between Sir George Booth and Sir John Presbyter at their 
** meeting near Chester.*' 

Its characteristic seventeenth century style is shewn 
by the following specimen queries, viz. : — 


I. — Whether a man can ever be sure of his meat before he have 
it in his mouth ? 

a. — ^Whether the late Insurrection in Cheshire was not like Hog- 
. ; shearing, where there is^a great cry smd little wopl ? ... 

Cheshire in the great Civil War. 15 1 

3. — Whether he that penn'd the first Declaration for a Free Par- 
liament were a Cavalier, a Jesuit, or a Fifth-Monarchy 
man ? And whosoever 'twas, whether he had not better 
never have barked, than not have bitten ? 

7. — Whether the Bumpkins lost anything by lining the hedges 
with bits of Cheese, and running home to fall upon whole 
ones ? it being very shroudly suspected, that their Wives 
bid them hye home again quickly when they went to field. 

8. — Whether Sir George Booth*s valour in the late Engagement 
near Warrington, or his Petticoats at Newport Pagnell, 
will make him seem most like a Woman in the eyes of the 
next Generation ? And in troth that's a difficult question. 

9. — ^Whether a man may not satisfie his conscience better, by 
being in a sojourning condition at Brussels, unattended, 
and unregarded, then in Westminster Hall with a great 
deal of attendance before an High-Court of Justice? 

II. — Whether it would not be prudently done of the Parliament 
for the better un-deceiving of posterity, to make an Act 
to make void, and of none effect, the old Proverbial 
speech, Cheshire chief of men? 

12. — Whether Richard Lord Protector (that was) and his Brother 
Harry, would not have made two stout Commanders in 
Sir George's flying Army ? 

16. — Whether John Canne did not see his brother Mercury to 
accommodate him with those four Latin words which he 
made use of in his Newsbook, (viz.) Bellum Episcopate 
and Bellum Presbyteriate ? And if he did so, what such 
a scantling of the language of the beast might stand him 

18. — Whether my Lord Lambert desir'd that Chirk Castle, Bever 
Castle, etc., should be defaced and demolished, to prevent 
habour for a foreign Invador, or for fear of another Pres- 
byterian Riot? 

19. — Whether 'twould not be well done of the State to Fitz Payne 
Fisher a stipend for his encouragement to write as good a 
Poem on the fight at Nantwich, as he did on the battle of 
Naisby ? wherein it is referred to their prudence to appoint 
him that he treat elegantly & directly of these subjects 
following. That he do first exactly describe the Situation 
of the whole Country and its Commodities, as Cheese, 

20. — ^Whether Mr. Peters had not rather the Funeral Sermon 
that was made upon him (being yet alive) should be in 
jeaisti than in good earnest. 

152 Cheshire in the great Civil War. 

An Advertisement. 

Courteous Reader, — Take notice there is a prophecy of the 
late overthrow of Chester lately printed since the businesse was 
done, by Mr. \V. Lilly, Astrol. wherein he gives you a reason why 
Cheshire Cheese sweats so mucii here of late, being frightened 
by the Parliament's Army, together with several other things 
worth buying and reading if a man could tell where to have urn. 
— Finis. 

Booth, you will observe, comes in for ridicule by 
the direct mention, in queries 8 and 12, of his recent 
adventures in disguise, and by the apparent refer- 
ence, in query 13, to his flight after defeat by 
Lambert at Nantwich. John Canne is the Puritan 
divine, printer, and author, who spent a good deal 
of his life in Amsterdam ; but about the date of 
this pamphlet was resident in London. He died 
about eight years later in Amsterdam. Payne 
Fisher, the poet, began his political life as a Roy- 
alist, abandoned the sinking ship after the battle of 
Marston Moor, and ratted again to the rising sun at 
the Restoration ; but his character was not estim- 
able. He never recovered the Royal favour, and he 
died in great poverty in a coff"ee-house in the Old 
Bailey in 1693, and was buried in St. Sepulchre's. 

According to the final advertisement, the ** over- 
** throw of Chester,*' as it is called, was prophesied 
by the famous Lilly, the astrologer, whose life and 
curious adventures offer attraction to the student of 
the by-paths of history. 

No. 14 is printed by Thomas Newcombe in Thames Street, 
1659, and consists of the second and third letters from the 
Lord Lambert, dated at Chester August 21st, addressed, the 
one to the Speaker of the Parliament, and the other to the 
Lord President, describing the surrender of Chester, with names 
of the principal persons taken prisoners ; and is supplemented by 
a letter from Major Waring, Governor of Shrewsbury, of the same 
date. These are mentioned in Ormerod ; and the events therein 
chronicled are the defeat of Booth by Lambert at Winnington 
Bridge on the 19th of August, consequent on which the gates of 
Chester were opened to the Parliamentarians a second time. But 

Cheshire in the great Civil War. 153 

I notice in Lambert's letter to the Speaker that he mentions, "Upon 
" our march thither I met with two inhabitants from Leverpoole, 
" and one Mr. Brown, who had formerly been in your service, who 
''informed me the town hath continued very faithful to your 
** service," &c., &c. And after stating the steps he had taken to 
" reduce that place," viz., Liverpool, he adds, *' It is the earnest 
** desire of those persons that the Castle mny be demolished, 
" which I humbly conceive may be for your service, and pray 
** your directions therein." And the Act was accordingly passed 
in that year for demolishing the castle, in fulfilment of Lambert's 

No. 15, and last, is a ** Perfect Diurnal, or the Daily Pro- 
*' ceedings in Parliament," printed by the same Thomas Newcomb 
as above, "by order of the House, 1660." The only matter 
affecting Cheshire in the proceedings is that under date 12 March, 
1659, it is ordered that "the Examinaiion of Sir George Booth, 
" his lady and servants be taken off the file and delivered to the 
"said Sir George Booth." Coming events were casting their 
shadows before. The strong will and iron hand of Cromwell no 
longer controlled the destinies of England, and the reaction 
against the rule of the Puritans was close at hand. 

As I mentioned in my introductory remarks, I 
had the opportunity, during the past few days, of 
going carefully through nine volumes, together 370 
pieces, of *' Rare Tracts,'' collected by the late 
Bishop Walker, of Glasgow, and now in private 
hands at Oxford. They throw a flood of light 
upon many important incidents during the Civil 
Wars, but they do not specially affect Cheshire 
men or Cheshire localities. I did not therefore 
make any extracts for submission to you ; but in 
another volume in the same library, printed in 
London in 1644, and called on its title page, 
Jehovah Jireh — God tn the Mount, or England's 
Parliamentarie Chronicle, by John Vicars, I find 
some curious and interesting references to Cheshire, 
one or two of which I will quote, inasmuch as I 
understand the book in a perfect state is now 
exceedingly scarce. 

With regard to the fighting at Nantwich in 
February, 1643/4, Brereton, who is called ** That 

154 Cheshire in the great Civil War. 

** noble, religious, and generous gentleman . • . - 
" that most religious and pious patriot of their 
*' countrie .... that most famous and success- 
'* full pious patriot," &c., is highly eulogised for 
his generalship. The " well affected in the county 
of Chester" are described as being ''miserably 
*' infected and infested by the Commissions of 
" Array, whereof Sir Thomas Aston and Sir Vin- 
** cent Corbet were two principal and most active 
" instruments." Aston, in his attack upon the 
town, was five times repelled " most valiantly," 
the defenders only losing one man, '' who was slain 
** by a poysoned bullet." Then on falling back he, 
with 400 men, fell upon Brereton, who ''stood in 
" battalion " with only 150. Sir Thomas, it is 
stated, " let flie at him, but without success." 
Brereton discharged his drakes, which caused a 
panic amongst the Cavaliers, who cried out, " Let 
" us flie, for they have great pieces of ordnance " ; 
and after details of hand to hand encounters with 
sword and battle axes, it is said, "All the work that 
" remained was the taking of prisoners, horses, 
" and armes." Aston fled on foot for three miles, 
and then got a horse on which he rode to Whit- 
church. Corbet " was so put to it that he was 
" fain to crawl on all fours, lest he should be dis- 
" covered, and then ran away on foot also, and bare 
" headed, to a place called Ower, six miles." .... 
One of the victorious party, with a strong stick or 
cudgel only, disarmed three men and took them 
prisoners, and two others also whom he met with, 
but two of them slipt away, whom he durst not pur- 
sue, lest he should have lost the other three ! This 
must indeed have been a very redoubtable Ironside. 
The cudgel must surely have been a remarkable 
one ; or perhaps the hero of the episode in his 
account had taken a hint from Falstaff*! This 
account goes on to say that Aston, after some days, 

Cheshire, in the great Civil War. 155 

returned to Chester with about fifty or sixty horse, 
and there he was ** congratulated on this his great 
victory over Sir William '' (Brereton). The Parlia- 
mentarians, however, had a ** solemn day of 
** thanksgiving, and afterwards fell to the further 
** managing of the weighty affairs of that county 
** wherein the Lord gave us singular good successes' 
Rupert was evidently greatly dreaded by the 
Parliament men. He is generally called in this 
book *' Prince Robber/' but sometimes Prince 
*' Plunderer '' ; and his endeavours to strengthen 
his forces by compulsory enlistment are denounced 
in language brightened by a considerable proportion 
of forcible adjective. And it is asserted that the 

* King's eye was more fastened to fixe and aug- 
' ment his forces in this poore County Palatine 

* of Chester than on any other county in the king- 

* dome Witness his first sending thither 

* that cow stealer, the unsuccessful atheisticall 
' Lord Capel, who was soon beaten thence.'' . • . 

* Then the bloody Lord Byron, beaten as afore- 
' said ; and after all these pilfering, Prince Robber 

* himself discomfitted, as you have heard by the 

* most valiant Colonel Mitton. Thus was this 
' county at last brought into a more quiet and 
' stable condition." 

The valiant performances of Brereton's forces 
in the fight at Tarvin in August, 1644, are 
eulogised ; and one John Cooper, a corporal in his 
troop, is immortalized by the recital how that he, 
** Seeing a most brave horse which the enemy could 
'* not get into the church in Tarvin town (where 
" the fight was very hot and furious), but was fain 
** to bee held by the bridle by one of the enemies 
'* under the church wall, this brave spirited corporal 
** adventured to fetch the horse away, but they fired 
'* so fast out of the church upon him that hee was 
** forced twice to retreat, but hee adventured the 

156 Cheshire in the great Civil War. 

** third time, pistolled the enemy, and so brought 
** away the horse, which was valued to be worth at 
** least fourscore pounds/' .... 

There is a picturesque account of the capture 
of the city of Chester in September, 1645 ; but it 
is too long to quote more than the concluding 
paragraph, showing the North Gate was the last 
portion of the fortifications to hold out. The 
writer says, ** One part of the enemie fled into 

* Saint Warburge Minster, some at the East Gate 

* and some at New Gate. We have gained all 

* between the Rack and the gate going into St. 

* Warburge. As for the North Gate, we doubt 

* not but we shall soone determine that. We have 

* also taken the Barn and the inner workes there, 

* together with the Maior of the Citie's house, 

* where we took his Sword and his Mace, which 

* it seemed for haste to flie into the city he had 

* left behinde him." 

To the student of history these Civil War Tracts 
are interesting from another point of view also : 
that of the growing influence of public opinion on 
matters political. It never occurred to the arbitrary 
Tudors to appeal to the opinions of their subjects, 
nor could they easily have done so, owing to difii- 
cuUies of printing and circulation. But in these 
tracts we see the precursors of those terrible pamph- 
lets which fifty years later were, in Swift's polished 
and forcible language, such powerful engines in 
support of ministries in Queen Anne's time. They 
were perhaps the highest development of the tract 
or pamphlet proper : after a while came the mighty 
quarterlies ; while now the '* leaders" of the London 
dailies focus public opinion and, to such a large 
extent, shape public policy. Tracts have had their 
day, and are now mere historical relics. 

By the Rev. William War burton, 

Vicar of the Parish. 
Read 24lh January and 7lh February, 1895. 

VILLAGE communities date back in docu- 
mentary evidence to the sixth century, but 
by the aid of comparative custom we can look 
back much further still. When a primitive com- 
munity became a village, a stone was set up.* 
This stone was the meeting-place of the early 
** folkmoot,*' or village parliament, which was 
presided over by the head of the little clan or 
tribe. Hereditary at first, this office became 
elective. The assembly over which he presided 
proclaimed their will by shouting ** Yea, yea,'' or 
** Nay, nay," to the subject upon which they were 
called to decide. They decided how many sheep, 
&c., should be pastured by the different burgesses 
{i.e., all who had a burgage or tenement in the 
village) upon the common pasture ground, and all 
other matters relating to individual rights of the 
villagers. These folkmoots were the origin of a 
number of customs and superstitions that have 
been handed down to us. 

There is evidence that when the Celts invaded 
this country they found it already inhabited. The 
pre- Aryan race they found in possession worshipped 

X Gomme's Village Community ^ p. 21 3. 

158 Notes on Altcar Parish. 

ancestral spirits, of which the hearthplace was 
essentially the shrine and the altar.* The fire was 
never allowed to go out ; the ritual attendant upon 
birth, marriage, and burial centred round the 
sacred fire ; and offerings to the ancestral god 
at the hearth were made from the food of the 
household.^ '* Christianity has rooted out the old 
*• hearth religion from its place, and has set it 
** floating amidst popular superstitions, which the 
** people have preserved wherever Christianity has 
'* not deeply penetrated." * Thus, from this ancient 
hearth cult, with its ever-burning fire, has come 
down the superstition, held in some places, that it 
is unlucky to allow the fire to go out on the last 
night of the year, or to give a light from the fire 
to one not of the household on New Year's Day, 
or for the New Year to be ** brought in " by anyone 
having red hair. 

When the Celts established themselves in this 
country their superstitious fears led them to dread 
the anger of the local spirits,^ and this enabled the 
non-Aryan priests, who were already in the land, 
to continue their rehgious leadership, for it has 
been shown that Druidism was the survival of the 
old hearth-worship of the pre-historic and non- 
Aryan aborigines. 

The meetings of the old village folkmoots were 
held in the open air, as the result of a superstition 
which came down from the times when ** household 

« lind, p. 129. 

S Dr. Hearn, as quoted in Gomme's Folklore Relics of Early Village Life^ 
gives the following description of this ancient religion :—'* The primitive 
" religion was domestic. This domestic religion was composed of two closely 
" related parts, — the worship of deceased ancestors and the worship of the 
*' hearth. The deceased ancestor, or his ashes, was either actually buried or 
"assumed to be buried beneath the hearth. Here the spirit was supposed to 
'* dwell, and here it received the daily offerings, which were its rightful dues, 
^* and which were essential to its happiness." 

4 Gomme's Folklore Relics of Early Village Life, 

5 Gomme's Villagje .Community ^^^.isy^. 

Notes on A Hear Parish. 159 

*' gods occupied the place of Christianity, and 
'* superstitious fears the place of morality." Beda 
tells us why Ethelbert of Kent met Augustine and 
his companions in the open air. '* He had taken 
** the precaution that they should not come to him 
** in any house, lest, according to an ancient 
** superstition, they practised magical arts upon 
*' him, and so got the better of him." 

From the old folkmoots has descended the 
custom of choosing a mock mayor, at such times 
as the rushbearing, in the Altcar history of some 
years ago. 

The stone marking the site of the newly esta- 
blished village was usually planted under some 
tree, or by some river side, and to it the head man 
of the village made ^n offering once a year.^ Much 
later on, when the Saxons had established them- 
selves, and had become Christians, the cross took 
the place of the rude unchiselled stone, and 
although in Altcar all trace of the original stone 
has been lost in the distant prehistoric past, we 
still have the base of the old cross ; round which, 
possibly, the Altcar folkmoots of centuries ago 
used to meet, whence all village proclamations 
were made, and beneath which the clergy from the 
monasteries held their open-air services before 
parishes were in existence. 

The Roman occupation of England had little 
effect upon the village life of such places as Altcar. 
Saxon clans came over after the Romans left, and 
drove away or exterminated the Celts, and made 
their clearings in the woods of this neighbourhood ; 

London stone is still preserved. Holinshed tells us that when Cade, in 
1450, forced his way into London, he first of all proceeded to the London 
stone, and having struck his sword upon it, said, *' Now is Mortimer (/.^., Cade) 
*Mord of the city." When the old village stone gave way to the cross, we 
find a custom that explains this. On the mayor's da^ at Movey Tracy the 
mayor used to ride round the stone cross, and strike it with a stick. This 
significant action proclaimed the authority of the mayor of Bovey.— Gomme's 
Village Community ^ p< 218 

i6o Notes on Altcar Parish. 

and these forest clearings they called fields, from 
'* feld," where trees have been felled. Then came 
the Danes, establishing other villages, and con- 
stantly at feud with the neighbouring Saxon 
villages, and forcing their way into them when 
needing room for growth ; and the feuds between 
the fishermen of Formby and the agriculturists of 
Altcar, to which I shall hereafter allude, were the 
survival of these feuds — locality having taken the 
place of clanship, for old customs die hard. 

It was a common feature of English lands^ that 
little odds and ends of unused lands were left, and 
known as ** No-man's-land,'' ** Any-man's-land," 
** Jack's Land," or the ** Gudeman's Croft." These 
portions were left, when the land was first settled, 
as a refuge for the sylvan deities whom the clearing 
might have disturbed. Afterwards, like Cloutie's 
Croft, in Scotland, they were regarded as portions 
set aside as a propitiatory gift to the Devil, and it 
was considered highly dangerous to break up such 
land for tillage. The fear of his satanic majesty 
gradually became dim, the villagers becoming 
bolder, because it was found that the presumed 
owner made no visible efforts to maintain his 

Each country district supplied its own food, and 
in many cases its own clothing, even to the latter 
part of last century. ** Coarse flax sown in the 
** ground was manufactured into shirts and other 
" linens by the farmers' wives and daughters during 
** the long winter evenings, and the farmer himself 
** was clothed from the fleece of his own flock." 
We have a relic of this kind of industry in the four 
fields called ** Hemp Yard" in Altcar. We have 
also several ** Salt Fields," where the sea- water 
probably overflowed the land at high tide, and 

7 Gomme's Village Community ^ p. 114. 

Notes on A It car Parish. i6i 

whence salt was obtained by evaporation for the 
supply of the village. 

Every village, again, being isolated and self- 
dependent, had its various tradesmen, to whom 
were assigned portions of land.* Of this we are 
reminded by ** Smithy Brow Meadow," ** Joins 
(probably Joiner's) Land," " Cobbler's Acre," 
'' Clerk's Meadow," '' Farrer's Marsh," '' Doctor's 
Yard," and ** Doctor's Lane." Then some of the 
names of the fields in Altcar have come down to 
us from the ancient land tenure.^ We have '* Long 
Acre," one of those long arable strips of land into 
which the cultivated lands of the early village 
community were divided. The plough was driven 
a furlong (furrowlong) in a straight line, and then 
returned, four of these furrows making an acre. 
Long Acre, in London, no doubt received its name 
from its early Teutonic settlers, when the land was 
as yet unbuilt upon. 

We have evidence of the care for the poor in 
** Great Poor Acre." As legacies from the monks 
of Merivale, who obtained possession of the town- 
ship in the early part of the thirteenth century, we 
have '' Great Priest Carr," '' Little Priest Carr," 
two ** Priest Meadows," one ** Parson's Meadow," 
and no less than nineteen ** Monk's Carrs," besides 
a ** Monk's Carr Lane " and a ** Lady Carr Lane." 
We have also a small plot called ** God's Croft." 
My first impression was that this might have been 
an ancient Danish burial ground, as it is near the 
church ; and the early Saxons and Danes, when 
christianized, erected their crosses and afterwards 
built their churches near their old heathen burial 
grounds. I have had a trench, however, dug 
across it, but have not been able to discover any 

8 Ditchfield's English Villages, p. 42. 

9 Gomme's Village Community^ p. 227, also DitchBeld's English Villages 
p. 81. 


• • • . 

i62 Notes on Altcar Parish. 

indication of a burial ground. Reminding us of 
the time when swineherds' cottages dotted the 
marshy ground in the neighbourhood of the once 
extensive Altcar forests, we have *' Swine Croft," 
'' Swine Park," '' Cowards' (cowherds') Field," and 
*' Hogshill." Telling us of the time when the 
words ** carucate " and ** ploughgate " came into 
existence, and when each man was expected td 
keep one or more oxen towards the team of eight 
required to draw the village plough, we have 
'* Oxen-house Field," and two ** Ox Leasowes"; 
and showing how abundant were once the rushes 
for the rushbearings, we have no less than eleven 
Rushy Fields, Carrs, Heys, or Lanes. 

While speaking of fields, I may add that although 
so high an authority as Baines derives the name 
of Altcar from an Anglo-Saxon word meaning 
** the turn," thus meaning the village at the curve 
of the river Alt, there seems to be a more probable 
etymology. There is no curve of the Alt which 
was likely to give rise to the name. The low 
districts of the parish, however, which have been 
for centuries and still are subject to floods, are 
called **the carrs." The word **carr" occurs in 
the names of fields and roads 162 times. From 
Bailey's Dictionary (1742, tenth edition), we learn 
that ** carre " meant ** woody, moist, or boggy 
** ground, or a wood in a boggy place," which 
would be a good description of the extensive carrs. 
These carrs have probably given the parish its 

The names of the fields, again, as we might 
expect, bear testimony to the very muddy state of 
the land in the past, for there are seven fields 
bearing the names oiF ** Slutch Croft," ** Slutch 
Hey," and ** Slutch Ground," and the old parish 
accounts have much to say about the carting of 
slutch. And bearing testimony to the quantity of 

Notes on A Hear Parish. 163 

land that for centuries lay uncultivated, we have 
no less than 209 pieces called ** doles/' i.e.^ void 
spaces left in tillage. The name of one of the old 
occupation roads also indicates where stood the 
old manor house, and it is where we should have 
expected it to be. The road is called, ** Road to 
the demesne carrs," and leads to the lowlands 
called carrs from the old Hill House. Some parts 
of the farm house are very ancient, with heavy 
oak beams, wide walls, and a disregard of the 
economy of space which suggests a manor house. 
The demesne was the ** manor house and lands 
** near, which the lord kept in his own hands for 
** his own purposes. '* The demesne carrs were the 
lowlands he kept as part of the demesne. And 
considering the once marshy nature of most of the 
ground in the township, the elevated position of 
Hill House would seem a very desirable site for 
thq manor house. On the oldest part of the 
building is the inscription — 

but there is little doubt that the building erected in 
1673 was placed upon the site of a manor house 
built some centuries earlier. 

From the Croxteth muniments we learn that 
' In the 22nd Elizabeth (1580) Richard Molyneux 

* of Sefton let for the term of their natural lives to 

* Richard Radcliffe of the parish of Altcar, co. 

* Lane, gent., and to Richard Radcliffe, his son, 

* begotten upon the body of Bridget, late wife 

* unto the said Richard Radcliffe, and sometime 

* wife of William Molyneux, Esq., dec^ father unto 

* the said Richard Molyneux, all his messuage &c. 

* called the Woodhouse in Altcar." There is little 
doubt that the Woodhouse here mentioned was 
Hill House, and that it was the manor house which 
was supplanted by the present building in 1673. 

M 2 

164 NoUs on A Itcar Parish. 

The old village organisation, and village inde- 
pendence of thought and action, were gradually 
lost in the higher organisations leading on to the 
nation. The villages were absorbed into the 
various portions of the Saxon Heptarchy, and 
these small kingdoms were at length consolidated 
into the English nation. 

In very early Saxon times, but at what date is 
now not ascertainable, Lancashire, as well as other 
portions of the country, was divided into hundreds 
or wapentakes, and these again into townships." 
Each hundred consisted of one hundred families, 
from which were chosen one hundred warriors, to 
uphold the rights of the district. On a fixed day 
the warriors met their chief, usually under some 
tree, or near some river's brink, for the purpose of 
trying criminals, settling disputes, or concluding 
sales, taking the place of the rriore ancient folkmoot. 
At a later period, when the Saxons had become 
Christians, and had learned to write, the transac- 
tions of the hundred court were registered in the 
chartularies of abbeys, or the registers of bishops. 
The township, tithing, or tenship was a tenth of 
the hundred. 

The inhabitants of each hundred or tithing 
were collectively responsible for the conduct of 
individuals, and had to make up for any theft 
committed, to the person who had been robbed. 
So effectual was this system in the reign of Alfred 
the Great, that it is said a pair of golden bracelets 
might be exposed upon the highway, or in the 
most populous part of our cities, without any 
danger of being stolen. 

At a very early age parishes were formed, usually 
consisting of several townships, and each had a 
parish church." At the time of the Domesday 

10 Ditchfield's Ettglish Villages, p. 33. 

zi Baines and Fairbairn*s Lancctshire ami Cheshire, vol. i, p. 305. 

Notes on Altcar Parish. 165 

survey many parish churches existed, and at this 
time there were between 200 or 300 vills or villages 
in the counties of Chester and Lancaster whose 
names indicate that they had been founded by the 
Angles and Saxons. A great part of the sea-coast 
of Lancashire, however, was named by the Danes. 
The Danish termination for town or place was 
*' by,'* and the West Derby hundred, in which 
Altcar was situated, was evidently over-run by the 
Danes. The following names are of Danish 
origin — Formby, Crosby, Kirkby, Kirkdale, Roby, 
Ormskirk, Thingwall, Garston, and Widnes. The 
word Derby itself is from the Danish, ** dyr," a wild 
beast, and ** by,'' a town. The names of Danish 
chiefs are preserved in Agmunderness, Ormskirk, 
and Garston. 

The Danes at first made summer excursions to 
the coasts of Lancashire and Cheshire," carrying 
back with them their plunder to Norway, Sweden, 
and Denmark, but it is not probable that they 
wintered here before the year 840. 

William the Conqueror met with strong and 
bitter opposition to his dominion in the North of 
England.'^ The soldiers who were sent to subdue 
Lancashire, ancient historians represent as looking 
with dismay from the ancient hill-tops at the 
forests and heaths and swamps around. The work 
of subjugation, however, was commenced, and 
carried on with unmitigated cruelty. Such was the 
havoc they caused that for nine years the land lay 
uncultivated, while the inhabitants, in their extre- 
mity, ate dogs, cats, horses, and even human flesh. 
In the end the entire districts of Lancashire, York- 
shire, and Durham were almost depopulated, and 
few human habitations were left standing. 

In order to obtain a reliable account of the 
conquered lands, William caused the survey to be 

xa Ibidf p. 30S. X3 Baines' History of Liverpool^ p. 3. 

l66 Notes on Altcar Parish. 

made which is known as Domesday Book. It was 
commenced in 1080, and finished in 1086. So 
searching was the enquiry, that neither oxen nor 
cows nor swine were omitted.'^ The desolation 
caused by WilUam^s army in Yorkshire and Lanca- 
shire was so complete, that a number of townships 
are described as waste, having few houses or 
inhabitants. Altcar was one of these townships. 
The following are the brief but pregnant sentences 
which describe Altcar : — ** Uctred held Acrer 
** (Altcar). There is half a carucate of land. It 
** was waste." The few inhabitants had probably 
either been killed, or had fled, or had perished by 
famine, and their stone and mud cottages were in 

A carucate, or ploughgate was as much land as 
a yoke of four oxen could keep in cultivation.'^ The 
quantity of land would be difterent in various 
districts, according to the nature of the soil and 
the strength of the cattle. It was 180 acres on 
land suited for three years' rotation of crops, and 
160 acres on other soils. It was usually divided 
into three parts, of 60 acres each. One part was 
sown with wheat, the second with spring corn, and 
the third was allowed to lie fallow. As Altcar, at 
the time of the Domesday survey, contained only 
half a carucate of land, there were only 90 acres 
of the present 4083 acres in the parish, which had 
been placed under cultivation ; and, if a third lay 
fallow, only. 60 acres actually yielding a harvest 
year by year. The chief wealth of this period, 
however, consisted of cattle and swine, which were 
tended by swineherds, the swine being driven about 
the woods in search of acorns. The cattle and 
swine, however, were absent when the Domesday 
survey was made. 

U Baines' LancMkire, vol. i, p. 89. 

^ Baines and Fairbairn's Lancashire and Cheshire^ vol. i, p. 523. 

Notes on Altcar Parish. 167 

Uctred was a powerful and wealthy thane, and, 
in addition to Altcar, he held the manors of 
Lathom, Knowsley, Skelmersdale, Kirkdale, Roby, 
AUerton, Kirkby, Speke, Great Crosby, Aughton, 
MaghuU, Litherland, Walton, Halsall, Dalton, 
Merton, Lydiate, and probably Ormskirk. 

The value of all the land between the Ribble 
and the Mersey,'^ that is, all South Lancashire, at 
the time of the Domesday survey was £120, or, 
allowing for the difference of money value, about 
/*I3,200,'^ while the population of Lancashire and 
Cheshire together did not exceed 13,000. It is 
difficult for us to realise that there are as many 
inhabitants in Ormskirk to-day as there were in all 
South Lancashire eight hundred years ago. 

At the time of the Domesday survey, there was 
no part of England where the population was 
more scanty, or the land so neglected, as in 
Lancashire and Cheshire. And after this, internal 
dissensions, wars, famines, and disease followed 
each other in succession.'^ In addition, all males 
between 15 and 60 years of age were trained to 
the use of arms, and were at any time liable to be 
called upon to leave their agricultural labours for 
military service. So frequent were these calls 
during the two hundred years after the Norman 
Conquest, that every two or three years some 
quarrel arose which left the land neglected and 
decimated the population, for purposes of which 
the people often knew little and cared less. Every 
man was required to have in his house, ready for 
use, arms according to his station. By the statute 
of Winton, passed 13 Edward I, a person having 
land of the value of ;^I5 a year was to be provided 
with a horse, breastplate of iron, a sword, and a 

x6 Baines' Lancashire^ vol. i, p, 113. 

17 Baines and Fairbairn*s Lancashire and Cheshire, vol. i, p. 565. 

x8 Ibid, vol. i, p, 569. 

1 68 Notes on Altcar Parish. 

knife and dagger, while the poorest were required 
to have bows and arrows. In the reign of 
Kdward IV, shortly after the middle of the fifteenth 
century, *' a law was passed that every Englishman 
** should have a bow of his own height, and that 
'* butts for the practice of archery should be set up 
** in every village ; and every man was obliged to 
** shoot up and down on every feast day, or be fined 
** one halfpenny." '^ We have no field in Altcar 
called ** The Butts,'* but we have a plot called 
** Score Ground,'' which may have been the archery 

During the period from the accession of William I 
to the expulsion of James II {i.c^ from 1066 to 
1688), the progress of Lancashire was slower than 
that of any other part of the kingdom.** Even in 
1700, there was not a single town in Lancashire 
and Cheshire with more than 10,000 inhabitants." 
Liverpool at that time had probably about 7,000, 
and Altcar not 150. Up to the middle of the 
seventeenth century, the Lancashire people re- 
mained upon their lands, with little disposition to 
wander, except that country people began to be 
attracted to the small towns in their neighbourhood, 
which were just then rising, and their number was 
not increased by the immigration of strangers. 
They married and intermarried, and the same 
family names were, no doubt, repeated in the 
registers (if there were any) with unbroken mono- 
tony. But the Great Plague and Fire of London 
(1666) led to a considerable number of people 
removing to Liverpool and South Lancashire 
generally." To get beyond all trace of the plague, 
the people secluded themselves in the most rural 

19 Ditchfield's English Villages, p. ^:^. 

M Baines and Fairbairn's Lancashire and Cheshire^ vol. i, p. 320. 

SI Ibid^ vol. ii, p. 3. 

^ Ibid^ P* 54* 

Notes on Altcar Parish. 169 

districts, whose roads, or want of them, cut them 
off from the outside world. Thus we find the 
following entry among the Altcar baptisms for 
1689: — ** Anne, daughter of Charles Richards, of 
** London, baptized August 24th day/' The plague 
broke out at intervals in various parts of Lanca- 
shire to the end of the seventeenth century, when, 
by slow degrees, it died out.^^ 

In the fenny and marshy districts of Lancashire, 
malignant and intermittent fevers were frequent. 
Dr. Leigh, in 1700, gives a full accDunt of pesti- 
lential fever which raged in Lancashire from 1693 
to 1696.^* From some such visitation Altcar 
suffered in 1728. In that year, nearly, if not whole 
families were swept away, the number of deaths 
being 47 out of a population of probably not 150. 
We get an idea in Dr. Leigh's work of some of 
the strange remedies then used to cope with these 
malignant diseases. Reptiles, such as vipers and 
adders, were then common in the Lancashire 
mosses, and he tells us that from the viper was 
extracted ** a wine singular in consumptive, leprous, 
** and scorbutic cases, likewise a valuable salt, the 
**most generous cordial in nature." He tells us 
that ** the flesh of the toad supplies one of the 
** richest cordials," and that this cordial was the 
means by which many were cured during the 
pestilential fevers. 

As early as the reign of William I, encourage- 
ment was given to the country people to remove to 
the towns. He passed a law that if any bondmen 
should remove to a town and remain unchallenged 
for a year and a day, he should be free. Villeins 
and bondmen are not mentioned in Liverpool after 
King John's charter, but for 200 years after they 
are mentioned in the surrounding townships. The 
chief privilege of a Liverpool freeman was freedom 

23 Ibidt vol. i, p. 699. M Ibiiiy vol. ii, p. 62. 

170 Notes on Altcar Parish. 

from * * theolonium . " * * This theolonium was market 
** toll paid by strangers, that is to say non- 
** burgesses, from which the burgesses themselves 
** were free by the charter of Henry III.'' This 
privilege is still possessed by the farmers of Altcar. 

The Romans made good main roads, in suitable 
positions, but after they left, the roads became 
more and more neglected. A pack-horse track was 
the means of conveying much of the produce from 
one district to another.^^ Even up to the end of 
the seventeenth century, a paved horse-track, four 
feet wide, was the best road to be found in country 
districts. The four-feet paved track was for quick 
travellers, the rest of the road was used by broad- 
wheeled waggons, and the ruts formed were filled 
with material from the neighbouring ditches. The 
four-feet track is mentioned in most of the Altcar 
accounts as the **calcey'' or ** causey," but 
** calcey stubs " (probably bundles of faggots) were 
the substitutes for paving setts. 

In 1688, a special order was issued by the 
magistrates of the district of West Derby for the 
repair of the roads.^^ The calceys, or paved horse 
tracks, were to be thoroughly repaired and soughed, 
so that it might be safe for a horseman to pass 
over them by day or night. In the first part of 
the eighteenth century it required twenty horses to 
remove twenty tons of goods any considerable 
distance in most parts of South Lancashire, but 
the roads of Altcar must have been worse still, for 
within living memory it needed three horses to 
draw a ton of hay to Liverpool, whereas one horse 
now draws i J tons ; that is, one horse can perform 
the work that required 4J horses in the earlier part 
of this century. 

25 The pack-horse bridge on the way from Altcar to Formby was taken 
down a few years ago. 

26 Baines and P airbairn's Lancashire and Cheshire^ vol. ii> p. 48. 

Notes on Altcar Parish. 171 

The progress of Altcar seems to have been 
greater, in proportion, in the sixteenth century 
than that of the neighbouring districts.^^ j^ \\^q 

military muster of Queen Mary, in 1553, Altcar 
occupies an important position. The parish of 
Ormskirk furnished 28 soldiers, of which 3 came 
from Ormskirk, 3 from Burscough, 7 from Lathom, 
4 from Bickerstaffe, 4 from Skelmersdale, and 7 
from Scarisbrick. The parish of North Meols 
supplied 9, the parish of Aughton 12, and the 
parish of Altcar g. The parish of Halsall supplied 
28, of which 7 came from Halsall, 4 from Male, 
7 from Melling and Cunscough, 5 from Down- 
holland, and 5 from Lydiate. The parish of Sefton 
supplied 30 soldiers, 7 from Sefton township, 6 from 
Ince Blundell, 2 from Aintree, 4 from Much Crosby, 
4 from Little Crosby, 4 from Litherland, and 4 from 
Thornton. The parish of Walton supplied .36, of 
which 7 came from Walton with Fazakerley, 4 from 
Liverpool, 4 from Formby, 2 from Kirkdale, 5 from 
Kirkby, 11 from West Derby, and 3 from Bootle 
and Linacre. It will be seen that Altcar supplied 
three times as many soldiers as the township of 
Ormskirk, more than twice as many as Formby, 
three times as many as Bootle and Linacre, and 
more than twice as many as Liverpool. It is to 
be remarked, however, that Liverpool about this 
time ** was now falling into ruins.'' In 1540 it 
was nearly depopulated by a plague, and after that, 
in 155 1, the ** sweating sickness'' broke out, and 
extended by degrees more or less all over the 
kingdom. In 1660 Liverpool had 138 householders, 
or about 800 inhabitants. It is remarkable that in 
this year there was not a single marriage or burial 
in the town. 

An impetus was given to the prosperity of Altcar 
at this time by the introduction of the potato. 

27 Baines^ l^ncashire^ vol. i, p. 505. 

172 Notes on Altcar Parish. 

The cause of its introduction was rather a melan- 
choly one. An Irish vessel, part of its cargo being 
potatoes, was wrecked in 1565 near North Meols. 
These were gathered from the sands and some of 
them planted in Altcar, and from that time to the 
present the growth of potatoes has been an 
important element in the Altcar husbandry. 

In a county rate levied in 1716, we see that 
Altcar kept up its relative importance, so far as the 
neighbouring townships were concerned.** *' Alker 
** Parish is but one township and doth always bear 
** and pay as much as Aughton Parish, or as 
*' North Meols do pay/' Aughton, North Meols 
(with Crofton and Birkdale), and Altcar each paid 
£2 IS. 8d., while Formby paid i8s. 6Jd., Bootle 
with Linacre 6s. iijd., and Liverpool £1 17s. ojd. 

But Altcar not only contributed men to the 
army, and helped to make English bowmen, pike- 
men, and billmen the dread of the Continent, but 
when the English navy was rising to its present 
supremacy, Altcar was not found wanting. Thus, 
in 1795 we find the item, ** To part of cash to rais 
** a man for the navy ^^5 5s. od.,'' and in the next 
year, ** To Ballance in proportion for a Navey 
'* man ;^5 12s. ijd." 

As time has progressed, more and more land has 
been brought under cultivation, while the drainage 
has improved.^^ Many years ago stone walls and 
earthbanks were formed on the shore at Ince 
Blundell, and floodgates were erected near Grange. 
The farmhouse and outbuildings of the Grange 
estate were built above the high-water level, and 
many acres of land have been gained from the 
shore by the planting of star grass. 

Although Alt Grange is situated on the south 
bank of the river Alt, in Ince Blundell, it is closely 
connected with Altcar, being owned ^ by Lord 

28 Gregson's Fragments, p. i6. 29 Boult's AltmtUh, 

Notes on A Hear Parish. 173 

Sefton, and the tenants having a recognized place 
in the pews of Altcar Church. 

The repair of the floodgates of the Alt, and the 
cost of drainage, are defrayed by a rate levied upon 
the owners and occupiers of the land, in pursuance 
of an Act of Parliament passed in 1779. In the 
early part of the year 1821, great damage was 
done to the floodgates, and a large area flooded by 
a high tide. New floodgates were erected in 183 1, 
and a new water engine, for the drainage of the 
land, was put up by the Earl of Sefton, over fifty 
years ago.^° The village of Altmouth, which seems 
to have stood on the south bank of the river, was 
probably destroyed by an inroad of the sea. It is 
marked on Tunnicliffe's map of Lancashire in 
1789, but does not appear in Gary's of 1793, four 
years later, and therefore it may be presumed that 
it was overwhelmed about that time. 

During the last year or two the levels of the 
watercourses have been lowered, and the ditches 
widened ; so that there is every probability that, 
ere long, even the moss lands and carrs of the 
parish will cease to be flooded in the winter, the 
pumping engine being able to keep the water under 
control. As a result of these improvements, hedges 
are now taking the place of the numerous ditches, 
so that at no distant date the aspect of the neigh- 
bourhood will have greatly changed. 

Until a comparatively recent date Altcar was, to 
a great extent, cut off" from connection with the 
outer world. In the days of stage coaches it was 
out of the track, even had its roads been inviting. 
The stage coach from Liverpool to Preston passed 
through Aintree and Maghull, and we find that at 
the present time the stable accommodation is, here 
and there, in excess of modern requirements. One 
of the first steps towards breaking up the isolation 

30 A powerful new pump has just been installed by Lord Sefton. 

174 Notes on A It car Parish. 

of Altcar was the formation of a railroad from 
Liverpool via Formby to Southport, in 1848. But 
even Formby station by the road was 2 J miles 
from the village of Great Altcar, although the field- 
path, which is now being made into a serviceable 
road, is much shorter. 

The bridge over the river Alt, known as Baines' 
Bridge, connecting Ince Blundell with Altcar, 
became so dilapidated that a few years ago it 
was taken down. This bridge, centuries ago, was 
the way the Ince people went to Lydiate Abbey. 
An effort is now being made to have the bridge 

The eastern end of the parish remained a long 
way from railway accommodation even when the 
line through Maghull was opened, and it was not 
until the year 1884 that the Cheshire Lines Exten- 
sion Railway brought the inhabitants of that 
district within easier access of the outer world. 
But even yet the older inhabitants are essentially a 
stay-at-home people, having little change, and 
apparently not desiring it. The oldest inhabitants, 
although living within view of the sandhills, have 
seldom seen the sea, and a visit to Southport is an 
unusual event. Altcar is still the world to many of 
its inhabitants, and political or other changes are 
small things if they do not touch the ** price of 
** wuts, wheat and potatoes." 

The monotony of the year is broken by the 
shooting and coursing. Pheasants are bred in large 
numbers, and the hares are preserved. The Earl 
of Sefton and his friends have their shooting 
seasons, and the ** Waterloo Coursing Meeting'' 
brings numerous visitors to the parish. 

Part of the parish by the shore, at the mouth of 
the Alt, is used as a rifle-range, and during the 
summer months soldiers, militia, and volunteers in 
turn. make it their camping ground. 

Notes on Altcar Parish. 175 


It is impossible to say when the first church 
was built in Altcar. At the time of the Domesday 
Survey, in 1086, there were not more than 60 acres 
in cultivation from year to year, and it is not 
probable that there were many cottages in the 
entire district. It was, however, a township in the 
West Derby hundred. Walton Church was one of 
the five churches mentioned in this hundred, and 
possibly the township of Altcar was included in 
the parish of Walton. From the Domesday Book 
it appears that a priest had a carucate of land 
at Boltelai (Bootle) belonging to the church at 
Waletone (Walton). The parish of Walton 
included Liverpool, but a fearful plague, in 1361, 
led to the formation of the S. Nicholas' Cemetery, 
Liverpool. The people ** had neither strength nor 
** heart to take them to the parish churchyard 
'' at Walton.^' 

Henry III, early in the thirteenth century, made 
a grant of the Royal estates between the Ribble 
and the Mersey to Ranulf, Earl of Chester, which 
included ** the town of West Derby, with the 
** wapentake, and all the appurtenances. '* The 
Earl of Chester dying without issue, the estate 
between the Mersey and the Ribble passed to his 
sister Agnes, who was married to William de 
fferrers, the sixth Earl of Derby. In the Royal 
Order arranging the succession, the castle and 
town of West Derby, with its appurtenances, are 
specially mentioned. It was arranged that William 
de fferrers. Earl of Derby, and Agnes, his wife, 
should pay yearly to the king a falcon (asturca) or 
forty shillings for the land between the Ribble and 
the Mersey. Nothing is on record with regard to 
the management of the Lancashire estates, except 
that they granted a portion of the manor of Altcar, 

176 Notes on A It car Parish. 

at the mouth of the Alt, to the Abbey of Miraval, 
in Warwickshire. 

Merivale, or Miravale, was a Cistercian Abbey,^' 
founded by Robert flferrers, second Earl of Derby, 
temp. Stephen, as a filiation from Bordesley Abbey, 
in Worcestershire. He endowed it with lands in 
that county and in Leicestershire, and was buried 
there. On the dissolution of the monasterj^ in the 
reign of Henry VIH, these lands were granted to 
his descendant. Sir W. Devereux, Lord flferrers of 
Chartley, afterwards created Lord Hereford. 

In the Valor of Pope Nicholas IV, 1292, St. 
Michael's, Altcar, is mentioned as a curacy to an 
impropriation, value nothing; it may, therefore, be 
inferred that it was not then a parish, but was still 
included in a neighbouring parish. 

In 21 Edward I, a trial took place between 
Edward I and the Abbot of Mira Vallis (Miraval 
or Merivale) as to the ownership of a carucate of 
land in Altcar.^^ The Abbot based his claim upon 
the gift of William de fferrers, and Agnes, his wife, 
and appears to have been successful, for the abbots 
of Merivale held the manor of **Alker'' until the 
dissolution of the religious houses. In the year 
1553 Altcar is spoken of as a parish. In the year 
1558 the manor of Altcar, and probably the advow- 
son of the church, passed to Sir Richard Mullyners, 
Knight, and they have remained in the possession 
of the Molyneux family since.^^ A lease for 10,000 
years of the tithe of the parish was probably 
granted at the same time ; the tithe, however, was 
merged in 1849. 

Although it is impossible to say when the first 
** Alker Chappeir* was erected, there was one in 
1598, in the reign of Elizabeth. I have had a 

31 Coucher Book, Abbey of Whalley, vol. ii, p. 519. 

32 Baines' Jjinccuhire, vol. iv, p. 231. 

33 Baines* Lancashire, Appendix, p. 815. 

Notes on Altcar Parish. 177 

photograph taken of the Harleian MS. No. 6159, 
at the British Museum, one of the oldest and most 
important maps of Lancashire extant. Gregson, 
in his Fragments^ gives a copy of it which is not 
quite correct. There is no getting behind a photo- 
graph. It will be noticed that the names of the 
landowners have been subsequently inserted. In 
this old manuscript map there is possibly a rude 
attempt at the actual representation of the churches, 
as notice Ormskirk and Childwall. Jf so, ** Alker 
Chappell " had a square tower, while Formby 
Chapel had a spire. The map states : — ** In this 
** Countie is xv market towns, and 36 Parish 
** Churches, besides Chapels in great number.'' 
There is a tradition that the ** Alker Chappell '* 
represented in this map, or at any rate the chapel 
of which the church of 1747 took the place, was 
burnt down. 

In one part of the reign of Charles I, the 
Presbyterians for a time obtained the upper hand, 
and Presbyterian ministers occupied the churches.^* 
In 1646 Mr. Robert Seddon was the minister of 
Altcar. In the troublous times that followed, up 
to the restoration of Charles II, in 1660, if any 
registers had been kept, they were destroyed or 
lost, but in 1664 the oldest register we have was 
commenced. This register is in a very dilapidated 
condition, and contains no account of the reason 
why it was commenced. The Halsall register, 
however, commenced in 1662, contains a memo- 
randum that it was commenced in 1662, ** by the 
** command of the Archbishop of York, in the first 
** year of his Grace's visitation in Lancashire," and 
probably to the same authority the Altcar register 
owed its origin in 1664. 

In Baines' History of Lancashire^ it is incorrectly 
stated that ** The marriages and burials are not 

34 Baines' Lancashire, vol. ii, p. 39. 


178 Notes on Altcar Parish. 

** entered until 1693." Really the first page, dated 
1664, IS occupied with burials. The second page 
records four births and two christenings. In 1680 
the first two marriages are entered. 

In the reign of Charles II, the jealousies between 
the Episcopalians, Presbyterians, and Roman 
Catholics were intense, and this continued until 
the Revolution of 1688, when William of Orange 
ascended the throne. The Revolution of 1688 
was signalized at Altcar by the presentation to the 
church of a heavy pewter flagon. It is not 
improbable that it was the result of a public 
subscription. It has engraved upon it the initials 
of the churchwardens — R G (Robert Gore), R K 
(Robert Kenyon) — and the date. Twenty years later, 
in 1708, the anti-popish feeling peeps out in the 
register, where ** bad Thorpe, y^ Popivsh priest,^' 
is evidently regarded as a very undesirable and 
meddlesome person. 

The oldest gravestone inscriptions decipherable 
are the following : — E G 1671, A R 1678, J L 1680, 
R T E 1689, Katharine Vose 1696, Tho^ Sephton 
1742. There is a remarkable absence of poetical 
inscriptions in the churchyard. Out of about four, 
in each of which local bards seem to have been 
trying their wings, I give the following, on a 
Gore : — 

"The tender Husband and his wife 
Lived happy consorts in this life, 
Fifty-three years, ere death did sever 
This just pair to live for ever." 

A plan of the graveyard given in the parish 
book incorrectly states that the last church was 
built in 1742, the date over the porch having been 
misread. It was built in 1746, and in 1747 the 
Bishop of Chester (Bishop Peploe) came to conse- 
crate, and the parish accounts inform us that one 
shilling was spent upon repairing the roads, so 

Notes on A Hear Parish. ifq 

that the bishop's carriage might reach the church 
in safety. 

A new font, of sandstone, was then provided, 
with the initials of the churchwardens inscribed, 
and the date, 1747. In the ecclesiastical period, 
when whitewash was supposed to improve the 
appearance of chiselled stone, this font was not 
forgotten. The churchwardens in 1747, up to 
Easter of that year, were James Watkinson and 
Thomas Aspinwall. What is possibly the font of 
the still older church lies alongside the one of 
1747, in the churchyard. It is a round sandstone 
cup, without carving or date. 

There is an old superstition that the first child 
baptized in a new font is sure to die early.^^ The 
Rev. Baring Gould tells a story in connection with 
the new church of Dalton, in Yorkshire. A black- 
smith had seven daughters, and a son was born a 
few days before the consecration of the new church. 
He came to ask Mr. Gould to baptize the boy in 
the old font. ** Why, Joseph,'' said I, ** if you will 
'^ only wait till Thursday, the boy can be baptized 
^' in the new font, at the opening of the new church." 
** Thank you, sir," said the blacksmith, with a 
wriggle, *^ but you see it's a lad, and we should be 
** very sorry if he were to dee ; na, if 't had been 
'* a lass instead, why then you were welcome, for 
'^ 'twouldn't ha' mattered a ha'penny. Lasses are 
'* ower many, and lads ower few wi' us." 

Mr. Gomme believes this to be a superstitious 
relic of the time of the ancient hearth cult. When 
a tent or building was erected, it was thought 
necessary for the safety of the building to offer a 
**' foundation sacrifice." At the bottom of the hole 
to receive the chief tent-pole a slave was placed, to 
be crushed by the descending pole. He quotes^^ 

35 Gomme's Folklore Relics of Early Village Life^ p. 36. 

36 IHd. 

. N 2 

i8o Notes on A Hear Parish. 

the partly Norman church of Brownsover, in War- 
wickshire, which stands upon the site of an early 
British settlement. Not very long ago it was 
found necessary to lower the original foundations, 
and two skeletons, with Danish skulls, were found 
in spaces cut out of the solid clay, and covered 
with carpenters' benches, which must have been 
designedly placed there before the church was 
built. ^* Christian priests had often to compromise 
** between Christian doctrines and pagan customs, 
'* to obtain a hearing for their new and civilizing 
^^ creeds/' To the mind of primitive man every 
locality was the home of, and was protected by, its 
special deities, and every building or temple was 
consecrated by slaying some animal to appease the 
spirit of the place. An old legend connected with 
Clegg Hall, Lancashire, seems to point to this 
superstition. It is recorded that a pious monk, 
wishing to lay two ghosts that haunted the place, 
came to a parley with them, when they demanded, 
as a condition of future quiet, a body and a soul. 
The cunning monk substituted the body of a cock 
and the sole of a shoe. 

From this ancient belief in the necessity for a 
** foundation sacrifice,'' we have, no doubt, derived 
the superstition that the first child baptized in a 
new church is almost sure to be called away at an 
early age. As we look at the two fonts in the 
churchyard and the one in the church, we wonder 
whether the superstition had root here, and, if so, 
what were the names of parents who ran the risk, 
and whether the children were lads or lasses. 

A silver chalice and paten were presented to the 
church consecrated in 1747, by Jane Plumbe, 
widow, of Downholland. In 1730, John Plumbe, 
Esq., of Downholland, had given ^10 to the church 
of Halsall, to buy ** a silver flaggon and patten." 
An ancestor of Colonel Tempest, of Tong Hall, 

Notes on A Hear Parish. i8i 

Yorkshire, bought part of the Moore estate in 
Liverpool, about 1695, and from his family Plumbe 
Street in Liverpool derived its name. From the 
Altcar parish accounts we learn that the supervisors 
for the Town Row division in 1764 were, '* Mr. 
'* Rich^ Goore for Rev. Thos. Plumb, and Jas. 
*^ Rigby for chantrels.'' In ^* A true List of 
*• Freeholders of Altcar, which is to serve as 
**Jewryers at the Quarter Sessions of the peace 
** and County Assizes taken this 17^^ day of 
** September, 1771," we have the name of Mr. 
John Plumbe, of Aughton. One striking thing in 
this list is that to the name of every Roman 
Catholic is added the word ^* papist." The Rev. 
Thomas Plumb became Rector of Aughton in 
1734, ^^d the Rev. William Plumb in 1769 ; and 
the advowson of Aughton, and considerable pro- 
perty in Aughton parish, is still in the possession 
of a representative of the Plumbe-Tempest family. 
A black-letter Elizabethan New Testament is 
now in the possession of Mrs. Thomas, widow of 
the late Vicar of Altcar, picked up by her husband 
at a farmhouse in Altcar, with an inscription on 
the back of the title-page, from which it would 
appear that a Thomas Plumb was born in this 
neighbourhood in 1643, in the reign of Charles I, 
twenty-one years before the Altcar registers com- 
mence, and three years before the Presbyterian 
** Mr. Robert Seddon,'' became minister of Altcar. 
We have here, probably, his signature at fifty years 
of age. He died in 1724, in his eighty-second year. 
This leaf informs us that Jane Plumb died in 
March, 1760, but from the Halsall registers I find 
it was March, 1750, and therefore three years 
after presenting the paten and chalice to '*Alker 
Chappel." The chronicle stops short when about 
to record the age of Jane Plumb. We have 
further evidence of the connection of the Plumbe 

1 82 Notes on Altcar Parish. 

family in ** Plumb's Moss/' and ** Lane to Plumb's 

Upon the walls of the last Altcar Church 
was a list of benefactors (which is lost), and a 
marble tablet in memory of the Rev. E. Heyes, 
A.B., who died in 1839. The name Heyes occurs 
frequently in the registers, and members of the 
family served as officials in the parish again and 
again. Robert Heyes was married at Altcar in 
1695, i^ the last church but one, probably a wood 
and plaster one, and the one represented in the 
Harleian map previously given. When the last 
church was pulled down, in 1878, the representatives 
of the family removed the tablet before-mentioned, 
and placed it, with other mural records, within iron 
palisadings upon the site of the family burial 
ground, which was inside the church. 

In Picton's History of Liverpool^ Heyes is 
mentioned as of the original Everton families. 
One of the Everton houses bore the inscription — 
'* Thos. Heyes, 1734." It is possible that this 
was a branch of the Altcar family, for several 
Liverpool and Altcar families seem to have been 
closely connected in the middle of the eighteenth 
century, as is seen by the Altcar list of freeholders in 
1771, which includes ** Edward Heyes of Altcar." 

The oldest and most prominent name in the 
registers is that of Goore. It occurs on the first 
page of the register, in 1664. This family gave 
the name to one of the divisions of the parish — 
the Goore House Division. The oldest gravestone 
(marked EG 1671) was that of a Goore. One of 
the churchwardens in 1688 was Robert Gore. In 
the 1 77 1 list of jurors we have Richard Goore, of 
Liverpool, merchant, and James Goore of Ince 
Blundell. The name appears again and again in 
the parish accounts, and usually has the prefix 
** Mr.," which is never used for any other person, 

Notes on A Hear Parish. 183 

unless it be a clergyman, and in that case 
both Rev. and Mr. are used, as in the 1726 
account, which is headed, ** An Acct. of Richard 
** Goore, for y« Reverend Mr. William Clayton," 
where the ecclesiastic, for whom Richard Goore 
acts, swallows up the Mr,, and leaves plain Richard 

In looking over the old churchwardens' accounts, 
we are reminded of Coleridge's lines — 

"The wedding guest here beat his breast, 
For he heard the loud bassoon." 

Every year there appears an item for ** reeds for 
bassoon," ** letter about bassoon," ** repair of bas- 
soon," ** gamut for bassoon," or ^* a new bassoon," 
but no other instruments are mentioned. Clarionet, 
cornet, violin, and violoncello were more or less 
used, but the instrument par excellence was the 
bassoon. The tunes were marked -air, counter, 
tenor, and bass, and abounded in fugues, rests, 
solos, and duets, which it would puzzle many a 
modern choir to execute, even with the aid of ah 

In the year 1879 the present church was 
consecrated. Like the previous churches, it was 
dedicated to St. Michael. It was built from plans 
by Mr. Douglas, of Chester, at the sole expense of 
Lord Sefton, who generously made a gift of it 
to the parish. A good organ was also provided. 
The churchyard was enlarged, a new wall built, 
trees planted, and a new road made ; and there 
are few country churches which surpass that of 
Altcar in architectural beauty and neatly arranged 
surroundings. To the deep and continuous interest 
in the plans and building of the church exercised 
by Colonel Wyatt, a great deal of the success is 

The present church is probably a return to the 
style of architecture which was exemplified in the 

184 Notes on Altcar Parish. 

earliest Altcar church. It is not built upon the site 
of the previous one, but somewhat to the north 
of it, and at the corner3 of the quadrangle which 
formed the site of the old church poplar trees have 
been planted. It has a lich-gate, i.e.^ a corpse- 
gate (A.S., lych, a dead body), so called because 
the body rests there while the funeral proceSvsion is 
formed. Over the lich-gate is inscribed, ** Grant, 
** O Lord, that through the grave and gate of 
** death we may pass to our joyful Resurrection," 
and the inscriptions in all parts of the church have 
been exceedingly well chosen. 

Some years ago the Vicar of Altcar's stipend 
was very small, but Lord Sefton has given ;^ioo 
a year rent-charge and the vicarage house, which 
gifts have been supplemented by Queen Anne's 
Bounty and the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, so 
that at present the living of Altcar is worth about 
;f 240 a year and a vicarage house. 

With regard to the incumbents of Altcar, neither 
the episcopal nor the parish registers lead us further 
back than 1724. In that year the Rev. William 
Clayton became incumbent. His successor seems 
to have been the Rev. William Naylor, who for 
fifty years was master of the Ormskirk Grammar 
School. In 1774 he was incumbent of Altcar, but 
the churchwardens' account-book before that date 
has been lost, and there is no evidence as to the 
time when he became incumbent. He died in 
1823, but in 182 1 the Rev. T. Garrett had been 
ordained as stipendiary curate, and on the death of 
Mr. Naylor he succeeded to the incumbency. Mr. 
Garrett resided at Burscough, and came over on 
Saturdays, to be ready for the Sunday duty. He 
left in 1827, ^i^d was succeeded by the Rev. C. 
Forshaw, B.A,, who, like Mr. Naylor, was master 
of Ormskirk Grammar School. His incumbency 
lasted from 1827 *^ 1856, when he was succeeded 

Notes on Altcar Parish. 185 

by the Rev. J. Pearson, M.A. During the first 
part of Mr. Pearson's incumbency he resided out 
of the parish ; but before he left, a vicarage was 
built by Lord Sefton, in 1858. Mr. Pearson had 
charge of Altcar from 1856 to 1862, when he 
exchanged livings with the Rev. John Thomas. 
For the long period of twenty-seven years, from 
1862 to 1879, Mr. Thomas held the Vicariate of 
Altcar, and ministered in the last two churches, 
the present church being built eleven years before 
he was called away. He was interred near the 
porch of the new church. The present Vicar, and 
the writer of these notes, was appointed by Lord 
Sefton in 1889. 


up to recent years, when arrangements were 
made by Lord Sefton for pumping the water out 
of the ditches and small water-courses, the inha- 
bitants, especially in winter, were subjected to 
many inconveniences. At hay-time the grass had 
often to be conveyed from the lower to the higher 
levels to be dried, and barn doors were utilized as 
barges. At one farmhouse a small boat was 
attached to the door-latch, and when milking-time 
arrived, the milker paddled in this boat across the 
inundated fields to the shippon, to milk the cows. 
It is also stated that occasionally people proceeded 
to church in boats, and that, on one occasion, the 
water was so high that the boat was actually 
floated over the churchyard wall. In the winter 
skating was possible from Altcar to Sefton mea- 
dows, and, during the absence of frost, water was 
so abundant that stepping stones were needed to 
enable the villagers to pass from one cottage to 
another ; and the dragging of children out of the 
water, whose eyes and limbs had not become 
accustomed to this amphibious life, was not an 
unfrequent occurrence. 

1 86 Notes on Altcar Parish. 

The story is told of an Ormskirk ginger-bread 
vendor, known as ** Nut Harry," who found the ice 
during the frosty weather an assistance to loco- 
motion. Having called at one cottage, he had 
only to place his tin box on the ice, and slide it 
before him to the next cottage where he hoped to 
effect a sale. 

People who long for the ** good old times," had 
better ponder some of the stories current in the 
neighbourhood, and, perhaps, they may be the 
more disposed to be content with such things as 
they have. I am informed, by one who speaks 
from experience, that the allowance for five persons 
at one farm was Jib. of coffee, ilb. of tea, and 
2lb. of sugar per week. One wonders, with the 
infinitesimal quantity of coffee or tea that would 
fall to each individual's meal, whether they would 
be able to catch the flavour and know the difference 
between the two ; and as to sweetness, it must 
have been an unknown quantity, or the palate 
must have been more sensitive to sweetness than 
modern palates are. Rye dumpling began the 
Sunday dinner, and a very small portion of meat 
followed. We are told, by those who tasted them, 
of potato pies made on the Monday to last till the 
Monday following. The crust before the end of 
the week was hard, and the potatoes sour, and 
when the crust was lifted the potatoes followed in 
'* a rope." '' But did you eat that ? " '' Yoigh ; 
^* there was nowt else, and yo' mun 'a' that, or go 
** wi'out dinner." 

In one house there was an old-style mangle, and 
the roof of the mangle-house was hung with 
imperfectly cured hams and bacon. As the farm 
labourers lay in the bedroom above, they could 
hear the thud of the maggots as they fell upon the 
mangle, with the consolation that the said bacon 
was maturing for the purpose of supplying them 

JVofes on Altcar Parish. 187 

with dainty dinners, when, with aristocratic 
appetites, they could feast on that which was 

A Lancashire woman, speaking in my hearing 
of the food of the working classes in her earlier 
years, said, ** They know nowt in these days. We 
** used to eat green sauce [sorrel] dumplings, and 
^^ no suet in ^em. Yo' met 'a' kickt 'em o'er fielt, 
** and they wudden 'a' brocken." Speaking to an 
old inhabitant of Altcar of this, he said, *^ Aye, an' 
** it were rye flour too, and as black as that 
** chimbley.'* A labouring man from Ormskirk 
used to come and assist at one of the farms on 
special occasions. Dinner-time arriving on one of 
his visits, he began sniffing, and asked a fellow- 
labourer, ** Han yo' tainted meyt again?" He 
replied, ** Aye, we seldom an owt else." The meat 
being passed round, the visitor said, *^ Aw connod 
** manidge this " ; and called to a labourer across 
the room, who sat near a drawer containing paper, 
*^ Here, gi'e me some papper. Aw'l lap this up, 
*^ and tak' it to ower Jimmy." Poor Jimmy ! 
Those were hard times, and one wonders that such 
fare should have been able to mature such good 
constitutions and healthy physiques as we have in 

As in other country districts, there were little 
jealousies and rivalries between adjacent villages. 
When Formby was chiefly a fishing village, and 
Altcar, as now, an agricultural district, the brawny 
fishermen and the stalwart agriculturists used to 
meet at the Fleam Bridge, and challenge each 
other to combat, when, by chosen representatives 
or in a general melee, they decided the question of 
physical strength, the championship sometimes 
resting with Formby and at other times with 
Altcar. These conflicts, which formerly were so 
common between adjacent villages, Mr. Gomme 

1 88 Notes on Altcar Parish. 

considers to be a survival of the old tribal conflicts 
between Celt and Saxon and Dane in the earliest 
settlements of English villages. The habit has 
remained after the tribes have been fused. 

One thing that strikes us in looking over the 
parish accounts, is the liberal allowance, at the 
parish cost, of ale. The oldest parish accounts 
preserved commence in the year 1714. The parish 
consisted of three divisions. Town Row, Goore 
Houses, and Little Altcar. In 1726 it was thought 
desirable to have refreshment over the arduous 
task, and the last item is, ^* Spent on making these 
** accounts is. 6d.'' After this the sum of is. 6d. is 
the usual allowance to those making the accounts. 
The following are some items : — ** 1749. Paid to 
'' William Arnold for drink 7s. 6d.'' ** 1754- Paid 
'* Pease Neile for ale 3s. 4d.'' ^* 1757. Paid to 
'* Thomas Watkinson for drink about y« highways 
'* 5s.'' The account for 1758 for the Town Row 
Division is a curiosity. Out of a ley or tax of 
£1 28. 3d., the sum of 14s. 8d. was spent in ale. 
There seems to have been this year no urgent call 
for expenditure upon roads and bridges, and the 
temptation to extract a little enjoyment from the 
superfluous fund was too great to be resisted. The 
wages of spademen in this year, according to the 
Altcar accounts, were eightpence a day, so that 
the amount expended in ale, for the Town Row 
Division alone, equalled twenty-two days' wages 
of a working-man. 

As illustrating the difference between the pur- 
chasing power of money at different times, I may 
remark that four centuries earlier than this (1354) 
the Government regulation price of ale in the 
country was three gallons for a penny. It is 
probable that the purchasing power of money in 
1758 would be about five times what it is at 
present. Not much spirit was in ordinary use at 

Notes on A Hear Parish. 189 

this time, but ale was considered such a desirable 
and needful beverage that about thirty years later 
(1787) Doming Rasbotham, as quoted in Baines' 
Lancashire^ writes of Chowbent : ^* The wages of 
*^ a common labourer are from i8d. to 2od. a day, 
** and he expects to have a cup of ale twice a day.'' 
In Liverpool, in the middle of the fourteenth 
century, for selling bread, meat, or ale above the 
Government-regulated price the offenders were put 
in the pillory, or ridden round the town on a 
tumbril, or a dung-cart ; and similar offences in 
the country would probably be summarily dealt 

In the middle of the sixteenth century, bachelors 
in Liverpool were not allowed to be out after nine 
o'clock, unless they had lawful business ; but 
whether the bachelors in the country were more 
leniently dealt with, it is difficult to say. One part 
of the business of the church clerk in Liverpool 
was to ** ring the curfew at 8, and be diligent in 
** whipping dogs out of the church." Both of 
these duties probably devolved upon the Altcar 
parish clerk. We find in the account for 1775, 
** A whip for the dog whiper 3d." 

There was usually a third duty devolved upon 
the dog whipper, viz. : that of sluggard waker.^^ 
In those early times when hedges and fences were 
scarce, the farmers from the outlying districts 
travelled miles to church, and combined business 
and devotion by taking with them their sheep dogs 
to control their flocks and herds by the way. The 
dogs were kept out of the church by the dog 
whipper. The origin of chancel rails, it is said, 
was to keep dogs out of the chancel. The dog 
whipper also acted as sluggard waker. His 
business was not only to quiet the dogs, but to 
keep the worshippers awake. In one church, the 

37 Andrews* Curiosities of the Churchy p. 173. 

I go Notes on A Hear Parish. 

sluggard waker had a long staff with a fox's brush 
on one end and a knob on the other. If a lady 
fell asleep he tickled her face with the brush, but 
if a man fell asleep the knobbed end was used with 
wonderful effect. In some parishes a small portion 
of land was set aside for the use of the poor men 
who acted as dog whipper and sluggard waker, 
and it is possible that God's Croft in this parish 
was set aside for that purpose. 

From the parish accounts we learn that a liberal 
supply of ale was allowed by the parish on various 

(i) It was somewhat common for the choirs of 
the neighbouring churches to be invited to Altcar 
to swell the harmony, and they were not sent empty 
away. Thus, in 1774, ^* Spent on Halsall singers 
'^and parson, 8/3." 1805, *^Ale to singers from 
** Halsall, 15/." Same year, ^* Ale to singers, 
^'£1 3 o." 1817, '* Singers from Maghull, 15/"; 
** singers from Formby, lo/*' ; '* singers from Mag- 
**hulT, 15/;" ** singers from Formby, 10/." The 
parish must this year have been suffering from a 
musical fever. The mode of conveyance of the 
the singers seems to have been the brewer's cart. 

(2) Ale was allowed at rushbearings, and on the 
5th of November. 1774, ^* Spent on rushburrying, 
** 2/6." In subsequent years nothing seems to have 
been allowed at rushbearings. 

In 1776 one shilling was allowed for powder on 
5th of November; in 1782 2/ was spent on **a 
** load of turf for bonfires"; in 1792 2/6 was added 
for ale. In 1825, **To turf for bonfire, and ale for 
^* the boys who attended it, 5/6." 

In 1838, however, we find this mem. — ** Unani- 
^* mously resolved, that the custom of making bon- 
** fires on the 5th of November in every year, and 
*' the allowances of any kind whatsoever, which 
**have heretofore existed for a great number of 

Notes on A Hear Parish. igi 

'* years in commemoration of Gunpowder Plot, 
'* shall m future be discontinued in the township 
** of Altcar. As witness our hands this 17th day 
'' of April, 1838." Signed by the Rev. Charles 
Forshaw, and seven others. 

In 1849 an allowance of ale was made to the 
singers ** when the churchwardens were footed," a 
common expression in Lancashire, meaning admit- 
ted to office. 

We are reminded of the picture that Tennyson 
gives of the last illness of the '* Northern Farmer." 
The doctor comes and forbids his ale, and he is 
represented as saying — 

" Doctors, they knaws nowt, fur a says what's nawways true ; 
Naw soort o' koind o' use to saay the things that a do : 
IVe *ed my point o' aale ivry noight sin' I bean 'ere, 
An' I've 'ed my quart ivry market-noight for foorty year." 

His daughter seems unwilling to disobey thje 
doctor's orders, and he exclaims impatiently — 

" What atta stannin* theer fur, an' doesn bring ma the aale ? 
Doctor's a 'toattler, lass, and a's hallus i' the owd taale ; 
I weant break rules fur doctor, a knows naw moor nor a floy ; 
Git ma my aale I tell thee, and if I mun doy I mun doy." 

And although the picture which Tennyson gives 
of the intelligence of the farmer would, perhaps, 
scarcely apply to to-day, we need not look back 
very many years to a time when it was only too 

** An' I hallus coom'd to 's chooch afoor moy Sally wur dead, 
An' 'ear'd 'urn a bummin' awaay loike a buzzard-clock ower my 

An' I never knaw'd what a mean'd, but I thowt a 'ad summat 

to saay, 
An' I thowt a said whot a owt to 'a said, an' I coom'd awaay." 

But while we have evidence of the liberality of 
the parish to singers and others in ale, we find 
wine provided for the church on the same liberal 
scale. For many years the parish allowed four gallons 

192 Notes on A Hear Parish. 

of wine for church use, when the Holy Communion 
was celebrated only quarterly. A later clergyman 
used to tell how the clerk, soon after he came, 
followed him to the pulpit, saying ** Please, sir, you 
** have forgotten your wine." 

All this is changed. At the desire, as is usually 
understood, of Lady Sefton, where public houses are 
not absolutely needed they are being banished from 
Lord Sefton's estates ; and the four public houses 
which, until a somewhat recent period, existed in 
Altcar are now no more, much to the moral benefit 
of the parish. 

The great improvement in sobriety which has 
taken place of late years was forcibly set forth by 
Dr. Barron, one of the leading magistrates of 
Southport, at the Birkdale Brewster Sessions, 
August 24th, 1893. Speaking of the annual report 
of the superintendent of police, he said — *' It was 
a very pleasant matter for him to be able to point 
out to them that during the whole of the ten 
years alluded to in the statement drawn up by 
Superintendent J ervis, Altcar occupied the premier 
position. There had been only 14 convictions 
during that period. It was also another singular 
fact that there had not been a single woman from 
Altcar convicted for drunkenness during the ten 
years. This was a circumstance, he considered, 
which bore strongly upon the morality of the 
inhabitants of that particular parish. Banks used 
to occupy the premier position, but that place 
was now taken by Altcar, which was one of the 
most sober districts in the whole petty-sessional 

I am afraid the Church has been far from guilt- 
less in the past with regard to the intemperate 
habits of the country districts John Aubrey, the 
antiquary — who was born in 1626 and died in 1700 
— tells us : *' There were no rates for the poor in 

Notes on Altcar Parish. 195 

** my grandfather's day; the Church Ale of Whit* 
*^ suntide did the business." 

3^ The churchwardens bought and received pre- 
sents of a large quantity of malt, which they 
brewed into ale, and sold to the company. Hence 
these feasts were called ** Church Ales/' They 
were held on the feast of the dedication of the 
church, the proceeds being devoted to the main- 
tenance of the poor. Sometimes they were held 
at Whitsuntide also, sometimes four times a year, 
and sometimes as often as money was wanted, or a 
feast desired. An arbour of boughs was, in some 
cases, erected in the churchyard, called *^ Robin 
** Hood's Bower," which the young women of the 
parish used as a bar for dispensing the liquor, and 
receiving the money. Drinking habits were thus 
encouraged, and consciences were quieted by the 
knowledge that the money went for a good cause, 
until increasing scandals caused the Church Ales 
to be prohibited. These Church Ales were gene- 
rally held on a Sunday, and we are told that the 
services were better attended on these days than 
on others. The only relics of these old customs 
I can find floating in the memories of the people, 
are connected with Mid-Lent Sunday, known in 
some places as Simnel Sunday, and All Souls' 

Mid-Lent Sunday was known m Altcar as 
Braggot Sunday. A specially concocted drink was 
prepared for this Sunday, which was of a non- 
intoxicating character, and was called braggot. 
As the older generation passed away, the secret of 
its manufacture seems to have been lost, and its 
place was taken by mulled ale. The publicans, in 
later days, provided small cakes for the occasion. 
Every labourer expected four eggs from his 

38 Ditchfield's Enolish Villa^s^ p. 89 ; and Andrews' Curiosities of the 
Churchy p. 39. 

'l94 ^ Notes on Altcar Parish. 

employer, with which he repaired to the ale-house, 
where the eggs, with spices, were drunk in hot ale. 
. This . custom died with the closing of the public- 
houses. Mid-Lent Sunday was also known as 
** Mothering Sunday." ^^ On that day, it was the 
, pleasing custom for servants and apprentices to 
\ carry cakes or furmety, as presents to their mother, 
and to receive from her a cake with her blessing. 
This was called ** going a-mothering." The old 
poet Herrick alludes to this custom, in Gloucester- 
shire, in these words : — 

" I'll to thee a simnell bring, 
'Gainst thou go'st a-mothering, 
So that when she blesseth thee, 
Half that blessing thou'lt give me." 

The other custom was observed on All Saints' 
Day, the ist of November, for All Souls' Day, the 
2nd of November. On that day, children, until a 
. few years ago, went from house to house, saying, 
*' For God's sake, a so' loaf" (soul loaf). As gifts 
for these young visitors, householders had prepared 
small round cakes, containing a few seeds and 
impressed with the butter-print of the farm.^° 

The Church also made it its business to provide 
for the amusement of the parishioners. Near 
many of the old churches there was a place called 
the church-house. It was used at fair times as a 
storehouse for the goods of travelling pedlars. In 
this building also the parivshioners were accustomed 
to meet round the large open fireplace for gossip 
and amusement. Aubrey tells us, ** It had spits, 
** crocks, and other utensils for dressing provisions. 
** Here the housekeepers met. The young people 

39 Ditchfield's English Villages^ p. 107. 

40 This is, no doubt, a relic of an old Roman Catholic custom of making 
small oatcakes, called *'soul mass cakes," on All Souls' Day, to give to the 
poor. On receiving the cake, the recipients repeated — 

**Ood save your saule, 
••Bairns and all." 

Notes on Altcar Parish. T^gs 

** were there too, and had dancing, bowling, 
** shooting at butts, &c., the ancients (old folks) 
** sitting gravely by and looking on." 

The Altcar church-house is close to the church- 
yard, and, with its yew trees, was once, no doubt, 
included in the church ground. Till somewhat 
recently it was an inn. It is a fair example of the 
description given of a church-house by the Rev. 
S. Baring Gould : — 

" The church-house was a long building, situated close to the 
churchyard, consisting of a basement and -an upper storey, usually 
with a single great chimney that had a fireplace below and one 
above. It consisted of two great rooms, one above the other, 
and it was intended as a place in which the congregation should 
stay between morning and afternoon services, and eat their 
dinner and drink ale, which latter was usually provided by the 
sexton or clerk. The food they brought with them, but not the 
liquor. There were stables beside the church house, in which 
the parishioners put their cobs and horses, on which they had 
ridden to church, and the stepping blocks whereby the women 
might mount their pillions are an invariable feature. By degrees 
there ensued encroachment. The sexton or clerk found it 
convenient to live in the church-house, so as to keep an eye on 
his. barrels of ale, and the mugs and tankards in which the ale 
was drawn. Accordingly he moved into it, brought up his family 
in it, appropriated more of the space to his convenience, accom- 
modated churchgoers with ale after service, kept them supplied 
till, what with ale inside and water without, it was sometimes 
convenient to lodge the night with him, and so — there is no 
saying exactly when — the church-house, which was the hall of 
assembly belonging to all the parish, into which every parishioner 
had a right to enter and eat and rest, became the Church-house 

With regard to the rush-bearings, it is a.lmoSt 
certain that no rush-cart has been used in Altcar 
during the present century. An old man of eighty- 
four years of age, who remembers the Rev. William 
Naylor, informs the writer that he never saw a 
rush-cart, and never heard of one. No money 
was spent on rush-bearing in the churchwardens' 
accounts after 1774, and probably about that time 
the rush-carts ceased to be used* 
o 2 

igG Notes on Altcar Parish. 

The method of observance in the earlier part of 
this century was as follows. Preparatory to Rush- 
bearing Sunday the larders of the villagers were 
replenished, and friends from a distance were 
invited to partake of specially prepared dinners. 
On the Monday following, a number of stalls were 
erected, not far from the church, for the sale of 
sweets, Ormskirk gingerbread, &c., and occasionally 
a travelling show put in an appearance. In the 
evenmg the elder people repaired to the public- 
houses, for drinking and dancing, Altcar Hall being 
the chief. The first man who succumbed to the 
intoxicating potions by falling asleep became the 
mayor-elect. On the Tuesday, dressed in an old 
hat and old clothes, with face blackened, the mayor 
was accompanied round the parish by neighbours, 
who danced round him to fiddle and tambourine 
and anything that would jingle, and offered him 
various indignities. They wore extravagant gar- 
ments, decorated with ribbons, and calling at the 
various houses they passed, received money or 
drink. These customs ceased about fifty or sixty 
years ago. 


It is very evident from the church registers that 
the office of ** parish clerk and schoolmaster " has 
been a very ancient and important institution, and 
that the said official has magnified his office is 
apparent from the elaborate caligraphy and personal 
entries found here and there. Bishop Gastrell 
(1722), who obtained his information from the 
clergy and churchwardens of the different parishes, 
remarks, ** In Altcar there is a school erected by 
**the inhabitants, endowed by Richard Whitehead, 
** and his son John with ^^30, and by Thomas 
''Tickle with ;^32." 

Commissioners were appointed in 1828, to 

Notes on A Hear Parish. 197 

enquire into the charities throughout England, and 
the following is the report given concerning Altcar 
charities : — , 

" There is an entry in a parish book, dated March 31st, 1741, 
to the following effect : — * There was left by Thomas Tickle of 

* Altcar, some time since deceased, the sum of jCso, the interest 

* to go for the use of the schoolmaster for ever.' The inhabitants 
of the parish of Altcar, thinking there could be no better 
security than the said parish, and having occasion to discharge a 
debt due to the workhouse for money borrowed, the church- 
wardens and several of the principal inhabitants of the parish 
agreed, on the day bearing date as above, to pay unto the 
schoolmaster for ever the interest of the said j£$o after the rate 
of 5 per cent. 

*' Nothing is now known of this specific bequest, but an annual 
payment from the rates has been made to the master of the 
parish school in Altcar from at least the year 1753, which may 
probably include the interest of the ;^3o above mentioned. 
From 1753 to 1782 the schoolmaster received ^y yearly. The 
payment was afterwards increased to ;^8, and in 181 1 10^^24, 
for which salary he teaches eight poor children free, and also acts 
as parish clerk. The same person has the profits of a close of 
about an acre and a half, given, during pleasure, by the Earl of 
Sefton, for the benefit of the schoolmaster." 

Wilson's charity. 

*• William Wilson, by his will bearing date 27th December, 
1665, gave ;^2o to be put forth upon use and the interest to the 
poor of Altcar and Lydiate for ever, equally to be divided among 
them at the discretion of his executors. A memorandum of this 
bequest is entered in an old parish book, and the moiety due to 
the poor of Altcar is noticed in the Parliamentary Returns of 
1786. Nothing is now known of this bequest. 

"The Incumbent of Altcar has, for upwards of fifty years, 
received annually from the parish rates the sum of j£^ los., as 
interest of ;^7o. It is understood that this is not applicable to 
any charitable purpose, but is the produce of money given 
heretofore for the use of the Incumbent." 

goore's charity. 

" Ellen Goore, who died 7th May, 1789, left ;^4o to the poor 
of Altcar, the interest to be divided amongst the poor women 
who should attend the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper. This 
bequest appears to have been taken by the parish, as the sum of 
40s. yearly is paid out of the poors' rate (?. Church Rate) as 

rgS: Notes on Altcar Parish. 

interest of Ellen Goore's legacy. The money is distributed 
ainong the poor women attending the quarterly coinmiihion, 
I OS. each time. There are generally five or six poor persons 
between whom it is divided." 

The four quarterly instalments of los. of Ellen 
Goore's charity first appear in the churchwardens' 
account for 1794, and the payments were continued 
up to 1 85 1, when only one quarter's interest was 
paid. After this the payment ceased. It is remark- 
able that in this same year appear the following 
items : — ** Four gallons of wine, £2 i6s.," and 
*' To Richard Burgess for dinners and drink for 
'* the year 1849, which had omitted to be entered 
** in the same year, £2. os. id." The annual vestry 
meeting was held at the public-house, and (the 
non-resident clergyman being generally absent) 
liberal dinners and drinks were allowed to those 
who attended. 

liptrot's charity. 

The way in which this charity came into the 
possession of the parish shows the unselfishness of 
Samuel Liptrot, of Altcar. I copy the following 
memorandum from the churchwardens' account 
book : — 

"Be it remembered that on the 23rd day of July, 1841, 
between the hours of seven and eight o'clock at night, Jane 
Liptrot, of Altcar, in tlie county of Lancaster, spinster, delivered 
the contents of her will, containing the following legacies, and 
was taken down by James Norris, of Altcar, schoolmaster, in the 
presence of Ruth Roby, but she died about two o'clock the 
following morning, being nearly an hour before the said James 
Norris had written the will, and made it ready. for her and the 
witnesses to sign in the usual form in order to give validity to. 
the will. 

"Therefore Samuel Liptrot, of Altcar, aforesaid, being the 
only brother of the said Jane Liptrot, and sole Heir at Law to 
all her real and personal property, but as he had no wish or 
desire whatever to take advantage of the law in respect of the 
writing purporting to be her last Will and Testament, he therefore 
ordered, and it appeared to be his anxious request, that the 

Motes on A It car Parish. igg. 

following legacies should be paid out of his said sister Jane. 
Liptrot's personal Estate and Effects by Christopher Richmond, r 
son of Christopher Richmond of Thornton, in the said County, : 
to the respective parties hereinafter named, as if the said will of 
his said sister, Jane Liptrot, had been valid to all intents and . 

" Legacies bequeathed by the said fane Liptrot, 

" I. To the Incumbent and Churchwardens of the Parish^ 
Church at Altcar, and to all the successors thereof in perpetuity 
the sum of Fifty Pounds upon Trust to place the same either- 
out at Interest upon good security, or in the purchase of some 
premises, or in any way they may devise, so that the said sum of 
Fifty Pounds may produce a yearly interest. Rent, or Profit, and 
to pay and apply the said yearly interest, Rent, or Profit yearly, 
and every year, for the benefit of the Poor of the said Parish for 
ever, in such manner and at such times as they shall in their . 
discretion think proper. 

" 2. To the churchwardens and overseers for the time being of 
the Parish of Altcar the sum of Nineteen Pounds and Nineteen 
Shillings upon Trust to be by them placed out at Interest upon 
good security, and the interest thereof to be by them or their 
successors paid and applied for the benefit of the Schoolmaster 
thereof of the Day School recently erected, yearly, and every 
year, and to his successor and successors for ever. 

** The two preceding legacies were paid to William Balshaw of. 
Hill House in Altcar by Christopher Richmond Jun' on the 
eleventh day of March, one thousand eight hundred and forty- 

At present (1895) £jo^ the result of this charity, 
is deposited in the Liverpool Savings Bank, and 
the yearly interest amounts to £1 15s. Of this 
sum twelve shillings is annually paid to the school- 
master, and the rest is placed in the clothing club 
fund for the poor, which is distributed each 

PETER Darwin's charity. 

The following is a copy of the bequest which 
appears in the will of Peter Darwin, farmer, who 
died at his residence. Gore House, Altcar, on the 
14th of June, 1888 : — 

" Four Hundred Pounds to the Minister and Churchwardens 
for the time being of Altcar Church, to be paid out of my read]^ 

200 Notes on Altcar Parish. 

money, and by them invested in any Government security or in 
Liverpool Dock or Corporation Bonds or Annuities, and the 
interest to be laid out in Bread, Coals, and Clothing, and 
distributed twice a year among the deserving poor of the Town- 
ship of Altcar, and to be called * Peter Darwin's Charity.* " 

The above and the following are inscribed in the 
account book of Peter Darwin's Charity. 

" The amount actually handed over to the Trustees by the 
Executors, after the payment of Duty, &c., was Three hundred 
and fifty-nine pounds, ten shillings, which sum was invested by 
the said Trustees in the Funds of the Mersey Docks and 
Harbour Board at Liverpool (Dock Annuities) on the 25th day 
of January, in the year of our Lord, One thousand Eight 
Hundred and Eighty-nine, the Annuity arising therefrom being 
Thirteen Pounds and Eightpence, which is payable half-yearly, 
on the first day of April and the first day of October." 

** Signed Wm. Warburton, Vicar of Altcar. 
James Dickinson, | pj^,, 
Thomas Burgess, j^nurcnwaraens. 

" 25th March, 1889.*' 

The oldest school remembered by the present 
inhabitants was a '* clam, stave, and daub " 
building, which was opposite to the entrance of 
the east road leading to the church. The school- 
master, who was also parish clerk, was James 
Norris. The building was taken down, and a new 
school erected by Lord Sefton in 1840, and this 
again was vsupplanted by the present commodious 
schoolroom and master's house in 1865. These 
last were built for the educational benefit of the 
parish by Lord Sefton. 


In 'Very early times, most of the land of Altcar 
was moss or marsh land, much of which in winter 
was flooded. The best land is a ridge running 
longitudinally through the centre, and is rather 
heavy clay. To the north of this strip is the moss 
land, and to the south the carr lands. (I am leaving 
out of consideration Little Altcar, which is sandy, 

Notes on A Hear Parish. 201 

like Formby.) The moss lands and carr lands, 
being of little value, were neglected, and the carr 
lands probably became studded with nature-sown 
ash, alder, birch, and oak trees. Some of the 
natural forests of Lancashire were nine or ten 
miles long at the time of the Domesday Survey. 
In these woods, wolves, wild boar, and wild cattle 

Forests existed in Altcar, and were more or less 
cleared before the Roman invasion. We are told 
that it was from the Roman station of Mancunium 
(Manchester) that the swampy forests of Lanca- 
shire and Cheshire were controlled. 

There are many trees and roots buried in the 
moss lands and carr lands of Altcar. Every now 
and then a plough comes into contact with one of 
these long-buried trees — not to the benefit of the 
plough. I have examined some roots taken from 
the moss, and a large quantity of roots and trees 
recently dug out of the carr lands near Lydiate 
Station by Mr. C. H. Milbourn on the Gore House 
Farm. They are chiefly oak trees. The trunk of 
one of them must have been 2ft. 6ins. in diameter, 
and oaks of considerable size must have been plen- 
tiful. There are also some trees of softer wood, 
which seem to be black poplar. Many of the trees 
have been cut down ; but, in some cases, it would 
appear that the trees had been torn up by the roots 
by some storm in the higher grounds, and been 
floated down the flooded waters of the Alt, to be 
covered in the course of centuries with alluvial 
deposit. In cuttir\^ the drainage sluices, the horns 
and bones of wild animals have been found buried 
with the trees. Much of the timber is sound and 
undecayed, while some is so soft that it can be cut 
with a spade. Whatever may have been the case 
with the carr lands, no oak trees can have grown 
on the moss lands, and the treesi there found 


2oa Notes on Altcar Parish. 

buried must have been introduced from extraneous 

^' The very severe forest laws which proved such 
a heavy burden, and subsequently filled Sherwood 
Forest with outlaws, were originated by Canute. 
By Canute's ** Charter of Forest," in 1016, if any 
man offered violence to one of the '* chief men of the 
forest," ** if a freeman, he was to lose his freedom, 
*' and all that he had ; and if a villein his right hand 
*' was to be cut off for the first offence, for the second 
*' he suffered death, whether a freeman or a slave. 
** Offences in the forest were punished according to 
** the manner and quality of the offender : any 
** person either casually or wilfully chasing or 
*' hunting a beast of the forest, so that by swiftness 
'* of the course the beast pant for breath, was to 
*' forfeit los. to the king; if not a freeman, 20s.; if a 
** bondman, to lose his skin. Greyhounds were to 
*' have their knees cut, or be kept ten miles from 
*' the bounds of a royal forest. If a royal beast 
** was bitten by a mad dog, the owner of the dog 
** was to answer as for the greatest offence of the 
** forest, namely, with his life." 

After the Norman invasion, the Norman and 
early Plantagenet kings and their families were 
fond of hunting, and claimed the right to extend 
the forests, and in Lancashire this pretended right 
was much abused. So strict were these laws, that 
farmers were not allowed to drive swine, or to 
gather honey in the forests on their own land. The 
killing of .a deer was sometimes punished by niuti- 
lation or death, and we find the nobility, and even 
the clergy, severely punished for the breach of the 
forest laws. We read how — 

42 « \ym Blundell of Ince was presented, for that he, and others, 
concealed themselves in Maghull wood; and afterwards, with, 
their dogs, took a doe in the water of the Alt, near Ingwath." 

. - M/^aXnt^* Lamashire, vol. i., p. 247. . ::j 

42 Caines' and Fairbairn^s Lancushirt and Cheshire^ vol. i.» p. 574* 

Nates on Altcar Parish. 203 

In the early days of these forests the timbers 
were carefully preserved, and even the numbers of 
squirrels prevented from becoming so numerous as 
to consume the acorns and hinder the multiplication 
of oaks. The *' Charter of Forests," however, 
granted during the minority of Henry III. (1228), 
checked the creation of new forests and the exten- 
sion of old ones. It declared all forests illegal 
which had been impaled subsequent to 1154. 
Among the forests declared to have been illegally 
planted, or impaled, were Croxteth, Altcar, Hale, 
and Simonswood. Notwithstanding this declara- 
tion, Croxteth and Simonswood forests remained" 
unmolested, and were sold to the Molyneux family 
in the reign of Henry Till. Altcar it was decided 
to disafforest, and these are the words of the 

43 "We further say that Altckar was put within pales after the^ 
coronation of King Henry, your grandfather, and belongs— a 
certain part to the vill of Ines (Ince) and to Ramsmelis (Raven 
meols) and to Forn)by, and to Holand and Lydgate, and ought 
to be disafforested." 

We see here how the forest of '* Altekar " extended 
to the surrounding townships and overshadowed 
them by its name. 

The Crown, and the earls and dukes of Lancaster 
after this continued to struggle for the existence, 
and extension, and acknowledgment of the royal 
forests, but Altcar forest had not only been doomed, 
but fell; for in 1337, in the. reign of Edward III, 
the following townships, among others, are men- 
tioned as being in the king's forest, and in the list 
Altcar is omitted : Parva Crosseby, Magna Crosse- 
by, Thornton, Ins, Sefton, Aghton, Maghul, Mel- 
linge, Lydiate, DownhoUand, and Formby. Alt- 
car's forest proper seems to have been destroyed ; 
but the outskirts of the large Altcar forest in 

43 Baines* and Fairbaim*s Lancashire and Cheshire^ vol. i., pt 577* . 

204 Notes on Altcar Parish. 

Lydiate, Downholland, and Formby remained un- 
disturbed. It is possible that some of the trunks 
of trees that are now occasionally disembedded are 
trees that were cut down in the reign of Henry III, 
upwards of 600 years ago. 

Mr. C. Potter, who has examined them, thinks 
that many of the trees belong to a distant age, and 
as nearly all the buried oak trees lie with their roots 
to the west, and their trunks pointing eastward, 
it is not impossible that, many ages ago, some 
cataclysm from the west has carried them to the 
places where they now lie. 

In connection with the foregoing paper ^ the Editor 
adds the following 


1086. Domesday Survey, wherein it appears that 
Uctred held Acrer, where was half a carucate of 
land. It was waste. Soon after this, the land 
between the Ribble and the Mersey was granted 
by William the Conqueror to Roger of Poictou, 
Earl of Lancaster, who rebelled towards the 
close of William's reign, and went into exile. 
William Rufus restored to him his lands and 
honours ; but in 

1 102 he rebelled again, was banished, and his 
estate^ forfeited to the Crown. 

1229. L^nds between Ribble and Mersey, pre- 
viously granted to his forefathers, were cdrifirniled 
by Henry III to Ranulph, sixth Earl of Chester. 

1232. Death of Ranulph, without issue, when his 
lands between Ribble and Mersey passed to one 
of his sisters and co-heirs, Agnes, wife of William 
de. Ferrers, sixth Earl of Derby ^ 

Notes on Altcar Parish. 205 

About 1232. Grant, by two separate deeds without 
date, preserved at Croxteth, by William de Fer- 
rers, Earl of Derby, of the manor or lordship of 
Alker to the abbot and monks of Miravalle. 

1238. Award of the abbots of Roche, Kirkstall, 
and Salley in a dispute between the abbots and 
monks of Stanlaw and Miravalle, respecting 
pasturage on lands adjacent to the River Alt. 
Original is at Croxteth. (See Coucher Book of 
Whalleyj p. 512.) 

Before 1243. Grant by John Lea (who died in 
1243), owner of Ravensmeols, to the abbot and 
monks of Miravalle of a right of way from their 
land, over his, to the king's highway between 
Ravensmeols and Alt Bridge. The original is 
at Croxteth. 

1246. Death of William, Earl of Derby. 

About 1246. Confirmation by Countess Agnes, by 
deed without date, preserved at Croxteth, of her 
husband's grant of Alker to the abbot and 
monks of Miravalle. She is said to have died 
within a few months of her husband. 

1274. Agreement between the abbots and monks 
of Stanlaw and Miravalle as to imbanking the 
River Alt, so as to prevent inundations. (See 
Coucher Book of Whalley^ p. 513.) 

1293. Action brought by King Edward I against 
the abbot and monks of Miravalle, to recover 
possession of a messuage and one carucate of 
land in Altekar. To this we may suppose the 
abbot made a good defence, as there is no 
further record of the proceedings, and the 
community remained in possession until the 
dissolution of monasteries in King Henry VI IPs 

13 10. Grant by Robert de Halsall (original pre- 
served at Croxteth) to the abbot and monks of 
Miravalle of a right of way over the grantor's 

2o6 ' Notes en A If ear Parish. 

land from Holbeckgate, in Alker, to a road in the 
village of Lydiate, in consideration of perpetual 
prayers on the part of the abbot and monks for 

. the souls of him and his ancestors. 

1365. Suit in the Consistory Court of Lichfield 
and Coventry, between the abbot and monks of 
Miravalle and the rector of Halsall, as to 
boundaries of Alker and Halsall, of which the 
contemporary copy record is at Croxteth. 

1440. Grant, of which . the original is at Croxteth, 
by Sir Richard Molyneux, to the abbot and monks 
of Miravalle, of the advowson of Sefton Church 
and four acres of land, in exchange for the 
reversion of the manor or lordship of Alker. It 
was at the same time agreed that the abbot 
should send a monk to reside at Sefton, and that 
. Sir Richard should find him meat and drink and 
a chamber to live in. 

1530. Suit brought in the Duchy Court by the 
abbot of Miravalle against Thomas Halsall, lord 
of the manor of Downholland, concerning the 
boundaries of, and rights of turbary in, Alker 
and Downholland. Contemporary copy record 
of proceedings is at Croxteth. 

^539- By Act of Parliament (31 Henry VHI, c. 13), 
.all monasteries in England were dissolved and 
granted to the king, when Alker, as part of the 
possessions of the abbot and monks of Miravalle, 
came into the possession of the Crown. 

1558, May 4. Letters patent of King Philip and 
Queen Mary, granting, for valuable considera- 
tions, to Sir Richard Molyneux, Knight, the 
manor or lordship of Alker, late part of the 
possessions of the dissolved Abbey of Miravalle. 
The original is among the Molyneux muniments 
at Croxteth, 




By William Frederick Price. 

Read 5th December, 1895. 

THIS ancient and interesting ecclesiastical 
edifice, better known as '* Douglas Chapel,'* 
was demolished in 1878. It was situated at the 
foot of Parbold Hill, in the township of Parbold, 
and lay hidden in a picturesque and sequestered 

Parbold Hill, with its extensive stone quarries, 
is a familiar object to travellers on the Lancashire 
and Yorkshire Railway between Southport arid 
Wigan. It is the most prominent feature of a 
range consisting of Parbold, Hunters, and Harrock 
Hills ; and on the opposite side of the valley is 
another range, comprising Ashurst, Upholland, 
and Billinge. Parbold and Ashurst Hills stand 
like sentinels at the neck of a beautiful and well- 
timbered valley, which is watered by the River 
Douglas,' a sluggish stream, with high banks, 
veiled with alder, willows, and poplar. This river 


» A Celtic river-name. The word ** dhu," black, appears in five rivers in 
Wales, three in Scotland, and one in Dorset, which are called Dulas. There 
are also two in Scotland and one in Lancashire called the Douglas ; and we 
have the Dculas in Radnor, the Dowles in Shropshire, and the Diggles in 
Lancashire. — Rev. I. Taylor, Words and Places^ p. 143* 

2o8 Historical Notes on Douglas Chapel. 

takes its source among the hills of Rivington, 
flows through the town of Wigan,^ past Gathurst, 
Appley Bridge, Parbold, Rufford, and Tarleton, 
and joins the Ribble estuary at Hesketh Bank. 

" Swart Dulas comino; in from Wigan, with her aids 
Short Tawd and Dartow small two little country maids, 
In these low watery lands and moory mosses bred." 3 

The now fertile plain through which the Douglas 
meanders from Parbold to its estuary, appears to 
have been, even to a late date, a vast swamp, 
intersected with forests, where the Celt and his 
Saxon successors hunted for big game, plied their 
canoes among the broad lagoons, and built their 
pile dwellings on the margin of the Meer. The 
remains of forests at Hoscar and Bescar, the dis- 
covery of ancient canoes in Merton — also called 
'*Marton" and *' Martin" — Meer, and the local 
nomenclature, all supply us with these facts. We 
can now hardly realize that in this little-known 
corner of Lancashire there existed until late in the 
seventeenth century a lake twenty miles in circuit 
called Merton Meer, within which were three small 
islands, and this ** Meer emptieth itself one way 
**into the River Douglas and by another Rivulet 
** falleth into the sea at North Meols.*' ^ 

The following extract from Lancashire Church 
Surveys in 1650^ is useful in giving an idea of the 
state of the country at that time : — 

**And also for that there is a great river called Astlan over 
which the inhabitants of the said towns of Tarleton, Holmes, 
Sollom, Hesketh and Becconsall cannot pass unto Croston 
Church without a boat, neither can they pass with a boat in some 

2 Leiand, the antiquary, 1536-1542, writing of Wigan, says: — " Dugles 
** Ryver camming by Wigan market goith into the se by hitself toward 

3 Drayton's Poiyolhion. 

4 BIome*s Britannia, 

5 Record Society of Lancashire and Cheshire^ vol. i, p. no. 

Historical Notes on Douglas Chapel. 209 

seasons of the year by reason of the great inundation of the said 
waters there, and also by reason of the great river of Duglas, the 
fenny pool, and the river of Yarrow overflowing the way for all 
the most part of the winter time." 

It is hardly necessary to repeat here the well- 
known tradition which associates the river Douglas 
with some of King Arthur's most sanguinary 
engagements ; but there is also a tradition that 
Douglas Chapel was originally built to commemo- 
rate a victory or victories, of the Saxons over the 

The river would afford easy and natural ingress 
into this valley for the bold and adventurous Danes, 
and having once entered it, the configuration of 
the surrounding country would give the Saxons an 
admirable strategic position to attack the invaders 
and cut off their retreat seawards. 

It seems to me most probable that at the period 
of the Danish incursions the Douglas was navigable 
from its estuary to a point beyond Douglas Chapel, 
and that it bore upon its dark waters many a roving 

As the place names in the Douglas valley indicate 
an extensive Saxon colonization, the traditional 
Saxon origin of Douglas Chapel has its probabili- 
ties ; and whatever claims the Douglas valley may 
have to be the scene of King Arthur's battles, 
local tradition is quite clear and distinct as to the 
fact that the Danes and Saxons met in conflict on 
the banks of this river.^ 

Having taken a cursory glance at the character 
of the surrounding country, it will be necessary to 
refer briefly to the Lathoms^ of Lathom and Par- 

6 About the middle of the last century a large number of human bones and 
an amazing quantity of horse shoes of small size were found near the banks of 
the Douglas, between Douglas Chapel and Wigan, indicating sanguinary 
military operations, — Fide Baines' /Tw/. Lancashire, vol. ii, p. 604. 

7 Sometimes spelt ** Lathum " and ** Latham." 

2ib Historical Notes on Douglas Chapel. 

bold, whose history seems to be interwoven with 
that of Douglas Chapel. 

Sir Thomas de Lathom gave the manor of Par- 
bold to his son Edward, in the 3gth of Edward 1 11.^ 
This Edward Lathom is styled '' of Parbold/*^ and 
in the i8th Henry VIII we find William Lathom 
asserts that he and his ancestors have been '*with-' 
** out tyme of mynde founders and patrons of the 
-** said chapel." 

In the gth of Queen Elizabeth the manor of 
Parbold was held by Richard Lathom, and con- 
tinued in his family until the beginning of the 
eighteenth centurv. 

It would seem that the Parbold branch of the 
Lathom family not only held the manor but were 
resident in Parbold. This I think evident by the 
following extract from the will of Edward Legh'° of 
Hallam, co. Chester, dated 1606" : — 

" Item. I bequeath vnto my Nephew Lathom of Parbold my 
Rapier and dagger desiringe him and his bedfellowe to honor 
God w*^ prayers and thanksgeuinge daylie in theire house at Par- 
boldy and in so doinge God will bless them and theirs both in 
theire house and in the fields." 

Frequent entries occur in the Douglas Chapel 
registers of Lathoms of Parbold, from 1700 to 1800, 
and there appears to have been a marriage between 
one William Lathom and Dorothy Leigh, about 
1757' James Leigh, brother of Dorothy Leigh, 
was owner of Bannister House, Parbold, and re- 
ceived rent for a pew in Douglas Chapel.'^ 

I have not so far been able to identify the Par- 
bold residence of the Lathom family. The present 

8 "The family of Lathom was of great note in the county at an early 
period after the Conquest." — Gregson*s Fragments^ p. 241. 

9 Gastreirs Notiiia^ pt. iii, p. 373. 

w Brother of Sir Peter Legh of Lyme. 

11 Rec9rd Society — Lane, and Cheshire Wilts — vol. xxx, p. 114. 

12 Private family papers of Rev. W. Price, in possession of the author. 

Historical Notes on Douglas Chapel. all 

Parbold Hall was not built till the beginning oiF the 
eighteenth century, when the Parbold estates passed 
to the Crisp family, from whom they were purchased 
about 1791 by William Dicconson of Wrightington. 

In 1601, Richard Lathom, Esq., of Parbold, was 
patron of the living of Eccleston, and the last of 
the Lathoms who had the presentation of Eccles- 
ton was William Lathom, after whose death, about 
1730, the advowson became vested in Thomas 
Crisp, Esq., Sheriff of Lancashire in 1716.'^ 

The Parbold branch of the Lathom family mar- 
ried into many of the county families, viz., Norris, 
Standish of Standish, Molineux of Melling, Scofield 
of Scofield, (fee.,'-* and they also appear to have been 
connected with the Leghs of Lyme. 

In the year 1246, a deed, appointing John Man- 
sell parson of Wigan, was attested by Robert de 
Lathom, '5 and a deed, dated 1239, in the Scaris- 
brick collection, is also witnessed by Robert, Lord 
of Lathom. 



My personal recollections of Douglas Chapel 
extend from the year i860 to 1874, during the in- 
cumbency of my father, the late Rev. W. Price, 
during which period I was a chorister in the chapel. 

As far as I am aware, no plans, drawings, or 
photographs of the building exist, except those 
which serve to illustrate this paper ; and as the 
number of persons who could give a clear and 
descriptive account of the chapel is yearly getting 
smaller, I must make this my apology for here 
entering into details which might otherwise seem 

13 Gastreirs Notitia^ pp. 371, 372. 

14 Flowers* ViUtcUion is(>7* 

15 Vide Hist, of the Church and Manor of Wigan^ by Canon Bridgeomh'. ^ 

P 2 

2ia Historical Notes on Douglas Chapel. 

The building lay east and west, on a slight 
elevation, about 150 yards north of the river 
Douglas, where its foundations still remain. It had 
externally a mean and somewhat barn-like appear- 
ance, being blocked in on the north side by an inn 
known as the ** Chapel House,*' which, judging 
from its title, may possibly occupy the site of the 
residence of the chantry priest. The outbuildings 
of this inn . abutted close against the chapel walls 
on the north, and the floor of the chapel was con- 
siderably below the level of the ground on this side. 

The stone of which the chapel was built is of a 
hard and weather-enduring nature, such as is now 
hewn from Parbold quarries. It is composed 
principally of white quartz, but contains felspar 
and mica, so that it somewhat resembles granite, 
and is known locally as the ** rough rock,'' or mill- 
stone grit."'^ 

The building was rectangular, and was extensively 
buttressed, there being two large buttresses at the 
east end (visible in the photograph), two on the 
north side, and two on the south side. 

As the Douglas frequently overflows its banks in 
the winter months to such an extent as to render it 
almost impossible to approach the chapel from the 
south or river side, I surmise this may to some 
extent account for the buttressing above mentioned ; 
for when the Douglas was navigable up to Wigan'^ 
there would be a still greater volume of water than 
now, and the building may have been undermined 
by floods. 

There was apparently no graveyard or burial 
ground attached to the chapel, but unbaptised 
infants were occavsionally interred in the small plot 

16 Tke Geology of the Country around Wigan, Edward Hull, B.A., F.G.S., 
p. 8. 

»7 An Act of Parliament was obtained in 1720 to make the Douglas navi- 
gable to Wigan, 

Historical Notes on Douglas Chapel. 213 

of ground at the entrance in the north-west corner. 
Here the base of a stone cross is still in its place. 
It has the appearance of great age and is much 
weather-worn, and has been cut or broken to get 
out the shaft. The cross itself was in existence 
within the last eighty years. '^ 

In the year 1859, when laying down an apparatus 
for warming the chapel, a human skeleton was dug 
up from under the flag flooring in the south-west 
corner of the building ; the bones were very much 
decayed, and I believe they were re-interred. Later 
on I shall shew proof of burials within the chapel. 
They were, however, unaccountably few in number. 
A careful exploration of the ground around the 
chapel (which was used as an orchard and garden) 
might possibly reveal some traces of ancient burials 
outside the walls. 

There was evidence in the masonry of the east 
end that the chapel had at some time been under a 
double roof. At the west end was a small wooden 
campanile bell turret, which contained one bell ; 
an ugly and modern addition had been built at this 
end of the fabric to serve the purpose of a vestry, 
as well as to provide access by means of steps to 
the singers' gallery and the organ. The chapel was 
roofed with stone flags. 

It is probable that considerable alterations were 
made in the interior early in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, evidences of which occur in the date on the 
pulpit, the stained glass, and many of the oak pews 
and benches. 

The photograph of the interior gives a good 
general idea of the chapel, with the timbered roof 
supported by six solid oak pillars which rested upon 
octagonal bases of stone. These oak pillars were 
very roughly hewn (not sawn) out of the tree, and 

18 Private papers of Rev. W. Price 

214 Historical Notes on Douglas Chapel. 

had a thick coating of paint and varnish over 

Owing to the weather-resisting nature of the 
stone, the tracery and mullions of the windows 
were well preserved. Of the two large east win- 
dows it will be observed that the one on the south 
side of the chapel was lower than the one on the 
north side, corroborative of the theory that the 
building was at one time under two roofs and that 
it had been enlarged and altered. 

I have a careful sketch, made in 1866, of a small 
window at the east end ot the south wall, which 
contained pieces of glass— damaged probably in re- 
glazing — with the following inscription : 

" Johannes Bridgeman, Episcopus 
Cestriensis, et Rector de Wigan, omnes 
fenestras'9 in hac Capella pictias^^ fecic 
Anno Domini 1621." 

The mullions of this small window had also been 
damaged considerably. To this inscription, and 
its bearing on the history of the chapel, I shall 
have occasion again to refer. 

Next to this, in the centre of the south wall, 
came an ugly modern window, evidently put in to 
obtain more light, probably when the galleries were 
erected ; and in the south-west corner was another 
old window, similar in tracery to the one containing 
the inscription. 

The two old windows on the north side were 
identical with those above-mentioned in the south 

Against the north wall was a carved oak pulpit, 
which rested on an octagonal stone pillar, and in 

19 These two words were much oblilerated and are doubiful. Lelow ihis 
inscription wns another space of glass of about the same dimensions, which 
probably had contained coats of arms, and had apparently been broken away 
and replaced by modern glass. At each end of this lower panel there was a 
coloured border of old glass. 

Historical Notes on Douglas Chapel. 215 

front of this was an oak panelled reading desk. 
The pulpit, dated 1648, was removed, along with 
the desk and old font, to the new church on Parr 
bold Hill. 

Two galleries, one on the south side, and the 
other at the west end, the latter containing the 
organ (and originally the choir seats), were, of 
course, modern and ugly additions, erected about 
1810-15, for the accommodation of a boarding 
school at Parbold Hall."^" The chapel had seat 
room for 440, 32 of the seats being free. The 
only entrance to the building was an arched 
doorway in the north-west corner ; the door itself 
was of massive construction, made of double oak 
planks, riveted together with iron studs. The 
walls were thicklv coated with whitewash, and the 
flooring of the aisles was flagged. 

There were a few old oak benches and pews in 
the chapel, having initials, and dates of the first 
half of the seventeenth century, notably one with 
the name ** Nicholas Rigbye '' and a date carved 
upon it. This was in the south-east corner, and 
was always occupied by the family residing at 
Harrock Hall." The Parbold Hall pew adjoined 
this one. The chapel was absolutely devoid of 
any coats of arms, tablets, brasses, or monuments 
relating to the founders or any local families, and 
the inference is that at the time of the Reformation 
anything of this sort which may have existed was 
destroyed and ruthlessly swept away. 

The edifice, as it stood at the time of its demo- 
lition, consisted of a plain rectangular nave without 

20 These galleries were built during the incumbency of the Rev. John 
Johnson. — Private papers of Rev. John Price. 

21 Harrock Hall was in the possession of the Rigbye family anterior to the 
fifteenth century. The family continued in the male line until the death of 
Thomas Rigbye, Esq., who in 1775 devised Harrock Hall and other estates 
to his sister Eleanor Rigbye for her life, with remainder to his nephew, the 
Rev. John Baldwin, M.A., Rector of North Meols, who, in compliance with 
bis ^ncle's will, assumed the surname and furms of Rigbye.— GastiSell's itatUia, 

2l6 Historical Notes on Douglas Chapel. 

any chancel. It served to provide accommodation 
for the inhabitants of the village of Newburgh,^^ 
the hamlet of Parbold, and other more distant out- 
lying districts. The inhabitants of Newburgh used 
to attend Douglas Chapel, and rented a few pews 
of the minister, until a church was built at New- 
burgh in 1852.^^ Like most other old churches in 
Lancashire, Douglas Chapel is said to have received 
ill-usage at the hands of the Parliamentarian 
forces, who are said to have used it for stabling 
their horses during the siege of Lathom ; ^* and 
since it lay on their route from Wigan, via Stan- 
dish,^^ to Lathom, and within easy distance of the 
latter place, the story may possibly be true. 

In a map, published by John Speed in 1610,^^ 
Douglas Chapel is marked as ** Dowgles." 

The old chapel bell, recast in 1741 at Wigan, is 
now on the new schools on Parbold Hill, and the 
stones from the walls and windows of the old 
chapel were also utilised in building the schools. 
The old pews and timber were sold by auction. 

After having stood the storms of centuries, and 
survived some of the most revolutionary periods of 
English history, this ancient fabric succumbed at 
last to nineteenth century ** progress,** so that of it 
there is scarcely one stone left upon another. 


Concerning the early history of Douglas Chapel, 
much diligent search has produced but meagre 
results. Even so keen an historian as the late 
Canon Raines (whose report on the chantry I quote 

22 Noted for its fair and cakes. 

23 Private papers of Rev. John Price. 

24 Siege of Lathom, 27th February, 1643. 

25 The Parliamentarian forces proceeded from Wigan, vid Standisb, to the 
§iege of Lathom. — Gregson's Fragments^ p. 243. 

26 Binns' Collection of Maps of Lancashire, in Liverpool Free Library. 

Historical Notes on Douglas Chapel. 217 

in full on another page) seems to have been unable 
to elucidate much of its historv. A search at 
Chester has proved unfruitful as to early history, 
and I can now only hope that at some future time 
documents may turn up from unexpected sources, 
throwing more light on the subject, such as one 
recently discovered among the Scarisbrick papers, 
which contains the earliest reference to Douglas 
I have so far found. It is from the will of Thomas 
de Latham, dated 1369.''^ 

" !''"» ad ponP de Doggies et Cald ij mrc " 

t. jt'm Cuida Capetto ydoneo p celebracone dia p V annos XX'V 

This appears to recite a gift for the maintenance 
of the bridge of Douglas and to the chaplain or 
chapel for celebration of mass. 

The chantry in Douglas Chapel is said by Canon 
Raines — quoting the report of the Chantry Com- 
missioners appointed in 1545-6 — to have been 
founded by Henry Parbold. This, I suppose, should 
be Henry Lathom, of Parbold ; for Canon Raines 
himself admits, in a footnote, that he has not been 
able to discover a family bearing the name of Par- 
bold.^® Among the Scarisbrick deeds, which have 
been so ably indexed and transcribed by the Rev. 
Edward Powell, of Lydiate, there is an undated 
grant (which from internal evidence may be fixed 
about 1 1 80) by Adam de Waleton to Cockersand 
Abbey, one of the witnesses to which is ** Henry 
of Parbold.'* If, then, Henry de Lathom was the 
foiinder of this chantry, it seems to me highly 
probable that he is one and the same person \Yith 
Henry, the father of Robert de Lathom, who was 
the founder of Burscough Priory (ante 1199);^^ 
and to strengthen this suggestion, 1 shall be able 

... ' ' 

*7 Record Society of Lane, and Chesk,^ vol. xxx, p. 202. 

28 Lancashire Chantries^ p. 158. 

^ See Lathom pedigree — Gregson's Fragments^ p. 242. 

2i8 Historical Notes on Douglas ChapeL 

to shew a continuous connection between the 
Lathora family and Douglas, commencing in the 
twelfth century and continuing to the eighteenth. 

In 1526 we find Hugh Rigby, chaplain, having 
cause of complaint against his patron, William 
Lathom. This forms one of the most interesting 
episodes in the history of the chapel, and, I think, 
clears up any doubt as to the foundation of the 
chantry by the Lathom family. It also gives us 
the dedication, which had been lost, or probably 
suppressed after the Reformation. 

Hugh Rigby, Chaplain, versus William Latham, and Sir Henry 
Stondanought and others, re Parbole, alias Douglas ChapeL 

To the Right Honorable Syr Thomas Moore, Knyght, 
Chanceller of the Duchie of Lancastre. 

" Humble Sheweth " Hugh Rygby, of Parbalde, in the county 
of Lancaster, chaplain and incumbent of the Chapel of Our 
Blessed Lady in Parbald (Parbold in the parish of Eccleston) 
alias Dogles, that where one William Latham, of Parbald, Esq., 
being patron and founder of the said chapel which is endowed 
with certain messuages, lands, and tenements lying in the town of 
Parbald, and' that the said William and his ancestors have been 
" without tyme of mynde " founders and patrons of the said 
chapel as a chapel donative, and that it " hath been used by all 
the said time that the ancestors of the said William have used to 
gyve the said Chapell at such time as yt was voyde to a Chapcleyn 
able duryng the lyff of the seid Chapeleyn," which said chaplains 
and incumbents have enjoyed the same for the term of their 
lives without interruption : Now so it is, that at the time of fhe 
last avoidance of the said chapel, the same William Latham, by 
his deed sufficient in the law under his seal, granted the chapel, 
with the lands, &c., thereto belonging to your orator : to hold for 
his life, by reason whereof he entered into the same, and was 
thereof seised fpr about 3 years, until the i** day of June 
18 Henry VHI (1526), when Sir Henry Stondanought, clerk, 
Thomas Latham, husbandman, and John Latham, husbandman, 
with other riotous persons at the command of the said William 
Latham Esq., with force and arms entered upon the possession 
of your orator and distrained his tenants and compelled them by 
"coarcyon of distresse** to pay the said William the rents belong- 
ing to plaintiff and so the said persons '^deyly inquiete and 
troble " your said orator* 

Historical Notes on Douglas Chapel. 219 

And forasmuch as the said William is a great man in those 
parts and your orator a poor man, your orator is not able to 
l)ursue his remedy at the common law, and therefore prays for 
Letters of Privy Seal. 

The answer of Harry Standanought, Chaplen, to the 
by 11 of Compleynt of Hugh Rygby, Chaplen. 

For the declaration of the truth in the premises, the said Henry 
Standanought says that the said AVilliam Latham granted the said 
free chapel and all the messuages thereto belonging to the said 
now complainant for his life, upon condition that he should 
celebrate and say divine service in the said chapel to the said 
William and his heirs whenever he should be required to do so. 

About the 20'^ day of June 13 Henry VIII ^1521), and at 
divers other times and seasons, the said William Latham, by his 
ktters and otherwise, desired plaintiff, "at that time abydyng and 
dwellyng owt of the seyd Cowntie of Lancastre," to celebrate 
divine service before him, but he did not come at all, by force 
whereof the said William, by his deed, gave the said chapel, with 
all the appurts. to defendant, for terme of his life. 

Without that that he is guilty of any force, &c. 

The replication of Hugh Rygby, Chaplain. 

The said Hugh says that in his letters or donation to the said 
free chapel, express mention is made that for "seknes in his Body 
or other lawfuU impediment," he may be absent from the said 
chapel, and that he having an "occasion of Besynes" in servying 
of a cure in Somersetshire, had license from the said Latham to 
do his said business, and before his departure the said William 
lAtham agreed, by a writing under his hand, that in the absence 
of the said Hugh, Sir Henry Stondanought should serve the said 
chapel until the "recommyng" of plaintiff. This the said Sir 
Henry agreed to, he taking a certain stipend for so doing, but 
during plaintiff's absence he (Sir Henry) ** subtelly and disceit- 
fuUy obteyned" for himself from the said William Latham, 
" beyng an old gent and blind," new letters of donation to the 
said chapel. 

Afterwards plaintiff returned home and continued serving the 
said cure there ** by a good season," untill Sir Henry disturbed 
him and " put hym ffrom the Auter there as he was doyng dyvyn 
servyce there." 

Without that that the said Hugh was absent otherwise than by 
the license of the said WiUiam, &c., &c. 

" F.f . Hill A9 n H. viij xviijo. 

H'upon a prive seale to Sir Henry Standanought, prist, Thomas 
Latham, and John Latham, to apper xv Pasche prox.30 

Ifi Lancashire Pleadings^ vol. iv (Calendar a), R. lo, l8 Hen. VIII, 1526-27. 

220 Historical Notes on Douglas Chapel. 

Henry VIII, Edward VI, and Queen Mary.3» 

Chantry Priest. — Henry Standanought piste Incumbent ther 
of the fouhdacbn of Henrie P'balde to celebrate ther for the 
sowles of hime and his antecessors. 

Douglas Chantrie. — The sam chapell is w*hin the p'oche of 
Eccleston and distant from the p*och church iiij myles, the said 
Incumbent doth use to celebrate ther accordinglie. 

Plate and Vestment. — First one Chales pois by est 

viij onz. 

P* one vestment. 

Endowment, Tenants and Rental. — Richard Fisher holdyth 
on tefite w*h thapptnnce beinge in P'balde in the Countie of Lan- 
castre by yere xxix^ viij*^. 

Thomas Habest holdyth one tente ther xvj». 

Thomas Lathom holdyth one teiite ther xij^. 

And the sam Incumbent recyvyth on annuall rent going furth 
of the landes ther called Ashetons howes^ by yere x* in all dewe 
at the ffeastes of Ixrij* viij**. 

James Lassell holdyth one acre of lande beinge in the ffeildes 
of Dalton in the said countie renting yerlie e.t. equallie . . . ij*. 

Sm totall of rentall Ixix* viij**. 

In a settlement of the evStates of Thomas Lathom, 
of Parbold, dated ist November, 1585, manors and 
lands in Parbold, Atherton, Wrightington, &c., are 
enumerated; and also lands called **the Chappell 
** Flat!, the two acre '* and various other plots of 
land, lying and being in Parbold, ** late in the 
^'occupation of Henry Stanynought, Gierke de- 
** ceased'' and amounting to three score acres 
valued at 5s. per acre. These were obviously a 
portion of the chantry lands. — Lancashire MSS., 
Vol. xxxviii, p. 467. 

..In 1616 John Bridgeman became Rector of 
Wigan, and we are told that when he was appointed 
to the See of Chester in 1619 the churches in his 
diqcese had fallen into a sad state of neglect and 

31 Canon Raines* Lane. Chattiries — Chetham Societjr, vol. i, pp. 158, 159. 
•V32'Ait Dkif oil, near Ashurst Hall. -a-. - 

Historical Notes on Douglas Chapel. 221 

decay, and that he immediately set about restoring 

He benefited Douglas Chapel by giving glass for 
the windows in 162 1, and I have a drawing^^ of 
the inscription on glass which states this fret. 

The glass taken out of the windows when the 
church was pulled down was, I understand, packed 
in a box and now lies in the vicarage coach-house, 
but whether this interesting piece of Bishop Bridge- 
man's glass was preserved or not I am unable to 
say. Bishop Bridgeman was a lifelong friend of 
Archbishop Laud, and was chaplain to the king. 
Through royal influence, the Bridgeman family 
obtained valuable appointments in Church and 
State. Bishop Bridgeman's third son, Henrj^, 
became Dean of Chester in 1660, and was elected 
to the See of Sodor and Man in 167 1. He was a 
favourite of James seventh Earl of Derby, and 
attended him at his execution, at Bolton, October 
15th, 1651. 

In January, 1636, Bishop Bridgeman was able 
to report to his archbishop that he had brought 
most of the churches in his diocese ** to uniformity 
and decency.'' ^^ 

1648 being the date of the pulpit, probably 
some further re-arrangement and restoration of 
the chapel took place at this time. 

The connection of Douglas with Eccleston after 
the Reformation is chiefly set forth in the Lanca- 
shire Church Survey, 1650.^^ 

** And we do also present that in the said town of Parbold 
there is a Chappell, called Duglas Chappell, situated at the 
furthest point of the said township and parish of Eccleston, 
and a donative of twenty pounds in the hands of Andrew 
Whittle of Wrightington. And that the interest of the said 

33 This inscription is given on p. 214, an/e. 

34 History of the Church and Manor of Wigan^ vol. ii, p 395. 

35 Record Society of Lane, and Chesh.^ vol. i, page 1 16. 

222 Historical Notes on Douglas Chapel. 

donative is to be paid yearly towards the maintenance of a 
preaching minister there ; and another donative of ;^5, given 
by John 'J'oogood, late of Wrightington deceased, and likewise 
that the yearly interest thereof is to go to the minister of the 
said Chappell ; and we present that M*". \V*". Brownsword is 
minister at the said Chapel, and supplies the Cure, and is a 
godlie painful minister (but did not obseirve the 13'^ day of this 
instant month appointed by Act of Pal™' to be kept as a day of 
humiliation, and had notice of it by the Constable.) And that 
the said M"^ Brownsword hath for his salary and maintenance 
the yearly interest of the said donatives and ;£$$ per annum 
payed unto him by the said M"^ Gee,3^ parson of Eccleston, out 
of the profits of the tythes within the Parish of Eccleston; 
And we do also present that it is fit and necessary that the town 
of Parbold and the South and Southwest side of Wrightington 
abutting towards Parbold and lying nearer unto Duglas Chap- 
pell than any other Church or Chappell, bee appropriated and 
united thereunto, and the same to remain a Chappell ; And 
that the tithes and tenths of Parbold and part of Wrightington 
aforesaid, or cufficient maintenance for a godly preaching min- 
ister there, may be also appropriated and united to the said 

On the 24th August, 1662, the Rev. Jonathan 
Scholfield, minister of Douglas Chapel, was ejected 
from his benefice, owing to his refusal to assent 
to the Act of Uniformity, by which Act the use 
of the Book of Common Prayer was enforced in 
all public worship, and an unfeigned consent and 
assent was demanded from every minister of the 
Church to all which was contained in it. At this 
time nearly two thousand rectors and vicars were 
driven from their parishes as nonconformists.^^ 

The following account of some proceedings 
before the Consistory Court at Chester,^^ in 1667, 
with reference to pews in Douglas Chapel, is 
interesting : — 

"To all Xtian People to whom these presents shall come 
Greeting, Wee whose names are subscribed some of us Inhabitants 

36 Rector of Eccleston in 1650. He was a Presbyterian, and. wrote several 
theological works. Gastrell's Notitia^ p. 392. 

37 Green's History of the English People, p. 1330. 

38 MS. in Bishop's Registry, Chester. 

Historical Notes on Douglas Chapel. 223 

of y* parish of Eccleston and all of us neighbouring to the 
Chappell of Douglas w*in that p'ish Do by these presents certifie 
That Samuel Prescott of I^athom, yeoman, is by marriage rightful 
owner of a messuage and a considerable p*cell of land contiguous 
to and founded within y« Chantry of y« s** Chappell, That Hugh 
Rigbie Grandfather to Elizabeth wife of the s<^ Samuel precedent 
owner of y* s<^ land and from whom hee claimeth, did in his life 
erect a certain fform or seat within y* body of the s«^ Chappell 
containing seventy six inches in length and thirty nine inches in 
breadth or thereabouts, adjoyning to the seat of William Crooke 
Eastwards and Margaret Anderton Westwards, that during his 
life time hee did repair it and Sitt in and injoy it without 
molestation or disturbance from any. And though the s^ land 
bee founded within the Chantry of the s<^ Chappell and is far 
remote from the parish church of Eccleston yet doth not y* s<* 
Samuel claim any other seat, fform, or sitting place within 
y® s*^ Chappell by reason of his %^ estate that wee know of. 

" In witness whereof wee have hereunto subscribed our names 
this 23 day of Feby Anno Dom 1667. 

" (Signed) James Bannester. Thomas Crane. 

Richard Prescott, Richard Prfescott. 

John Draper. Thomas Amery. 

Henry Lathom. William Wilson. 

Henry Draper. John Draper. 

Edward Ascough. Raph Crane." 

Another reference to a seat in Douglas Chapel 
occurs on the loth of January, 1679 : — 

" Grant of Seat to Peter Rigbie de Lathom * intra navim 
ejusdem citum * 6 feet 2 inches in length and 2 feet 6 inches in 
width between the seats of Thomas Marsden clerici on the West 
side and that of Margaret Roper on the East side." 39 

After this date I have no further notes of interest 
till 17 17, when Bishop GastrelPs commissioners 
made their report, which I have copied from the 
original at Chester. 

" Pursuant to the order received underwritten is an account 
of the distance and yearly value of the Chapel within the Parish 
of Eccleston and County of Lancaster and Diocese of Chester. 

" I. Within the said Parish and in the small village of Parbold 
there is a chapel of ease called Douglass Chapel. 

39 MS. in Bishop's Registry, Chester. 

224 Historical Notes on Douglas Chapel. 

"2 It is 153 miles distant from the City of London 3 miles 
from the Chapel of Upholland and 4 miles from the Mother 
Church, it is placed at the extremity of the said Parish and seems 
to have been erected rather for the convenience of the adjoining 
Parishes (Wigan & Ormskirk) than for the advantage of this, the 
congregation tho' numerous consisting mostly of the inhabitants 
of those parishes ; however it is supplyed by John Mercer, Rector 
of Eccleston, or his Curate, every Sunday in the year except when 
the Sacrament is administered at the Mother Church. 

"3. Mr. Burning of Bispham left Forty Shillings yearly for 
ever to the said Chapel and 150 Pounds given by several persons 
at several times and it is put out upon land security and the 
interest thereof duly paid. 

" 4. Twenty Shillings p. ann. is left to the said Chapel during 
the life of Richard Hawet who is above 70. 

** 5. The surplice flees usually amount to ten Shillings per ann. 

*' 6. Six Pounds more belonging to the said Chapel is lodged 
in mv hands to be put out to interest. 

*' The account on the other side is attested by us. 

** (Signed) Joh. Mercer, Rec' of Eccleston, 

Roger Topping, 
Thomas T Lancaster, 
his mark 

"May 23, i7i7."4o 


The silver alms dish and two chalices are 
inscribed : — 

" The gift of Eleanor 
Daughter of Nicholas 
Rigbye Esq. of Harrock 
Douglas Chappel 1749 '* 

The two patens have no inscription, and the large 
silver flagon was presented by the Rev. W. Yates, 
Rector of Eccleston in 1840. 

I found at the Bishop's Registry, Chester, a 
report, dated 1804, from the Rev. John Johnson, 
then incumbent of Douglas Chapel, of which the 
following is a copy : — 

40 MS. in Bishop's Registry, Chester. 

'Historical Notes on Douglas Chapel. 225 

"In the Chapelry of Douglas are 67 Papists, one person viz. 
Tho* Bimpson Jun' perverted to Popery by marrying a Papist 

" There are three places where they assemble for worship, viz : 
Wrightington Hall, Parbold Hall,- and Fairhurst Hall, their 
priests are Mr. Felix Delalond of Wrightington Hall, Mr. Marsh 
of Parbold Hall, and Mr. Orton of Fairhurst Hall, there is a 
popish school kept at Parbold Hall by Mr. Marsh.^' Stipend 
jCsI ^ y^^^ ^4° ^^ which arises from the augmentation by Lot 
from Queen Annes Bounty, laid out in land let for that money in 
Hoole, ;;^i2 left by Legacys and j£s ^^^ perpetuation of the 
Rector of Eccleston making together the jQsi*' 


The registers actually kept at Douglas Chapel 
only commenced in 1813, but on making a search 
at the parish church at Eccleston, I found among 
the carefully kept registers there entries of burials 
and weddings at Douglas in the seventeenth 
century. The burials were within the church, 
presumably, and I have been quite unable to 
account for the small number recorded. It has 
always been doubted whether Douglas Chapel had 
been consecrated, and if there had ever been a 
consecrated burial ground the site of it has been 
lost. The following is a copy of the burials at 
Douglas from the Eccleston registers : — 

" 1682-3, ^^by 24. Rob* Walke a Scothman 

Buried at Douglass 
Aflf* Mar. 20'^. 

41 Richard Marsh, O.S.B., born 1762, son of Peter Marsh, junr., of 
liindley, near Wigan, became Prior of the Benedictine Monastery at Dieul- 
ward in 1789, escaped thence the night it was seized, 15th October, 1793, 
joined his refugee brethren at Acton Burnell in 1794, with whom, after many 
changes of residence, he settled at Parbold in 1802. In this year he resigned 
the Piiorship, the community removed to Ampleforth, and he opened a 
. boarding school at Parbold iiall, which he continued for about two years. 
He was subsequently Prior of Ampleforth Monastery, twice President- 
General of his Order, and in 1838 received the titular dignity of Ab1)0t of 
Westminstef. He died at Rixlon, near Warrington, 13 Feb., 1843, aged 80 
jears.— Editor. 

226 /Historical Notes on Douglas Chapel. 

" 1684, Augst 13. Rob* Simpson of Parboldt 

Aff* bro* Augst 16^ 
Buried at Douglas 

" 1689, Feby 15. Jane Turner of Parbold 

Buried at Dug : Chap 
Afft B. 20^." 

. The dates of the weddings recorded are : — August 
17th, 1721, January 28th, 1722, August loth, 1724, 
by license from Rector of Ormskirk; September 
27th, 1724, by license from Rector of Eccleston ; 
January 17th, 1725, one marriage by license. 

Whilst searching through the Eccleston registers, 
. I found some interesting entries in the Eccleston 
parish account book, having reference to Douglas 
Chapel. These entries, commencing in 1712, cover 
the period mentioned by Bishop GastrelPs commis- 
sioners, when the Rector of Eccleston and his 
curate seem to have supplied the needs of the 
chapel from the parish church. 

The entry, ** Spent at cutting y« trees," is of 
special interest, as it seems to confirm the suggestion 
made by the late Rev. W. Price, that the land 
-surrounding the chapel has been encroached upon. 
In i860 there were only two or three small trees 
in existence at the west end of the chapel, and 
these were certainly of not more than thirty years 
growth . 

The following are a few of the entries referred 
to, and it will be noticed that *' singers " were not 
an expensive item. 


FROM THE Eccleston Parish Account Book — 

Robert Billinge, Churchwarden, 17 12. 

£ s. d. 
'17 12. Paid for a Common Prayer book for y® Clarke 
, Douglass Chappol - - - - .019 

Paid to y® Clarke of Douglass Chappol - -050 

Historical NoJes on Douglas' Chapel, ^zvj 

j*j 12 (continued). jC s, 6, 

Paid for carrying Bread and Wine to Douglass 
Chappol - - • - - - -006 

Paid to y« Clarke of Douglass Chappol for 
wasshing the surplice &c. - - - « o i o 

Paid for glazing and for a Bell rope at Douglas 
Chappol - -- -. . -008 

1 7 13. Paid for mending y« surplice at Douglas 

Chappel - - - - - - -006 

Paid to Adam Bate for 24 yards of flagging for 

Douglas Chappell - - * --080 

P^ for dressing and laying some stones y* 
mending Chappel - - - - -000 

1715. .Paid for a flaggon for Douglas Chappel - -026 

1723. Paid changing y« Communion flagon at Douglas 

Chappel - -019 

1 725. Spent at cutting y« trees in Douglas Chappel yard 003 

1726. Paid for carrying y* Communion table and rails 

to Douglas Chappel 009 

Paid to the White limer for work at Douglas 
Chappel r - - - - - -211 10 

Spent at measuring up y^ stones at Douglas 

Chappel 013 

1731, Spent upon Singers at Douglas Chapell - -006 

1741. Douglas Chappell bell recast at Wigan - -000 


From documents already quoted, it is evident 
that previous to the Reformation the chapel of 
Douglas was endowed with glebe laiids, some 
- particulars of which we glean from the researches 
'of Canon. Raines. For a period of 200 years after 
the Reformation, the incumbent's stipend seems to 
have been of a rather meagre and precarious 
nature, and in 1646 we are told of " tne present 
'* maintenance belonging thereto being not above 
** 20s. a yeare.'' ^ 

In 1623 Thomas Legh, of Hallam, bequeathed — 

Q a 

aa8 Historical Notes on Douglas Chapel. 

"To iDuglas Chapel by Perbold xx^* praying the good old parson 
of Standish43 my old maister & the parson of Eccleston to do 
their best to root out popery & do good & not to set them selvs 
too much of the . . . . of this world but to strive to winn 
-soules to God w*^^ is their best function." 44 

Other endowments recorded are — 

Previous to 1650.- — Andrew Whittle, of Wright- 
ington, a donation of ;f 20, the interest to be paid 
yearly towards the stipend of the minister. John 
..Toogood, late qf Wrightington, donation of £^. 
The incumbent received at this time, in addition 
to above, £^^ . per. annum from the Rector of 
Eccleston /5 

December 21st, 1646. — Ordered by Parliament 
that the yearly sum of £2^ ** be payed out of the 
** tythes of Culcheth, Esq. for the maintenance of 
** the minister of the Chappell of Douglasse 
** annexed to the parish church of Eccleston."^® 

November 8th, 1648. — Ordered, that the yearly 
vsum of 40S: be paid- by Robert -Hesketh, Esq., of 
Rufford, for the increase and maintenance of the 
minister, &C.'*'' - 

Previous to 1717. — Mr. Burning, of Bispham, 
left 40s; yearly ; Richard Hamet left 20s. yearly. 

1767. — The living augmented by Queen Anne's 
Bounty, by purchase of glebe lands at Hoole, 
consisting of eleven acres.^^ 

1840.— James Taylor, cotton spinner, of Bolton, 
gave a sum, during his lifetime, of ;f223 15s. 6d., 
invested in three per cent, consols, for the benefit 
of the incumbent of Douglas Chapel. This sum 
was left in the hands of six trustees — W. H. Talbot 

42 /decora Soci^y of Lancashire and Cheshire, vol, xxviii, p. 23. 

43 Mr. Leigh, Rector of Standish, 1620. 

44 Record Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, vol. xxx, p. 126. 

45 Ibid, vol. i, p. 116. 

46 Ibid, vol. xxviii, p. 4$. 

47 Ibid, vol. xxviii, p. 67. 

48 Private family papers, Rev. John Price. 

Historical Notes on Douglas Chapel. 2219 

of Chorley, William Widdows of Chorley, John 
Worthington, John Greener, John Rigby, and John 

1843. — Hannah Whalley's Charity, the interest 
of ;f 20 ; Miss Prescott, a donation of ;f 100 ; 
Jonathan Gillibrand, the interest of ;f 16 3s. 6d. ; 
Richard Welch, of Wrightington, ;f200. These 
benefactions were met by a grant from the Eccle- 
siastical Commissioners in i86g. 


1526. — Hugh Rigbye is the first Incumbent I 
have found recorded. All I know of him has 
already been given at length in the case ** Hugh 
** Rigbye versus William Lathom," &c. 

1547 to 1584-5. — Henry Stondanought.*^ At Bp. 
Bird's visitation call in 1547, Henry Stondanought 
was priest officiating in the parish of Eccleston, and 
in 1548 ** Harry Standanought the Priest Incum- 
*' bent was aged fifty six years." It does not seem 
quite clear when he became Incumbent of Douglas, 
but it is probable he followed Hugh Rigbye, and in 
1585 the glebe lands of Douglas are mentioned as 
*'late in the occupation of Henry Stonynought, 
** Gierke, deceased." Judging from the description 
given by Hugh Rigbye of the actions of Mr. Ston- 
danought when he **put hym (Mr. Rigbye) ffi-om 
** the Auter there as he was doing dyvyn servyce," 
the said Stondanought appears to have been the 
owner of a very appropriate name. 

1650. — William Brownsword was ** Minister" of 
Douglas at this date. He signed the ** Harmonious 
** Consent," 1648, and the ** Agreement of the 
** People," 1649. 

49 An interesting old house, still called "Stannanought's," is at the foot of 
Ashurst hill, about i} miles from Douglas Chapel. This was probably the 
residence of the Stondanought family, of whom this Henry would be a 

23^ Historical Notes on Douglas C/^dpii 

^ 1661-62. — Jonathan Scolfield signed the " Har- 
**'monious Consent" and *' Agreement of the Peo- 
** pie," in both cases as Minister of Heywood. He 
was afterwards at Douglas Chapel, whence he was 
ejected in 1662. Died in 1667, aged 70.^° • 

1679.— Thos. Marsden. Already referred to as 
Thomas Marsden, *' Clericus," in a grant of seat 
in Douglas Chapel to Peter Rigbie of Lathom. 

1717. — At this period it would appear there was 
no permanent incumbent, as Bishop Gastrell's 
commissioners report that the chapel was being 
served by John Mercer, Rector of Eccleston, or his 
curate. From this date onward I have obtained 
the names of the incumbents and other particulars 
relating to them from the Bishop's Registry at 

1728. — William Dewhurst, B.A. ** Nominated 
by John Mercer, Rector of Eccleston, to be curate 
in Douglas Chapel, and the Rector to allow 

* what now belongs to ye same Chapel and what 

* shall be raised by contribution to it.' 24 August 
1728. He was son of Clayton Dewhurst of 
Ribchester. Bapt. 2 Jan. 1703." 
1739, 20 Oct. — Thomas Wadeson. ** Of Hoole, 

nominated to Douglas by John Pearson Rector 
of Eccleston * which then had £1 1 the congre- 

* gation having promised /14 until Queen Annes 

* Bounty be procured,' and the Rector gave ;f 10 

?er annum during his incumbency at Eccfeston. 
'hat nomination was presented to his Lordship 
the Bishop on 24 Oct. and a connivance there- 
upon granted to officiate at Douglas Chapel 
without license till the Bounty be advanjced to 
the Chapel." . ■ .. 

1768. — William Knowles, Clerk. *'* Vicar 6f Orms- 
** kirk to officiate till at my request or that of jny 

so Vide History of Rochdale, by Lieut.-Col. Fbhwick. • - j: -^ ^ 

Historical Notes on Douglas Chapel, 231 

** successor he shall resign. — Nom : by Thos. 
** Walker, Rector of Eccleston." 

1770, 24th June. — Thomas Walker, clerk. ** The 
**^ person employed by me in serving the said cure 
*' to be curate.'' — Thomas Whitehead, A.B., Rector 
of Parish and Church of Eccleston, Lane. 

Owing to his infirmities, the above Thomas 
Walker employed in succession three assistant 
curates, nominated as follows : — 

1779, loth July. — Richard Ashton, assistant 
curate to Thomas Walker. He was son of Richard 
Ashton, husbandman, and Jane his wife, of Wright- 
ington, and was schoolmaster at Skelmersdale. 

1786, 2nd January. — Henry Mawdesley, usher of 
Bispham School, and scholar of St. Catharine's 
Hall, Cambridge, to be assistant curate, on nomi- 
nation of said Thomas Walker, who describes 
himself as ** old and incapable of constant duty." 

1788, 20th August. — Richard Braithwaite. Tho- 
mas Walker, curate of Douglas, nominated Richard 
Braithwaite, schoolmaster of Heskin, assistant 
curate, as he, T. Walker, had lost his eyesight. 
He was son of Thomas and Margaret Braithwaite, 
of Little Crosthwaite, and baptised in Crosthwaite 
Church, 2nd April, 1765. 

1798, 3rd Feby. — John Johnson, nominated on 
the death of Thomas Walker by Thomas White- 
head, Rector of Eccleston. John Johnson was 
curate of Ormskirk, and formerly curate of Man- 
field in Yorkshire. On 17th September, 1804, he 
petitioned for non-residence, certified by Rigbye 
Rigbye and Streynsham Master, Rector of Eccle- 
ston. The Rev. John Johnson resided at Brether- 
ton and taught at Eccleston Grammar School. 

1829, 19th January. — ^John Price. Nominated by 
William Yates, Rector of Eccleston. Son of 
David Price and Joan his wife, of Llanellieu Court, 
Builth. Was educated at Brecon College, and 

232 Historical Notes on Douglas Chapeh 

,u .1 

appointed Curate of Standish and Head Master ot 
Standish Grammar School. He resided at Standish 
during his incumbency of Douglas Chapel, and 
walked or drove a distance of five miles to his 
duty each Sunday. 

In the year 1859 he raised by public subscription 
the sum of jfSgs, which was met by a grant 01 
;f700 from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, and 
with these two amounts a parsonage house was 
built on Parbold Hill, — a fitting tribute to his 
memory. Previous to this there had been no 
parsonage house for the incumbents of Douglas. 

John Price died Jan., 1860,^' aged 81, and was 
buried at St. Wilfred's Church, Standish. 

i860. — William Price, B.A., C.C. College, Camb. 
Son of Rev. John Price, the preceding Incumbent. 
Born at Standish in 1815, and educated at Standish 
Grammar School. Entered Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge, and was ordained deacon at Chester, 
16 Dec, 1838, and priest 23 Feb., 1840. Licensed 
to the Curacy of Poulton-in-the-Fylde, 1838, after- 
wards became Curate of Brindle, and later of Long- 
ton, Lane. Appointed to the Perpetual Curacy of 
Shireshead, 2nd Oct., 1849, and to the Perpetual 
Curacy of Douglas, 3rd April, i860, on the nomi- 
nation of John Sparling, Rector of Eccleston. 
During his Incumbency a new organ was provided 
for the Chapel and the foundation-stone of the new 
Church was laid. He died 12th July, 1874, ^^^ 
was buried at St. Wilfred's Church, Standish. 

1874. — William Coombes. The last Incumbent 
of the old Chapel. 

As far as I am aware, the history of Douglas 
Chapel has never yet been written, and these notes 
are the first ingathering of any facts relating to it. 

SI To his memory a Caen stone font was placed in Douglas Chapel, by . 
hi& three sop3* This font now stands in the new church. . M^:l 

Historical Notes on Douglas Chapel. 233 

They are at the best but scattered fragments, 
forming an outHne only for further development, 
and I sincerely trust that they may be the means 
of arousing some local interest, and s.aving what 
still remains of this historical landmark. Consi- 
dering that the site, whether ecclesiastically con- 
secrated or not, has, by the religious usage of many 
generations, been made a hallowed spot, it is pure 
vandalism to allow it to remain in its present 
condition, and it ought certainly to be preserved 
from being used for secular purposes. 

I have submitted the illustrations of this paper 
to Mr. E. W. Cox, whose extensive archaeological 
knowledge of the construction of ancient buildings 
is probably unique, and he considers the date of 
the oldest windows of the chapel to range from 
1420 to 1460. He suggests that the original chapel 
was a small rectangular building under one roof, 
consisting of the south portion of the edifice as 
seen in the illustration, which was eventually 
enlarged by an addition to the chapel on the north 
side in the fifteenth century, and the building was 
then probably put under a double roof, and the old 
windows on the north side reset in the new north 
wall, the large north-east window being of the 
same date as the restoration. Mr. Cox suggests 
also that there would be an arcade of four arches 
connecting the early chapel with the more recent 
addition, and these were exchanged for the two 
rows of timber pillars when a further restoration 
took place early in the seventeenth century, and 
the building was again put under a single roof. 

Further alterations were again made in the early 
part of the present century, consisting of the 
erection of the galleries, the addition of one or 
more windows, and the building of the vestry at 
the west end. 

234 Historical Notes ott Douglas Chapd. 

I am indebted to Mr. Cox for these suggestions ; 
and my thanks are also due to Lieut.-Col. Fish- 
wick, F.S.A., for much valuable information; to 
the Rev. H. W. Bretherton, Rector of Eccleston, 
for his kindness in allowing me to inspect the 
Eccleston registers; and to Mr. W. E. Gregson, 
for gleanings embodied in this paper. 




.■.■;r ■: • • - 


[The subjoined lists do . not profess to be exhausiive, and it is hoped 
that Mr. Cox will prepare supplementary lists for the next volume of the 
Sbciety's Transaciions, — Editor.] 

«... ' ' \. i" ■ III I 

»' ■ ' ■ • - .- 


ABOUT May, 1891, during the excavations for 
a new building on the north side of Chapel; 
Street, about half-way between Lancelot's Hey 
and Rumford Place, and 150 feet back from the- 
street, the foundations of an ancient house were 
found. They consisted of two parallel walls, , 
lineable with the street. That to the north, an 
outer wall of ashlar stone, 18 inches thick, faced a- 
yard with a pavement of cobble stones ; the south 
wall, about 10 feet from it, 12 inches thick, formed 
the side of a cellar, filled with the debris oi Ah^ 
hpusQ,. which was also spread over the yard, in 
which lay an oak beam, partly burned. To the, 
north-east was a well, and another well existed 
nearer to Chapel Street. The debris of the house 
was covered by 4 feet of soft clay. From the walls^ 
were taken sills and muUions of a three-light and ' 
a two-light square window, used from a still older 
building. The site formed part of. the old Kifo.* 

236 Communications. 

Hey, belonging to the Old Hall of the Moore 
family. The ruins suggested that they had been 
hastily thrown down and buried, and this, possibly, 
was done when Liverpool was entrenched, in 1642. 
The Mardyke Fort stood just below this place, 
and the mud wall raised for the defences ran from 
it very near this line. The houses taken down in 
1 8 10, as shown on a plan in the Peters Estate 
Office, formed no part of this old building. 



Ince Blundell. — A cross on steps, with tall restored 
shaft and head ; a wayside cross. 

Great Crosby. — Square socket of a cross, on two 
steps, with modern wooden cross, all in very ruinous 
condition ; near a well, dedicated to the blessed 
Virgin Mary. 

Little Crosby. — A shaft of a cross, with square 
base, and several steps, set on a raised wall over a 
well, by the roadside. The stones are numbered 
with Roman figures, and there is a date on the 
ashlar plinth which doubtless relates to its removal, 
the cross being probably fifteenth century.' 

Everton.—ThQ remains of the cross, which stood 
in the centre of the village, were put into the Round- 
house when taken down. It was a market cross. 
Drawings in the Binns collection represent it as 
having three steps and a part of a round shaft. 

Waverttre. — A cross is shown in Troughton's 
book on Liverpool, above the Monk's Well. 

Woolton. — A short, pyramidal chamfered shaft, 
on older base, and two steps, in the middle of the 
old village. A market cross. 

I Date and inscription, *'I.M. 1758.'' The initials I have not been able 
to identify. — Editor. . . - . . 

Leaves from an Antiquary^ s Note-Book. 237 

Huyton. — The cross near the church is modern, 
and is handsome. It stands on five steps, with a 
base carved with quatrefoils and a capital. I have 
heard that it was built by a former incumbent, to 
occupy the place formerly used for cock-fighting. 

Headless Cross, near Roby.-^On the brow of the 
hill, going down to the village. A thick square 
pillar, on a heavy square base. A wayside cross. 
It may have had a head similar to that at Windle- 
shaw chantry. 

Windleshaw. — A churchyard cross. Base on five 
steps, short square shaft, with a cross cut in relief 
on each face, at the upper end. 

Peasley Cross, I am told, exists. I have not seen 
it, and have no details of it. 

Hunts Cross. — A displaced massive square stone 
socket, lying by a barn, at the cross-roads, near the 

Childwall. — On the roadside, near Well Lane, 
stood the slender octagonal shaft of a cross, on an 
octagon socket and three steps. It was a wayside 
cross, probably marking the lands of the monks of 
Stanlaw and Whalley, who had a cell there. The 
stones were thrown over into the field when the 
road was widened, and were thence carted away 
about twelve years ago. 

Garston. — The square base and shaft of a cross 
stood at the head of the mill-dam, at the corner 
below the hall. It is shown by Troughton on 
two steps, and probably marked a well, or limits 
of land belonging to the Abbey of Stanlaw. It 
was buried when St. Mary's Road was made, and 
a public-house built over it. It was found again 
in making a drain, and was kept for many years 
by Mr. Owen, stonemason, and finally re-erected 
by Father Smith on a new site. Inscribed on the 

^;J38 • Communications. 

new plinth is the appropriate motto, *' ecce crucem 
REDDiENTEM.'' A second cross in the churchyard 
is set on a base of two stones, clamped to^fether 
with iron bands. The shaft has been cut mto a 
shallow basin, where broken off near the ground, 
and is probably a plague stone, for exchange of 
money and merchandise in time of pestilence. ; ' - 

. Liverpool had five crosses : the High Cross, in 
• Castle Street ; the Whi'te^ or Little, Cross, near the 
north gate of the Exchange ; the Red Cross, south 
of the Castle; St. Patrick's Cross, at the lower 
end of Byrom Street ; and Townsend Cross, near 
St. John's Church. The first three were marke^t 
crosses, the fourth a memorial of St. Patrick's 
visit to Liverpool, the fifth a way mark. 

Walton, — A portion of the head of a very fine 
cross, of late Saxon date, has been dug up near the 
Church ; also the large base, about 3 feet square 
and 2 feet high, with three set-offs or sloping steps. 
•The head is enclosed in an arch nearly 2 feet in 
diameter, the spandrils are pierced, and the circle 
ornamented with a very well wrought diagonal key 
pattern. A stone was found set on the base like a 
short shaft, with a cruciform dished hollow in it. 
This has probably been a plague stone. 

Winwick. — A large Saxon cross, of red sand- 
stone, covered with carved panels, with figure 
subjects and knotwofk. This cross stood in the 
chancel of the church, and was thrown out into 
the churchyard when the chancel was ** restored," 
where for a long time it lay broken. It has been 
re-erected in the churchyard. 

Farnworth. — A large and fine cross, about nine 
feet high, stands on the south side of the church, 
close to the west of the Cuerdley chapel : it stands 
on three vSteps, the upper one forming the base — a 
massive square stone. The shait is square, and is 

Leaves from an Antiquary^ s Note-Book. 239 

surmounted by a cap with gablets tfefoiled on each 
face. Possibly the cross stood above these, but it 
is uncertain whether this cap may be a restoration. 

Sephton. — The base of a large cross lies in the 
farmyard south of the church : it is octagonal. The 
bases of three roadside crosses (two, plain blocks 
Avith sockets; one, of truncated pyramidal form) 
are found on the way to Sephton town. In the 
churchyard is a plain base with oblong socket, thit 
suggest a Norman origin. 

Hdrkirk has a large but low base, with oblong 
socket, on which has been cut three plain incised 
crosses, at some late date. The cross of the chapel 
of Harkirk, also is set on an ancient l^ase. The 
foundation is a Saxon one, and the width of the 
empty socket suggests a Saxon origin. 

Crosby^ — A cross on five steps standi; in the wood 
just within the gates of Crosby Hall. The shaft is 
an octagon, with a roughly moulded capital, which 
seems to be of late 15th century date. Above this 
are traces of the arms of the cross, now destroyed. 
Local tradition says this was the market-cross, 
removed here for safety. The steps are deeply worn 
and there are faint traces of hollows in which may 
have been placed money for exchange in time of 
plague. Near the hall is another cross in a cottage 
garden, with a fine octagonal shaft and a modern 
head. On the opposite side of the road is a holy 
well, approached by steps and walled in, but now 
ckoked up and disused. The dedication is unknown, 
but the name of the lane. Virgin Lane, suggests it. 
A cross of late date is cut on a large stone in the 
wall of the hall grounds. Ince Blundell cross, in 
the grounds, I have not examined. 

Formby. — Near the station, where a larie formerly 
debouched on the common land, and near where 
remains of the ancient village have.b^en foumi 

240 • - - Communications. 

under the sand, stands a fine cross on steps, with a 
slender, tapering, octagonal shaft, having a modern 
restored head. In Formby churchyard is a large 
set of steps of the ancient market-cross, removed 
thither from neighbouring cross roads. The square 
socket bears a well-proportioned wooden cross of 
recent date. On the treads of the steps there are 
very cle;ar remains of small basin-shaped hollows, 
probably made for the exchange of money in time 
of plague : they are upon the upper two steps and 
base. Also in the churchyard is a rudely-wrought 
stone, set upright ; on it is a cross, incised, rising 
from a circle. The cross is about 9 inches long. 
Round this stone it was, till recently, the custom to 
carry a corpse three times before burial. 

Lydiate. — The base of a cross, a square block, 
stands at the entrance of the hall. In the church- 
yard of the Roman Catholic church of Lydiate is 
a plain stone cross, without ornament, set on a 
modern base. This v/as dug up in a field in the 
parish, where it had evidently been buried for its 

Halsall. — The base of the churchyard cross is 
in silu, on the south side of the church. It is a 
massive stone of octagon plan, sloping towards the 
socket, in which remains the lower end of the square 
shaft, set in lead, and broken off short, level with 
the base. The base is divided into three stages by 
rounded bands of moulding. The date of this 
cross appears to be about t.he 15th century. It is 
hoped that a shaft and cross may shortly be replaced 
on this base. 


In various ancient villages are found large ob- 
long blocks of stone, on which are incised circles, 
across- which is cut a cross. These have misled 

Leaves from an Antiquary^ s Note-Book. 241 

some antiquaries as to their origin. They are 
interesting as antiquities, but have never had any 
religious signification, inasmuch as they are the 
remains of ancient stone cheese presses. On the 
circle was set the cheese, and the lines of the cross 
carried off the whey. Two such stones (one a few 
years ago in use) exist at Ince Manor y and one was 
recently dug up on the Grange Road, West Kirby. 
Similar remnants of presses, now destroyed, were 
at Storeton and Pool Hall. 


Wallasey had two crosses : one in the town, the 
market cross ; one in the churchyard, on the south 
of the church. Robinson's account of the town 
speaks of both. The churchyard cross was covered 
with curious cutting, and was 12 feet high. It 
was damaged by the soldiers of William III, who 
used it for a target, and was afterwards made into 
steps for the stile into the churchyard. A large 
stone, 3-feet cube, with a socket, was found in 
demolishing an old building, adjacent to the hall, 
when the rectory was enlarged. It was probably 
a Saxon or late Norman cross, and this stone 
formed the base. 

Bidston. — The sundial stands on the site of the 
cross, and its base may be the old pedestal. 

West Kirby. — The base of the cross, now moved 
eastwards, forms that of the sundial. There are 
fragments of a large and important Saxon cross, 
with round head, and the shaft ornamented with 
knotwork, preserved near the church ; also of two 
similar smaller crosses, which may have formed a 
Calvary. In addition to these, several grave 
crosses are carefully kept. 

Heswallj Thurstaston^ Burton^ Shotwicky Eastham, 

242 Communications. 

Stokcj and Backford show no trace of the ancient 
crosses, but sundials replace them ; neither can 
any remnant be found in the deserted churchyard 
of Over churchy except one grave slab. 

Neston. — In the church are the shafts of two fine 
Saxon crosses, sculptured with knotwork. On one 
are figures of a priest and of Cain and Abel. A 
finely sculptured cross grave-slab also is kept there, 
which has at one time been ornamented with glass 

Woodchurch has a large cross on several steps, 
with a tapering octagonal shaft, of the fifteenth 
century. An incongruous head has been put on it, 
and the shaft disfigured with a ** jubilee inscription." 
The head of a cross, forming a crucifix, is set near 
the church gate. It was brought here from an 
ancient French churchyard, some years ago. 

Bebington. — A base, with socket and pedestals 
for four figures, or niches, stands west of the north 
porch, on three steps. It has been a large and 
fine structure. The head, with a crucifixion on 
one face, and the Virgin and Child on the other, in 
shallow niches, is preserved near the church. It 
is sixteenth century work. On the south side of 
the church an octagon shaft, stopped, on a square 
base, with stopped angles, has been utilised as a 

Greasby. — A modern cast-iron cross stands a 
little to the west of the original cross, of which 
the broken steps were cleared away a few years 
ago. The village takes its name from the cross — 
'' Crces Bye.'* 

Bromborough. — A fifteenth century plain cross, 
on three steps, has been turned into a sundial. It 
stands to the south of the site of the old, and 
north of the modern, church. In the garden of 
the parsonage are kept the fragments of the base. 

Leaves from an Antiquary's Note-Book. 243 

shaft, and head of a very fine Saxon or early 
Norman cross ; also fragments of about six other 
crosses, dating from late Saxon to fifteenth century 
periods. They had been built into the walls of 
the late church, about seventy years ago. In the 
village is a lofty market cross, on seven steps. 
The shaft is a copy of the old one, with a modern 
addition by Gilbert Scott. The old shaft forms a 
sundial in the manor-house garden. 

Birkenhead. — In an old view, dated 1780, the 
base and shaft of a cross are shewn, between the 
priory and the priory-house. 

Sutton. — A cross is spoken of in the Coucher 
Book of Whalley as standing on Sutton Heath ; 
possibly a way-mark, or a boundary mark between 
the lands of Stanlaw Abbey and Ince Manor. 

Hilbre Island. — A Norman grave cross is built 
into the wall of a shed, and the head of the cross 
that occupied the centre of the garth of St. Hilde- 
burga's Abbey is in the Grosvenor Museum, 
Chester. It is beautiful Saxon work, with a 
peculiar nimbed border. 


Entrenchment between Bidston and Birkenhead. — 
In 1845, before the land of Birkenhead was laid 
out, the late Charles Verelst made plans of a 
square entrenchment on the old Bidston road, with 
a deep wet ditch, the inner area being about 100 
feet square. He showed plans of this to the 
Architectural Society in that year, but inquiry has 
failed to find them. Upon the maps in the Borough 
Surveyor's office, at Birkenhead, this entrenchment 
is shown, about midway between the site of the 
ancient bridge, discovered in making the railway 
in Bridge Street, and Flaybrick Hill. Mr. Verelst 

R 2 

244 Communications. 

considered it to be Roman. It had more resem- 
blance to a moated hall or manor-house, and may 
be the moat of the lost manor-house of Woolton 
in Wirral. 

Entrenchment at Irby Hall. — This large square 
area is peculiar, in that the moat is at the inner 
side, and the vallum (still in some places 9 feet 
high) is on the outside of the moat. British 
earthworks were thus constructed; but this, pro- 
bably, was made at the same time as the hall 
was built. 

Entrenchment at Rufford. — A circular moat exists 
in a wood, half a mile north-east of Rufford Hall. 
Its origin is unknown. 

Thornton Churchyard and Hall stand on two 
square areas, about ij acres each, adjoining each 
other. They are surrounded by roads. The rock 
has been scarped on the east, and the ground of 
the churchyard raised on the west, to form a raised 
platform, about six feet high. That this has been 
artificially made, is shewn by the loose earth on 
the west being held by a retaining wall of large 
stones, and the plinths of the church are adapted 
to the higher level. On the north of the hall the 
rock is cut into a wall, 3 feet thick. 


St. Patrick^s Well is above Bromborough Bridge, 
near the upper part of the Pool. It is on the side 
of a rocky valley ; and a very clear spring still fills 
a small oblong basin, cut in the rock. St. Patrick 
is traditionally said to have sailed from the Mersey 
to Ireland. 

Shodwell. — Possibly St. Chad's Well, is near the 
shore, in the woods between Bromborough and 
Eastham. Large stone troughs are turned over to 

Leaves from an Antiquary^ s Note-Book. 245 

cover its mouth. Shodwell was formerly a small 
fishing hamlet, and remains of the cottage walls, 
built with clay instead of mortar, are visible ; also 
a ruined limekiln. The hamlet is now wholly 

Helenas Welly in Hooton Parkj is dedicated to 
St. Helen, and the country people attribute to it 
medicinal virtues. 

The Pin Well, Chester, at the foot of Grosvenor 
Park, has over it the base of an ancient cross. It 
was supposed to possess healing virtues, and offer- 
ings of pins were, till recent times, thrown into it ; 
possibly a survival of the Roman custom of making 
votive offerings to the tutelary deities of wells. 

The Monks* Well, Wavertree. — An old man re- 
membered this well open, and told me that the 
descent to it was by several steps. The source of 
the water is not at the well, but under the lawn of 
** Monkswell," and a passage led to it. The inscrip- 
tion formerly over it is well known — ** Qui non dat 
** quod habet. Daemon infra videt. Anno 1414." 
Close by were found six British cinerary urns, in 

At Well Lane, Upper Bebington, and at Brim- 
stage, are square stone tanks, covered with large 
stone slabs, now ruinous. Judging from the tool- 
ing of the stones and the deep wear made by the 
buckets, they must be of some antiquity. 

Winwick. — In a field to the north-east of the 
village is St. Oswald's Well, said to have been 
upon the battlefield where the king was slain. 
The water and soil were reputed to have miraculous 
powers of healing. The well is a small pit, about 
8 feet deep. 

An early instance of mediaeval water supply being 
brought from a distance, occurs at Chester. The 

246 Communications . 

water, for the use of St. Werburgh's Abbey, was 
brought in pipes from Christleton, to a tank in the 
centre of the cloister. The monks were probably 
better off for pure water than the modern citizens. 


An old gardener, John Peers, who worked for me 
at Aigburth, and who lived to over 90, was, when a 
boy, at Calderstones farm. He informed me that 
the Calderstones did not originally form a circle, 
but lay on the top of a large mound by the road 
side, partly buried, and forming a kind of cist. 
When the roads were widened, the stones were set 
up in a circle, as they now stand — one was set in 
Mr. Booker's field A large quantity of burnt 
bones, found when the mound was removed, were 
spread on the fields for manure. He saw no vases 
or earthenware of any sort, nor did he hear of an)^ 
arms, coins, or metal, or stone implements being 
found. The stones lay level with the mound, and 
boys cut their names and footmarks on them, still 


In the early part of the summer of 1891, the 
spring tides, rising over the ancient level of the 
original land surface, which is now partly buried 
in drifted sand to the depth of 12 to 20 feet, had 
so far fretted away the superjacent sand as to 
expose a bench, or shelf of the original surface, 
from 5 to 25 feet in width. Upon this surface were 
found the foundations of ancient houses. Two of 
these, lying nearly due east and west, were partly 
exposed, rather more than half of each projecting 
diagonally from beneath the sandhill. The larger 
one was an oblong, 16 feet by 10 feet ; the smaller, 
towards the north, 12 feet by 9 feet. 

They were floored with blue clay, and the foun- 

Leaves from an Antiquary^ s Note-Book, 247 

dations were of stones, mostly rough, but a few 
bearing evidence of previous working, resembling 
Norman tooling ; one, a threshold, showing deep 
signs of wear. These foundations were one to 
two courses high, set in blue clay. Above this the 
houses had been of wattled work coated with clay, 
the upright posts mostly of undressed oak, in the 
round, about 3 to 4 inches diameter. These were 
partly driven in between the stones, partly set in 
shallow sockets notched into them. All were broken 
off from 12 to 18 inches above the land surface. 
In the corner of the smaller house was found a 
small pile of coals. On the landward side of the 
houses was a pile of burnt turf and earth, about 
2 feet high, laid against the back wall ; and close 
to each house were kitchen middens, containing 
large quantities of mussel-shells, fish-bones, a few 
meat-bones, some scraps of iron, and pieces of 
coarse woollen cloth and leather. Some of the 
latter had been the welts and soles of shoes with 
pointed toes, of the Edwardian type of the thir- 
teenth and fourteenth centuries. 

From these houses southward were traces of 
lines of wattled buildings, apparently without stone 
foundations or clay floors, seemingly long, narrow 
sheds, for the shelter of cattle. Close to one of 
the houses a broken pair of smith's tongs had 
previously been found, but within the houses them- 
selves only the coal and a few nutshells. Rather 
lower down the shore, about 100 feet, were the 
remains of clay walls, 2 feet thick, about 60 feet 
long, and twelve wide. They seemed to form two 
structures, set together at an obtuse angle. To 
the south, upon the shelf of ancient surface, which 
was of stiff, clayey soil, two ruts or tracks of 
cart-wheels, 5 inches wide and 4 feet 6 inches 
apart, rose diagonally under the sandhills, and 
seemed to pass in a line between the first two 

248 Communications. 

houses. This ground was abundantly marked with 
the hoofs of horses with round shoes, and with the 
footmarks of cattle, pigs, and sheep. There were 
also human footprints, showing shoes of the same 
make and period as those dug out of the refuse 
heaps. Two of these footprints were deep, clear, 
and perfect, as if done yesterday ; the whole of 
these marks having been filled-in by light-blown 
sand, and thus preserved perfectly until exposed by 
the tide. Careful drawings were made on the spot 
of most of these remains, which were obliterated 
by the action of the tides within about a fortnight 
of their first discovery. Close by these houses, a 
short time before, a round hut had been exposed, 
but it was soon washed away, before it could be 
drawn. This record simply attempts to detail the 
character of these relics, without any comment on 
their significance. 



This road begins at the south-west angle of the 
road skirting the north and west sides of the 
churchyard, and seems to be a continuation of that 
on the north side, though it is almost disused. The 
public road is in common use and has been widened. 
The old road runs with a wall on the left and a 
ditch and hedge on the right, west-south-west from 
this turn in the public road for 40 yards, and is laid 
with cinders and rubbish ; it then turns west 70 
yards, with slight trench on each side, and nearly 
level with the ordinary surface ; then curves for 50 
yards more south-south-west and south-west ; and 
for 15 yards more due south. To this point there 
is no trace of antiquity, but the road sinks a little 
below the level. At this point a stone causeway 
begins, laid on the left side of the road, made of 
blocks of unwrought white freestone, averaging 18 

Leaves from an Antiquary^ s Note-Book. 249 

inches to 2 feet long, 12 inches to 2 feet wide, and 
6 inches to 12 inches thick. They form a con- 
tinuous trackway, slightly raised on a bank of earth, 
and with a ditch on the right, which gradually 
increases in depth till it may be 6 feet deep from 
the level of the trackway. The road still falls 
below the surface level as it proceeds, till it is about 
4 feet below it. This section of the road runs 14 
yards south-west, 30 yards further nearly west. 

In the next 87 yards the westerly course is con- 
tinued, the road being hollow; thence the line runs 
a little south of west for 35 yards ; the roadway 
almost 4 feet below ordinary level ; the ditch on 
the north or right side about 5 feet deeper still. 
For 5 yards the stones are displaced and broken, 
and the road dips into a natural hollow for 35 
yards, where the stones cease. In crossing the 
hollow, the **berm" or bank crosses to the north 
side and the ditch to the south or left side ; the 
road curves in this hollow west-north-west ; the 
stone causeway is destroyed, and the rest of the 
road (150 yards) runs nearly west, with a tendency 
to north. The road is throughout about 15 feet wide. 
The last portion has a ditch and hedge on each 
side, and keeps the natural level, and is apparently 
modernised ; it has no regular pavement or surface, 
and it terminates in a road that runs north and 
south crossing it ; there is a marl-pit at each angle. 
Beyond this there is no trace of it. The road points 
directly to the south point of Storeton Quarry. 
The lower or east end falls into the same line as 
Church Road; a slight turn to the south in Church 
Road (going eastward) leads to a footpath that takes 
up the general line of the old road and falls into 
a curious bit of road continuing the same course 
towards Bromborough Pool. 

The rib of stone in the ancient portion is worn 
very hollow by long use, and is plainly a pack-horse 

25 o Communications. 

track, probably from Storeton to Bromborough 
Pool. As the existing roads are of some antiquity, 
and seem to cross and deviate from the old road, 
it is probably of still greater antiquity, as those 
roads ignore and partly dcvStroy its line. The 
stone rib seems to have been set on the ridge of a 
bank throughout, to throw off the water where the 
road is hollow. The construction is much too 
rude for Roman work, and the stone too perishable 
to have endured so long in use ; but the fashion of 
the mid-rib, as in Blackstone Edge and Delamere 
Forest, is doubtless a survival and renewal of a 
Roman model. 

A series of ancient roads, one of them similar 
to this, seems to have radiated from Storeton Hall, 
which was the mansion of the Sylvesters, foresters 
of Wirral before the Stanleys, and these roads are 
most likely mediaeval. I have not been able to 
trace the deep beds of gravel, as used by the 
Romans, in the construction of any of these roads. 
The stone rib for pack-horses may be traced in a 
large number of them, though mostly covered by 
modern work, and it is usually on the left side of 
the road, not in the centre. 


Some years ago a house was erected close to 
the eastern entrance gate of Brimstage Hall, 
about one hundred yards from the hall itself, 
and just outside the trace of its ancient moat. 
During the excavation of the foundations the traces 
of an old wall were come upon, which was partly 
built of well-wrought ashlar stones ; but its plan 
and direction were not carefully noted. During 
the same excavation a number of human bones 
were disinterred, which, from their position, seemed 
to have been regularly buried, and to have been 
laid as in a cemetery. Some time afterwards 

Leaves jrom an Antiquary^ s Noie-Book. 251 

further fragments of wrought stone were dug up 
in the garden, a little towards the north of the 
previous discoveries ; these were carefully kept, 
but until the 27th of June in the present year 
(1896) no special examination had been made of 
them, when, at the request of Mr. Anderson, who 
resides at the house, I made a careful inspection 
of them. 

The chief remains consist of the head of one 
light of a traceried window, and the springing of 
the curve of a second light. The arch of this light 
is of ogee form, running into flowing tracery above 
it ; the reveals are chamfered with a sub-order 
of trefoiled cusping ; the tracery appears to have 
been what is called reticulated. Two pieces of 
mullions, which seem to have belonged to this 
window, were also dug up, and a small ashlar 
stone with a stop chamfer, in addition to several 
plain ashlar stones. On one of the fragments of 
mullions is a mason's mark, strongly cut, in the 
form of a broad arrow. Among the other frag- 
ments, Mr. Anderson informed me, there was a 
stoup for holy water, but at the time of my visit 
this could not be found. The piece of window 
tracery is plainly of the late second pointed period, 
and may date about 1350, while the oldest existing 
part of the hall is more than a century later. 
Unless, therefore, these fragments were part of an 
earlier hall, it seems unlikely that they belonged to 
the hall. 

The discovery of graves, the character of the 
tracery, and the finding of a stoup (if it be one), 
suggest a separate ecclesiastical building, standing 
with its graveyard to the east of the hall. So far 
as I am aware, no record of the existence of any 
such chapel is known. . A search for the history of 
the lost chapels of Cheshire, about which little is 
known, would, no doubt, repay the trouble. The 

252 Communications. 

hospitals of Spital and Denny, and the chapels of 
Moreton, and the traditions respecting the two lost 
chapels of Wallasey, have never been fully inves- 
tigated ; and possibly we may have to add to these 
the traces of chapels at Thurstaston and Brimstage 
Halls, and the mysterious graveyard at Sutton 
Grange. The groined apartment in Brimstage 
Hall is said to be the chapel, and it bears traces 
of such a purpose; the indications, therefore, of 
an independent building, if this be a chapel, 
suggests that its use was parochial. 

Edward W. Cox. 



THIS Chapel, dedicated to St. Andrew, a very 
curious specimen of Gothic work, is in the 
parish of Halsall, and at present consists of chancel 
and north aisle, separated by two arches resting on 
a round central pillar and two round responds. In 
the chancer are sedilia, which have had wooden 
fittings, now gone, and a mutilated piscina. 

The chancel arch is destroyed and blocked up, 
but on the north side the jamb and mutilated capi- 
tal and springing are traceable. There is a round- 
headed arch, formerly entering the north chancel 
aisle from the nave ; it is chamfered and unmoulded 
and is carried on semi-octagon shafts with capitals, 

Notes from Sephton District. 253 

whose mouldings show them to be late 13th or early 
14th century. This arch has been made into a door. 

A careful comparison of the mouldings appears 
to indicate that the building does not date earlier 
than 1285 to 1290, in spite of the Norman-looking 
round arch, which, oddly enough, has the most dis- 
tinct 13th century detail in the moulding. The 
north aisle capitals omit one member of the usual 
series of mouldings in a capital of this date, or 
rather, abacus and bell are somewhat rudely grouped 
into one feature. While the arcade shafts are 
round (one early feature) the round arch is carried 
by semi-octagons (a later character of shaft.) The 
south windows seem much later in style than the 
east window of the north aisle, which has uncusped 
intersecting tracery. 

The design and planning of the building are very 
good ; the execution of the whole very coarse. 
There are no masons* marks on any of the stones : 
leading one to think that, while the builders of the 
chapel got a good plan from a master mason, the 
work was done by not highly-skilled local men. 

There is a Georgian baptismal font built in the 
wall over the modern west door of the chancel, and 
a prism-shaped holy-water font close to the same 
door, set on a fragment of a circular pillar. 

On the east wall of the chancel is a trace of a 
mural painting, not unlike the conventional wing 
of an angel. 

The north chapel has in it a hatchment of 
** Molyneux-Seel," ' and is now used as a mortuary 
chapel by the owner of Maghull manor house. 

The 1 8th century nave of Maghull chapel was 
pulled down after 1880, when the new Church of 
St. Andrew was built (consecrated by the Bishop of 
Liverpool on the 8th September in that year.) 

I The arms of this family are given in Gregson*s Fra^ments^ ed. 1869, 
pp. 227 and 250. 

254 Communications. 

Richard Halsall, Rector of Halsall, by his will, 
dated the 5th Aug., 1561, proved 14th Oct., 1563, 
gave, towards the reparation of MaghuU Chapel^ 
** XX"* shillino:s." " 

Into one of the walls of Maghull manor house 
(an 1 8th centurj' red brick residence close to Sefton 
station), have been built some old stones from Mag- 
hull chapel, in the shape of an arch, resting on two 
round stucco pillars (in the case of one of these 
pillars the old stone-work is probably covered with 
stucco, for uniformity's sake), and in the centre of 
the brick-work filling up the arch is a stone bearing 
the following inscription : — 

Remains of an antient arch 
Found buried in the foundation of 

Maghull old Church 

consisting of two double springers 

one cap and eleven arch stones 

purchased and erected here 

A.D. 1885. " 

There are also some old tooled stones, and part 
of a baptismal or holy-water font, below the arch, 
and half the head of a small plain Norman window. 

Over one of the doors into the manor house on 
the south side is a stone with initials and date as 
follows : — M 

R A 


W M 

In the orchard is an old stone building, with a 
slanting roof and a door facing south, over which 
is a stone with initials and a date, as follows : — 

M • 

' ■.-'■' R K 


3 C^ef* Soc.f vol. li. p. 38. 

Notes ^ from Sephton District, 255 

The interior of this building has been plastered 
with white plaster, and on the surface bricks are 
lined out in red paint. 

There is a sun-dial on the lawn in front of the 
manor house, with the following motto and date : — 

** Volvenda dies 
Lat: 530 25" 

" Brown fecit " (on the side of the gnomon). 

The chapel house at Maghull, nearly opposite 
the old chapel, is a good example of early 17th 
century architecture, with long square muUioned 
windows. That of the north end is transomed and 
is a large window. The key-stone of the arched 
door is ornamented with a pendent in the soffit. 

The sun-dial in the chapel-yard of Maghull chapel 
bears the following inscription : — ^ 

** John Rose 
John Almond 
^ Chapelwardens, 1781 
Harrison I^iverpool." 


The stone-work of the pedestal on which this 
dial stands was repaired in June, 1891, by Mr. Jas. 
Roscoe, clerk of works at Kirkby, at the sole cost 
of the right hon. the Earl of Sefton, K.G., who is 
the lord of the manor. As far as possible the old 
stones were reversed and re-cut, and in several 
places, where it was found absolutely necessary, 
new stones (red sandstone) were inserted, and the 
gnomon was re-set. The inscription on this dial is 
nearly illegible, the only letters decipherable being, 

'^Tho^D .... tt." 

ST. Helen's well at sefton. 
A wooden canopy, from designs by Mr. John 

256 Communications . 

Douglas of Chester, was placed over this well 
during the summer of 1891 ; the sides of the well 
were re-built and a reservoir made, so that some of 
the adjacent cottages could be supplied with water. 
The work was carried out under the superinten- 
dence of Mr. James Roscoe, and at the sole cost 
of the Earl of Sefton, K.G. 


The green was surrounded with railings and the 
old mounting-block repaired, by Mr. James Roscoe, 
at the cost of the Earl of Sefton, K.G., a few years 
back. This mounting-block was originally erected, 
some years ago, for the convenience of the late Earl 
of Sefton, when out hunting with his harriers. 

William E. Gregson. 





1. A preliminary description should be given of 
the neighbourhood and surroundings of the church 
or house, stating its distance from two or three 
well-known towns, and its relation to the points of 
the compass as regards those towns. 

2. The ground-plan of the building should be 
first described, as it actually exists at the time of 
writing the description. 

3. Then the various elevations, external and 
internal, should be given. 

4. Next, the dates of the various portions of 
the structure, as determined by the mouldings and 
other incontrovertible architectural evidence, con- 
firmed by actual documents, if such exist ; bearing 
in mind that in the rebuildings which have so 
frequently taken place in the course of centuries, 
features of early date which happen to be in a 
good state of preservation are not infrequently 
used up again in the later structure. 

5. The description should be accompanied by a 
table of architectural periods. 

6. In many buildings the history of past altera- 
tions and rebuildings is clearly to be made out, by 
careful examination and by historical documents, 
;but otherwise it is well to condense speculations 
on what might have been the original plans ; and 
if such views are printed at all, they should be 
clearly given only as hypotheses. 

7. It is generally desirable to re-write descriptions 
of this kind many times, carefully excluding all 
irrelevant matter, remembering that the public will 
not follow a long technical description. 

258 Suggestions for Describing A ncient Buildings. 

8. Therefore the paper should have as many 
pictorial illustrations as funds will permit, and in 
all cases there should be a ground plan and at 
least one complete external pictorial view. In the 
case of quadrangular buildings, there should be a 
bird's-eye view. A section should, if possible, be 
given, and details of interesting features. The 
scale should be carefully marked. 

9. A list of all books relating to the subject 
should be added, and it is often better, and perhaps 
more respectful to the authors, to give short 
quotations rather than a compilation, in which it is 
difficult to perceive whether the writer of the paper 
is giving the result of his own researches or those 
of other people. 

10. In the case of houses, a brief history of the 
families who have lived in them should be given ; 
and in the case of churches, there should be a list 
of rectors, and a description of all important 
monuments, memorial brasses, carving, and stained 
glass windows. 

11. In Wheweirs notes on German Churches^ 
admirable rules are laid down for describing build- 
ings, more or less elaborate, according to the time 
at the disposal of the visitor. His rules are 
intended for the use of amateurs, and if followed 
more extensively, there would be preserved to us 
records of many buildings which are fast disap- 
pearing. There are many such in Lancashire and 
Cheshire. This book should be in the Society's 
library, and the rules for describing buildings might 
with great advantage be printed for members of 
the Historic Society. 

Henry Taylor. 


REPORT. 1895. 

During the year, fourteen members have joined the Society ; 
while six have died, and three have resigned their membership. 
Among those removed by death, with regret we chronicle the 
names of Philip Henry Rathbone, Alderman of Liverpool, a 
patriotic citizen, unselfish both in public and private life, who 
died 2ist November; of the Reverend Andrew E. P. Gray, M.A., 
F.S.A., Rector of Wallasey, for many years on the Council of the 
Society, all too soon removed from the scene of his literary and 
parochial labours, dying at San Remo on the nth of December; 
lastly, of John Parsons Earwaker, M.A., F.S.A., who was sud- 
denly cut off in the flower of his age, in the full possession of his 
mental powers, at Pensarn, Abergele, on the 30th of January, 
leaving a gap in the ranks of thoroughly capable, laborious, 
topographer-genealogists which it will be hard to fill. 

Nine papers, dealing with subjects connected with the history 
or antiquities of the two counties, were read during the year. 

In the summer, Saturday afternoon excursions, under the 
guidance of Mr. W. Fergusson Irvine and Mr. W. E. Gregson, 
were made to Crosby Hall, where the party was courteously 
entertained by Mr. Blundell, of Crosby, and his sister ; to 
Leasowe Castle and the Meols shore ; to Boar's Den and 
Standish ; and to Poole Hall and Eastham. To plan and carry 
out these small excursions occasions a good deal of trouble to 
those who are so good as to undertake the labour, and it seems 
a great pity that so few members are found to join in them. 


Jan. 10. "A Note on the Common Land of Wallasey." 

W. C. Ashby Pritt. 
„ 10. "On Traces of a Saxon Church at Bebington.'* 

Edward W. Cox. 
„ 24. " Notes on Altcar Parish." ... Rev. W. Warburton. 
Feb. 7. Do. ... Do. 

„ 21. "Borwick Hall." W. O. Roper. 

Mar. 7. " Sefton Church." Rev. G. W. Wall. M.A. 

„ 21. Do. Do. 

Nov. 7. " Cheshire in the Great Civil War." 

A. M. Robinson. 

„ 21. ** Moreton Old Hall." Robert Head. 

Dec. 5. "Notes on Douglas Chapel."... W. Fred. Price. 
„ 19. "Early Christianity ia Wirral.". W. Fergusson Irvine. 



Feb. 7. Alfred AsJiwdrth. 

„ 7. G. P. Forwood Heyn. 

„ a I. Peter Blackburn. 

Mar. 7. Tames Hoult, junr. 

„ a I. James Williams. 

Nov. 7. Sir Jas. de Hoghton, Bt. 

,, 7. George McKibbin. 

Nov. 7. Gfeorge Pedley. 

7. T. Stanley Ball ( Assoc.) 

7. Percy O. Weightman. 

7. T. Massey All wood. 

21. Rev. R.E. Roberts, M. A. 

Dec. 5. John Crook. 

„ 5. Edmund Dicksqn. 


historic Society of Xancasbtre an& Cbesbire. 

Summary of Account of Receipts and Payments for the Year 1893. 

Subscriptions received £^y 13 6 

Life Compositions...... 5 5^ 

Sale of Society's Transactions 10 15 6 

Sale of Banners 30 o o 

£133 14 o 

lialance due Treasurer, per 

last Account ;^i6 13 

Sessional Expenses — 
Fire Insurance ... ^o 16 O 
T.Brakell-Print- ^ 

ing, &c 23 10 o L 

Rent :... 10 10 o , I 

E Doling— Teas, &c. 8 4 10 
Secretary's expenses 9 5 II 

52 6 9 

Subscription to Record Society, 
two years 

Excursion Account — Printing, 

Vols. 43-44— Illusts. ;(f6 18 6 
Do. Index'g 220 



Vol. 45 — Illustrations 611 o 

Balance carried forward 44 12 i 


JJon, Treasurer, 

£133 14 > O 

Summary of Account of Receipts and Payments for the Year 1894. 

Balance from 1893 ; £^ 12 

Subscriptions and arrears 

received 365 8 

Sale of Society's Transactions 010 


^416 10 1 

Sessional Expenses — 
Fire Insurance ... £0 16 o 
T. Brakell, Print'g 16 8 6 

Rent 10 10 o 

E.Doling— Teas,&c.7 4 7 

Secretary 26 5 o 

Treasurer's DisbUs, 
for Stamps, &c... 2 5 



Subscription to Record Society^ 

two years- 2 

Indexing Crosse Charters 3 3 

Excursion Account — Printing 2 6 

Vol. 45 —Printing, &c 139 16 9 

Vol. 46 — Paid on account ... 5 5 o 
Balance carried forward 194 .7 9 





//on. Treasurer, 

£^^^ io' 1 


Abbot T., 130 

Abercromby Jer , 147 

Acton Burnell, 225 

Adams Ric, 124 

Aintree 173 

Alderley Edge, 4 

Alfred the Great, 164 

Almond J., 255 

Altcar Parish, Notes on, 157—206 

Altmouth, X73 

Amery T. , 223 

Ampleforth 225 

Ancient buildings : suggestions for describing, 257 

Ancient houses on Meols shore, 246 

Anderson — , 251 

Anderton Margt., 223 

Anglizer J. and A., 127 

Appley bridge, 208 

Arms, military, 167 

Arundel, 146 

Ascough Edw., 223 

Ashcroft T. , 37, 60 

Ashurst, 207 ; hall, 226 

W., X46 

Ashton Col.. 146; Ric, 231 
Aspinwall T., 179 
Astbury church, 3 
Aston Sir T., 142, 154 
Atherton, 220 
Aughton 38, 172 
Aylesbury, 144 

Backford, 115, iiS, 128 

Baldwin Rev. J., 215 

Bangor Iscoed, iii 

Bannester James, 223 

Barker Nelly, 97 

Barlow Alexander, 62 

Barron Dr., 792 

Barton T., 229 

Bate Adam, 227 

Battle of Chester, no, 113 

Bebington, 125 ; font at, 125 ; Roman road at, 248 

Becconsall, 208 

Beeston castle, 147, 148 

Bellasis — , 138 

Bescar, 208 

Bidston hills, 115; church, 115, zi8, 120; parish, 

121, 131 
Billinge, 237 
Bindloss Chr., 21, 22/23, 24. 35 1 fAxtl.t 21, 22, 23, 

24, 25, 26, 28, 29, 31, 32 ; Rob.. 22, 24, 28, 29, 

„. 30, 31. 35 ^ 
Btspham, 234, 228 
Birkenhead, 121; crypt, 122; free' library, 139; 

priory, 121, 128 
Bitton J. dc, 66 
Blackburn P., 87 
Blackstone Ekl^e, 250 

Blundell chapel, 69, 78, 79 ; crest, 78 ; (Ince) 202 
' H., 69; — . (lawyer), 91; Nich., 70; 

Rob., 69 its, 70 ; W., 69, 81 • ■ 
Booth Sir G.,jun., 142, 143, 148, 149,. 150, 151, 153; 

Mrs. T., xoo; W., 30 
Bootle, X72 ..: . J . . -. 

KorOfthell Jas., 23 

BoRwicK Hall, 21 — 36 ; poor, 29 

Bnulton Lieut. •Col, 147 

Bovey Tracy, 129 

Bowd-n, 150 

Brackley, 147 

Bradford J., 90 

Braggat Sunday, 193 

Kraichwaite Ric, 231; T., 23 

Bramhall hall, 19 

Bramley Justice, 4 

Branker B. , 83 

Brereton arms. 9 

Sir W., 4, 139, 141-7, 153-155 

Bretherton, 231 

— ; Rev. H. W., 234 

Brideoake Jon., 90 

Bridgeman Bishop J., 214, 221 *, H., 221 ; J., 220; 

O., 141 
Bridgcns R., 37, 57,76 

Brimstage, medisval remains at, 250 ; hall, 250, 252 
Brinde, 232 
Hrinsmead Alex., 24 
Bristol, 146 ; Earl of, 144 
British remains, 246 
Brittand Reginald, 33 
Brocmail, 112 
Bromborough, 126 

Brook Rev. T., 8 ■ ■ ^ 

Brown — , 153 I 

Brownsword W. , 222, 229 

Bulkeiey Margaret, 56, 603, 73, 78, 89 ; W., 61, 63 
Hulstrode Colonel, X44 | 

Buiibury family, 129 ' 

Hurscough priory, 217 

Burton, 131; Massey chapel, 131 . . . 

Butts, 168 
Byron Lord, 142, 147, T48, 155 

Calvert J., 23 

Canne J., 151 

Capell Lord, 145, 155 

Capesthorne, 4 

Carnarvon Earl, 144 

Carnforth, 21, 35 

Caroe W. D., 38, 84, 85 

Cars well — ,4 

Carter Rev. J., 130 

Cartmel priory, 105 

Carucate, 166 

Celts, 157, 158 

Chantry at Douglas, 212, 217, 223 

Chancel screen (Moreton hail), 8 

Chapel (Borwick), 25 ; (Moretou), 18 

house, 212 

Cheadle: Handforth chapel, 143 ,\ 

Cheshirb IN THE Civil War, 137 — 156 
Cheshire, 142, 144, 150, 153, 155 ; lost chapels, 

251 ; ministers, 140 
Chester, 112, 113, ii7f 139. I4'i, 142, 143. '46, X47, ' 

148, 149, 150, 152, 156; consistory court, 22a • " 
Childwall, 61 - 

Chirk castle, 148 1 

Cholmondley Lord, 147 t , 

Chorley, 229 ' .-;•'-,].. I 



Church ales, 193 ; plate, 224 ; survey, Lane, 221 

Clarendon Lord, 35 

Clayton Rev., 183, 184 

Clegg hall, 180 

Clifton Cuthbert, 57, 58 

Cockersand abbey, 217 

Congleton, i, 4, 8, 13 

Coombes W., 232 

Cooper J., 15s 

Coppinger Mary, 70 

Corbet Sir V., 154 

Cotton T., 119 

Coventry. 138 ; family, 128 

Cox E. W., 52, 118, X22, 123, 233, 252 

Cragie J., 2 

Crane Ralph, 223; T., 223 

Crisp family, 211 ; T., 211 

Cromwell, 149 ; Ric, 149 

Crooke W., 223 

Crosby Great, 83 

Crosses : 
Liverpool— lix^ Cross, 238 ; Red Cross, 238 ; 
St. Patrick's, 238; Townsend, 238; White 
Cross, 238 
Liverpool and «^/VA3tf«rAtftf</— Child wall, 237 ; 
Crosby hall, 239 ; Everton, 236 ; Famworih, 
238 ; Formby, 239 ; Garston, 237 ; Gt. Crosby, 
236 ; Halsall, 240 ; Harkirk, 239 ; Hunts, 237 ; 
Huyton, 237 ; Ince Blundell, 236 ; Little 
Crosby, 236 ; Lydiate, 240 ; Peasley, 237 ; 
Koby, 237 ; Sephton, 239 ; Walton, 238 ; 
Wavertree, 236 ; Windicshaw, 237 ; Winwick, 
238 ; Wooiton, 236 
ff7fr/t/— Bebington, 242 ; Bidston, 241 ; Birken- 
head, 243 ; Broinborough, 242 ; Greasby, 242 ; 
Hilbre Island, 243; Neston, 242 ; Sutton, 243 ; 
Wallasey, 241; West Kirby, 241; Wood- 
church, 242 

■ pseudo, 240 
Crosthwaite, 2^1 
Crouchback Edw., ()^ 
Croxteth pedigree, 67 
Croydon, 143 
Culcheth Esq. , 228 
Cumberland Earl of, 144 

Dale Ric , 7, 10 

Dalton, 220 

Danes, 130, 165, 209 

Danish village names, 165 

Darwin's charity, 198 

Delamer Baron, 150 

Delamere forest, 250 

Delinquents, 140 

Derby arms, 120 ; Earl, 30 ; Earl T., 120 ; Lord, 

Denbigh, 142 

Denton, 141 

Devereux Sir W., 176 

Devonshire Countess, 138 

Dewhurst W., 230 

Dicconson W., 211 

Dickonson W., 33 

Dieulward, 225 

Dobson — ., 86 

Dockwray Alice, 24 

Domesday, Z17, 166 

Done Sir Ralph, 147 

Douglas Chapbi., Notes on, 207-234 

■ ■ bridge, 3x7 ; parish accounts, 226 ; regis- 

ters, 225 ; river, 207, 208, 209. 212 
Downham Market, 86 
DownhoUand, 203, 204 
Draper H., 923 ; J. , 223 

Druidism, 158 
Dudley castle, 143 
Dugdale Sir W. , 34 
Dunham Massey, 143, 150 
Durning — , 224, 228 
Dutton J., 61, 63 

Eadward, zc8 

Earlv English, Z09, &c. 

Eastham, Z07, no, 136 ; arms, 127 ; font, 136 ; 

Stanley Chapel, 126, 127 
Ekxleston, 2x1, 220 
Eccleston W., 87 
Edge Hill (Uttle), 140 
Edward, Black Pnnce, 66 
Kdwardes Miss A. , 12 
Fgerton CoL, 149 ; Rev. J. M., 8 ; T., 90 
Elizabeth Queen, arms, xo 
Ellis Col., 144 
Eloft Mary, 2^ 
Emly Sir Michael, 146, X47 
Eskrigg Jennet, 22 
Essex Earl of, 139 
Etheibert, 159 
Ethelfrith, 112, 1x3 
Ethelmund, 115, 123 
Evans S., 30 
Eyam, X2o 

Fairfax Lord. 138, 142, X46, X47, 149 

Fairhurst hall, 225 

Falkland Lord V., X44 

Ferrers Rob., X76 : W. and Agnes, 175 

Ferrill T., X44 

Finche J., 90 

Fireplace (Moreton hall), xx 

Fisher P., x^3 ; Ric, 320 

Fishwick, Lieut.-Col., 234 

Fitzwilliam Lord, 33 

Flax, X30 

Fleam Bridge, 187 

Fleming F., 27 

Fleetwood Sir Ric, 147 

Flodden, 57 

Folk-moots, 157, X59 

Formby, 130, 187, 190, 203, 304 

Forshaw Rev. C, 184, 191 

Fox George, 26 

Frances Messrs., 69 

Fumess abbey, X05 

Garrett Rev. T., 184 

Garstang rectory, 31, 33 

Gastrell Bishop, 25, 223 

Gatehouse, 14 

Gathurst 208 

Gawsworth, 8 

Gee — , 823; W., 4 

Gillibrand Jon. , 229 

Gibbs Lieut.-Col., 147 

Gibson J., 69; Maj.-Gen., X47 

Gigles worth, 23 

Gimer Serj.-Maj., X44 

Glegg J., 133 

Godwyn Col., X44 

Goore s charity, X97 

Goore fam., 182 ; Ric, 85, x8x 

Gordon £. J. A., 38 

Great Altcar, 174 

Great hall (Moreton), 14, X7 

Greener J., 229 

Gregson W. EJ., 74. 234» aS^ 

Gould Rev. B., 179, 195 




Halsall. 171, 190 ; registers, 177 

Kev. Antony, 70 and f. ; Rich., 251 

Halton barony, 2 
Hamond Major, 147 
Hampden Col., 144 
Hanoforth, 141 
Harrock hall, 215 ; hills, 207 
Hamet Ric.,228 
Hartley Kic, 91 
Hastings arms, x2o 
Haward T., 132 
Hawarden castle, 145, 148 
Hawet Ric, 224 
Head Robt., z 
Heskaine, 231 
Hesketh bank, 208 

Rob., 228 

Heswall, xi8, X24, 133 

Hfty T. 33 

Heyes Rev. E., 182; Rob., 182 ; T., 182 

Hide £., 144 

Hiding>rooms, 16 

Hilsden, 147 

Hindleyi 225 

Hockenhall fam., 124, 130 

Hoe W., 134 

Hug-back work, 135 

Hoghton W., 33 

Holland Ric, 14X 

Holme Jord., 89; Ran., 131 

Holt, 145, X48 

Hoole, 230 

Hooton, Z26 

Horley Rev. £., 38, 85 

Hoscar, 208 

Howard Lord G., 33 ; and fam., 35 

Hubberthom Ric, 271 28, 29 

Hundreds, 164 

Huntley Earl, 57 

Hutton, 31, 33 

Ince Blundell, 172, 203 

Ingwath 202 

Ireland Ellen, 74 ; W. and L., 74 

Irvine W. F., 89, X07 

Isle of Wight, X49 

Jackson Mrs. A., 83 
Johnson Rev. J., 215, 224, 23X 
Jones Sir Arthur, 4 ; Col., 148 

Kendal, 21, 23, 24, 26 
Keer river, 34 
Kilmore Rob., 141 
Kinderton old hall, 6 
King Arthur, 209 
King's forest, 203 
King's Vale Royal^ x 
Kirk R. H., 87 
Kirkdale W., 89 
Kirkeby T., 64 
Knowles W., 230 
Knutsford, 141 

Lambert — , 149. 'So, 151. 'S^i »S3 
Lancaster. St. Mary's, 138 

T., 224 

Lancashve, 23, 25, 30, 138 

Landican, 113, 117 

Land unused, 130 

Lassell Jas., 220 

Lathom, 209 ; siege, 216 

— — — fam., 209, 210, 2x8 ; H., 2x7, 223 ; J., 218, 

2x9 ; Ric, 210, 2x1 ; Rob.. 2x1, 217 ; T., 2x0; 

T. de, 2x7, 2x8, 2x9, 220, 329 ; W., 2x0, 2xx, 2x8 

Lawson Sir J., 34 

Lawton J., X4 ; jane, 4 

League and Covenant, 30 

Leaves from an Antiquary's Note-Book, 

Legh Dorothy, 210; Edw., 210; J., 210; P., 72; 

Sir P., 210; T., 227 
I^ice&ter, 138 
Lenthall — , 148, X49 
Leper T., 26, 27 
Leyland Sir W., 63 
Lichfield, X43 
Lily W., X52 , 
Liptrot's charity, 198 
Little Altcar, 200 
Little Moretcn Half, 13 
Liverpool, 98, 100, loi, 153, 168, 169, X7X, 172, X73, 

i74> i75< 181 1 189 ; ancient house, 235 ; castle, 

153 » crosses (near), 236 ; Lancelot's hev, 235 ; 

Mardyke fort, 236 ; Moore's old hall, 236 ; 

(Old), 23s ; Rumford place, 23s 
London, 146, 169 ; stone, X29 
LongtOR, 232 
Lostpck Sir Gralam, 2 
Loyen — ., 80 
Lucas J., 28, 30 
Lucy Rob. , 68 
Lunt P., 93 
Lurting J., 99 

Lydiate, 77, 79, 203, 204 ; abbey, X74 ; hall, 79 
Lyson's Magna Britannia, 4, X34 

Macclesfield J. de, 12 

Maghull, X73, 174, X90 ; chapel, 252 ; manor-house, 

254 ; sun-dial, 255 ; wood, 202 

Rob., 59 

Mainwartng H., X41 ; P., 148 

Mansell J., 2x1 

Marbury W., 14X 

Marsden T., 223, 230^ 

Marsh Peter, 225 ; Ric, 225 

Marston Moor, 152 

Martin Meer, 208 

Marton family, 34 ; G., 34 

Mary, Queen, 59 

Massey Colonel, 147,; family, 8x ; Hamo, i2x y I. 

and sons, 4 ; J. de, 89 ; of Puddington, family, 

131; T. C.,4 
Maurice — , 144 
Mawdesley H., 231 
Mawson C, 33 ; T., 33 
Meols arms, 136 
Mercer J., 224, 230 
Middleton, Sir T., 145, 146 
Middlewich, 144 
Milbourn C. H., 201 
Military muster (1553), 171 
Millington Gilbert, 146 
Mitton Colonel, 155 
Mollington, 128 
Molyneux Ann, 80, 83 ; Anthony. 46, 51, 89 ; Lady 

Bridget, 68 ; C. VV., 101 ; Caryll, 62, 67, 68 ; 

Edward, 64, 80 ; family, 100; James, 60, 80, 

81, 89 ; Johanna, 68, 72 ; Lady Mary, 68 ; Rev. 

R., 89 ; Ric, 60, 163, 176, (Alt (irange) 99, 

(New Hall) 100; Sir Ric., 58, 61, 62, 72; 

Viscount Ric, 68 ; Sir T., 60 ; W.. 68, 74, 163 ; 

Sir W., 57, 58, 66 : Viscount W., 67, 68 
arms, &c., 68; brasses, 38; chantry, 89; 

chapel, 78, 79 
Molyneux-Seel hatchment, 253 
Monk Colonel, 147 
Montalt Ra., 133 
Montrose — , 149 
More Sir T., 218 


Morecambe Bay, 35 

MoRKTON Hall, 1—20; arms, 6, i?, 20; bay 
window, 18 ; charters, 2, 3 ; crest, 9, 10 ; long 
gallery, 17 ; manor, 3 ; musicians' gallery, 17 

Moreton Bishop and Cardinal, i, 2, 4; Rev. £., 
62, 71 ; blliz., 2, 4 ; fam., 3 ; Fr. Annabella, 2 ; 
Jane, 3 ; John de, 12 ; Lettice, 3 ; Margaret, 
62, 71 ; Mary J., 3, 4 ; Peter, 3 ; Ph., 3 ; W., 
i8, 19 ; Rev. W., 2 ; Sir W., 2, 3, 4, 7, 8 

Morley Sir Mich., 145 

Morton Mrs. Alice, 62, 83 *, Dr. £., 90, 93, 95 

Mosseley Sir E., 144 

Mothering Sunday, 194 

Mow Cop, I 

Myott Jas., 4, 16 

Nantwich, 141, 142, 14S1 146, I47> »49i »5'» '53 

Naseby, isi 

Nash's MansioHS, 14, 18 

Navy, 172 

Naylor Rev. W., 184 

Neston, 717, ti8, 132 

Netherton Green, 256 

Newark, 148 

Lord v., Z44 

Newburgh, 216 

Newcastle, Earl of, 144 

Newport Pagnell, 149, 151 

Nicholas (secretary), 144 

Norfolk Duke H., 33 35 

Normandy, 108 

Norris H., 61 

North Meols, 171, 172, 208, 215 

Norihwich, 2, 141, 144 

Notes on thu Parish Churches of Wikral, 

Nottingham, 138, 139 
Nutter J., 90 

Oidfield H., 87 

Old hall (Moreton), s 

Open-air service, 129 

Oratory chapel, 5, 7 

Ormskirk, 38, 171 *, grammar school, 184 

Orton — . , 225 

Over, 154 

Overchurch runes, 115, 122 

Oxford, 80, 143, 144, 148 

Pack horses, 170 

Parbold, 207, 208, 210, 3x6, 220, 225 ; hill, 207, 215, 

ai6, 225, 234 ; church, 215 ; hall, 215; quarries, 

■ H., 217, 220 

Parker Rev. Jas., loi 
Parkinson Sir R., 61, 64, 73 
Parr K., 07 ; W., 82, 87 
Pearson J., 230; Rev. J., 185 
Peers J. 243 
Peploe Bp. , 178 
Perpendicular work, 40, 46 
Perry Sir Hugh, 31 
Peters —,15^ 
Pinnington Margaret, 93 

Pippard Chr. and family, 70; Frances, 70; H.,70 
Plague, 150 
Plans, 13 
Plumbe J. and Jane, 180, t8i ; Rev. T., 181 ; Rev, 

Porter Endymion, 144 

H., 23 

Potatoes, 172 
Potter C, 204 
Potteries, The, i 
Poulton 117, 126, 232 

Powell Rev. E..2iy 

Poyntz .Mayor-General, 14B 

Prenton, 126 

Presbyter J., 150 

Prescott Miss, 239; Ric, 333 ; Sam., 233 

Preston, 52 

H., 30 

Price J., 231 ; Rev. W., 211, 236, 232 ; W. F., 207 
Priest s room, 19 
Pritt W. C. A., 119 

Quadrangle, 19 
Quakers, 39 

Radcliffe Sir Alex., 59 ; Bridget, 163 ; Ric, 163 . 

Raines Canon, 2x6, 227 

Ranulf Earl of Chester, 175 . 

Rasbotham — ., 74 

Ravensmeols, 203 

Recusants, 30, 32. 139 

Rhuddlan Mat., 134 

Ribblehead, 1x2 

Richmond Chr., 87 ; Duke, 14^ ; Ric, .90 

Rigby Eleanor, 215, 224 ; Hugh, 218, 219, 223, 229; 

J., 229 ; Nic, 214; Peter, 223 
Rivers Earl, 144 
Rivington, 208 
Rixton, 225 
Roberts T. and J., 94 
Robin Canon, 124 
Robinson — , 1x8 ; A. M., 137 
Rode manor, 2 ; Old, 8 

Roper W. O., 2x ; Margaret, 223 . . 

Roscoe James, 252, 253 ; W., 69 

Rose J., 252 ; R., 87 

Rothwell Ann, 94 ; Mrs., 52 ; Rev. R. R., 37, 5j, 

Roulton Heath, 148 
Rufford, 208 
Rugge Ric, 57, 58 
Rushton W. , 97 
Rupert Prince, X42, 144, 155 
Rush-bearing, 159, X90, 195, 196 
Ruthin castle, X48 
General, X44 

Sadler Adam, 102; £. M., tos ; Elizabeth, 102; 

J., xox, X02 ; J. A., xox ; James, 102 
Saint Aidan, 1x3, it4 
S. Bartholomew, 134 
S. Bridget, 116, 135 
S. Chad, 113, 114 
S. Cuthbert. 114 
St. George Sir H., 33 
S. Germanus, xxo, 112 
S. Helen's Church, Sbphton, 37 — 106 
S. Helen's well, Sefton, 255 
S. Hilary, xii, X17 
S. John's, Chester, xo8 
S. Lawrence, 129 
S. Oswald, 1x5. 128 

S, Werburgh, X17, X2S, 126, X29 ; abbey, 133, 134 
fiamlesbury hall, 18 
Sanders Rev. F., 127.: 
Saudford Capt., 145, 146 
Salt works, 147 
SavilleSir W.,138 
Saxons, 159, 209 
Scaresbrick deeds, 217 
Scholfield Rev. Jon., 222, 230 
Schomberg, 1^6 
Schoolsand charities, 196 
Scott Sir W., Z40, Z42 
Seddon J., 30 



Sedilia, 49 

Sefton, Notes of Local Secretary, 252-256 

Church, 37—106 ; altar, Our Lady of Pity, 

63 ; arms, 74 ; bells, 86, 87 ; ^ bench-ends, 74. 

78, 80 ; brasses, ^6, 58, 59; briefs, 05 ; chancel 

stalls, 47 ; chantries, 62 ; church plate, 82, 8q ; 

churchwardens' accounts, 96 ; decorated work, 

38, 39 ; Easter sepulchre, 45 ; font, 85^ ; hall, 

87 ; masons' marks, 53 ; mock corporation, 38 ; 

monuments, 65-73 '• Norman masonry, 38, 103 ; 

parish, 171 ; parvise, 50; punch bowl, 97; 

rectors, 88 : registers, 92; screen, 75, 79; 

singers, 97 ; stained glass, 73 ; township, 171 
Earl, 68, 84 ; Earl C. W., 67 ; Lady, 192 ; 

Lord, 173, 174, 183, 185 
Segar —^97 
Sephton T., 178 
Sherburne Ric, 61. 62 
bherlock (chaplain), 147 ; Dr., 124 ; Dr. Ric, 27, 

28, 29 
Shevington, 31, 33 

Shotwick, 178, 129; Norman door, 130 
Shute Chr., 23 
Shrewsbury, 152 
Simpson Rob., 226 ; T., 225 
Skelmersdale, 231 
Skepston, 147 

Smith Father, 237 ; W., 136 
Southport, 207 
Sparling J., 232 
Stage plays, 139 

Stananought Sir H., 218, 219, 229 
Standish, 216, 232 ; hall, 32 

Standish Cecilia, 32 ; fam., 28, 32, 34 ; Ralph, 32, 
^ 34 ; W,, 31, 32 
Stanlaw abbey, 237 
Stanley fam., 126 
Star grass, 172 
Starkey — ., 01 
Steele Capt.,1147 
Stoke, 128 
Stopford, 141 

Stcreton, 126 ; quarry, 249 ; hall, 250 
Strange Nat. , 30 

Strickland C. and fam., 34 ; T., 34 
Sutton Grange, 252 

Talbot Sir H., 147 ; W. H., 228 

Tarleton, 208 

Tarvin, 142, 155 

Taylor H., 13; Henry, 255; Jas., 228; Rev. Ric, 2 

Tempest Col., 180; Stephen, 100 

Thingwall, 116 

Thomas Rev. J., 185 ; Mrs., 181 

Thornton, 64, 129 ; sun dial, 255 

Thorpe (priest), 177 

Thurstaston, 134 

Tompson Jos., 90, 93, 94, 95 

Toogood J., 222, 228 

Topping Kog., 224 

Torbock J.,62 


C., 33, 35 ; W. and fam., 34 

Turner Gregory, 92 ; Jane, 226 

Uctred, 166, 167 ; his townsi 167 
Underground passage, x6 
Upholland, 207, 224 
Upton, 122 

Vane Lt.-Col., 147 
Vaughan Sir W. , 142 
Vicars J., 153 
Village stone, 157, 159 

Wadeson T., 230 
Waleton Adam de, 317 
Walker Bishop, 153 ; Rob., 225 ; T., 231 
Wall Rev. G. W., 37 

Wallasey, iii, Z12, X13, 114, 116, X17, zi8 ; church- 
yard cross, ZT9 ; font, 120 

WalferJ. G., 57 

Walton, 171, 17s 

Warburton Rev. W., 157 

Ward J.. 30 

Waring Major, 152 

Warren Colonel, 147 ; Edward, 33 

Warrington, 30, 73 

Warton, 22, 23, 24 ; crag, 34 ; regbters, 24, 25 

Waterloo coursing, 174 

Watkinson James, 179 ; T., z88 

Watt Ric, 118 

Web Sir W., 71 

Welch Ric, 229 

Wells: Bebington (Upper), 245 ; Brimstage, 245; 
Bromborough bridge, 244; Chester, 245 3m; 
Chrbtleton, 246 ; Hooton Park, 245 ; Shad- 
well, 244 ; Wavertree, 245 ; Win wick, 245 

Wencedale^ 25 

West Cecilia, 25 ; Nat., 36 ; T., 25, 36 

West Dean, 2 

West Derby, 175 ; roads, 170 

West Kirby, 131, 135 ; church, 116, 118; museum, 

Westminster Abbot of, 225 

Whalley Hannah, 229 ; J., 85 

Whelock river, i 

Whitakcr Dr., 27, 28 

Whitchurch, 154 

Whitehead T., 231 

Whittle Andrew, 221, 228 

Widder Robt., 26, 27 

Widdows W., 229 

Wigan, 207, 208, 21 z, 2z6, 227 

Wi braham Roger, Z48 

Wilkinson A. , 97 

Wi liamson Edward, 23 

Wilson BishoD, 71, 124, X32 ; Colonel, 145 ; H., 21 ; 

'i., 33; W.,223 
Wilson's charity, Z97 
Windows (Moreton Hall), 7, zo, j8 
Win wick, 29 
Wirral, ZZ3, 116 
Wirral entrenchments : Bidston, &c., 243 ; Irby 

hall, 244 ; Rufibrd, 244 ; Thornton, 344 
Wittmor J., Z34 

Woodchurch. 113, xz7, zi8, Z23, Z24 
Worcester, 26 
Worlhington J., 229 
Wrexham, Z45 

Wrightington, 33, 220, 22X, 222, 229 ; hall, 225 
Wyatt Colonel, Z83 

Yates W., 23Z ; Rev. W., 224 
Yealand, 28 
York, Z37 

Zoelen J. W., Z36 







[being the fourth issue of the series and completing the 

index for the period 1891-94;] 








[^Those Transactions mctrked toith an asterisk * in the following list are now for the 
first time included in the indeXy the others are continuations from the indexes 
of 1891-93. Transactions included for the first time are indexed from 1891 

Anthropological Institute, Journal, vol. xxiii, pts. 3 and 4, vol. xxiv, pts. 1 and 2. 

Antiquaries, London, Proceedings of the Society, 2nd ser., vol. xv, pts. 2, 3 
and 4, vol. xvi, pt. 1. 

Antiquaries, Ireland, Proceedings of Eoyal Society of, 5t.h ser., vol. iv. 

Antiquajries, Scotland, Proceedings of the Society, vol. xxvii and xxviii. 

Archfflologia, vol. liv, pt. 1. 

ArchsBOlogia Cambrensis, 5th ser., vol. x and xi. 

Archaeologia Cantiana, vol. xxi. 

Archaeological Journal, vol. li. 

Birmingham and Midland Institute, Proceedings, vol. xx. 

Bristol and Q-loucestershire Archaeological Society, Transactions, vol. xviii, pt. 1. 

British Archaeological Association, Journal, vol. 1. 

British Architects, Royal Institute of, Journal, 3rd ser., vol. i. 

Bucks, Records of, vol. vii, pt. 2. 

Cambridge Antiquarian Society, Transactions, vol. viii, pt. 2. 
*Chester and North Wales, Architectural, Archaeological and Historical Society, 
Transactions, vol. v, pts. 1 and 2. 

Cornwall, Eoyal Institution of. Transactions, vol. xii. 

Derbyshire Archaeological Society, Transactions, vol. xvi. 

Devonshire Association, Transactions, vol. xxvi. 
*Durham and Northumberland, Archaeological and Architectural Society, Transac- 
tions, vol. iv, pt. 1. 

Essex Archaeological Society, Transactions, New Series, vol. v, pt. 1. 

Folklore, Proceedings of the Folklore Society, vol. v. 

Hellenic Society, Journal, voL xiii, pt. 4 and vol. xiv. 
*Kildare Archaeological Society, Journal, vol. i, pts. 1-5. 

Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society, vol. xi. 
^Lancashire and Cheshire Historic Society, Transactions, vol. vii, viii and ix. 


Lcicestersliire Arcliitectural and Arcliseological Society, Transactions, rol. viii, 

pt. 1. 
•Montgomeryshire Collections, vol. xxv, xxvi, xxvii and xxviii. 
Numismatic Chronicle, 3rd ser., vol. xiv. 
Oxford Archaeological Society, Transactions, No. xxx. 
Eoyal Irish Academy, Transactions, 3rd ser., vol. iii, pts. 1-3. 
St. Paul's Ecclesiological Society, Transactions, vol. iii, pt. 4. 
Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Transactions, 2nd ser., 

vol. vi. 
Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Transactions, vol. xl. 

[New Series, vol. xx.J 
Surrey Archaeological Society, Collections, vol. xii. 
*Thoresby Society, Miscellany, vol. iv, pts. 1 and 2. 
Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine, vol. xxvi, pt. 4, xxvii, 

pts. 3 and 4, xxviii, pt. 1. 
Yorkshire Ai'chcpological and Topographical Journal, vol. xiii. 


The value of tliis Index to archaeologists is now' recognised. Every effort is 
made to keep its contents up to date and continuous, but it is obvious that the 
difficulties are great unless the assistance of the societies is obtained. If for any 
reason the papers of a society are not indexed in the year to which they properly 
belong the plan is to include them in the following year ; and whenever the papers 
of societies are brought into the Index for the first time they are then indexed 
from the year 1891. 

By this means it will be seen that the year 1891 is trea ted as the commencing 
year for the Index and that all transactions published in and since that year will 
find their place in the series. 

To make this work complete an index of the transactions from the beginning of 
archeeological societies down to the year 1890 needs to be published. This Index is 
already completed in MS, form and it will be printed as soon as arrangements can 
be made. 

Societies will greatly oblige by communicating any omissions or suggestions to 

The Editob of the Aechjsologhcal Index, 

Society of Antiquaries, 

Burlington House, London, W. 

Single copies of the yearly Index may be obtained. Many of the societies in union 
with the Society of Antiquaries take a sufficient number of copies to issue with 
their transactions to each of their members. The more this plan is extended the 
less will be the cost of the Index to each society. For particulars of this and 
other works now being carried on by the societies in union application should 
be made to the Honorary Secretary 

Ralph Nbvill, F.S.A., 

13, Addison Crescent, 

Kensington, W. 


IN 1894. 

Abercrombt (Hon. J.). Note on a tanged dagger or spear head from 

Crawford Priory, Fife. Proc, 8oc, Antiq, Scot xxviii. 219-225. 
AcLAND (Rev. C. L.). The antiquities of the immediate past. Proc. 

Gambridge Antiq, 8oc. viii. 314-317. 
AiLSA (Marquis of). Notes on the excavation of a mound called 

Shanter Knowe, near Kirkoswald, Ayrshire. Proc, 8oc. Antiq. 

Scot, xxvii. 413-416. 
Allbn (J. Romilly). a sculptured Norman capital from Lewes 

Priory, Sussex, now in the British Museum. Proc, 8oc, Antiq. 

2nd S. XV. 199-208. 
Fonts of the Winchester type. Jour, Brit, Arch, Assoc, 

1. 17-27. 

Celtic art in Wales and Ireland compared. Arch. Gamhren- 

sis, 5th S. X. 17-24. 

lolo Morganwg's readings of the inscriptions on the crosses 

at Llantwit Major. Arch. Gamhrensis, 5th S. x. 326-331. 

The cross of Eiudon, Golden Gbx>ve, Carmarthenshire. 

Arch. Gamhrensis, 5th S. x. 48-55. 

Suggestions for an archseological survey of Wales. Arch, 

Gambrensis, 5th S. x, 56-61. 

The early Christian monuments of Lancashire and 

Cheshire. Trans. Lane, and Ghesh. Hist. 8oc, N.S. ix. 1-32, 
31-32a ; Jour. Archit. Arch, and Hist. 8oc. of Ghester and North 
Wales, V. 133-174. 

Report on the photographs of the sculptured stones earlier 

than a.d. 1100 in the district of Scotland, north of the river Dee. 
Proc. Soc. Antiq. 8cot. xxviii. 150-177. 
Allen (Mrs. Thomas). List of effigies in south Wales. Arch. Gam- 
hrensis, 5th S. x. 248-251. 


Amery (P. F. S.). Twelfth report of the Committee on Devonshire 

Folklore. Trans. Devon. Assoc, xxvi. 79-85. 
Anderson (Joseph). Notes on two Highland targets from Dunollie 

Castle, near Oban, Argyleshire. Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot, xxvii. 34- 


. Notice of a bronze sword with handle plates of horn fonnd 
at Aird in the island of Lewis. Proc. 8oc. Antiq. Scot, xxvii. 

Notice of Dnn Stron Duin, Bemera, Barra Head : with 

plans. Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot, xxvii. 341-346. 

Notes on two chisels or punches of bronze-like metal from 

Sutherlandshire and Dumfries. Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot, xxviii. 

Andr]6 (J. Lewis). Compton Church. Coll. Surrey Arch. Soc, xii. 

Notes on an ancient lock at Beddington Park. Coll. Surrey 

Arch. Soc. xii. 27-28. 
Anichkof (Prof. Eugene). St. Nicolas and Artemis. Folklore, v. 

Arch JILOGIA. A fifteenth century treatise on gardening. Archoeologia, 

liv. 167-172. 
Armitage (Mrs.). General Pitt-Rivers' excavations in Cranborne 

Chase. Yorks. Arch. Soc. xiii. 35-43. 
Arnold (G. M.). Filborough farmhouse. East Chalk, Gravesend. 

Arch. Cant. xxi. 161-169. 
AsHCOMBE (Rt.-Hon. Lord). Mural monuments in Dorking Church. 

Coll. Surrey Arch. Soc, xii. 20-24. 
Aston (W. G., C.M.G.). Japanese Onomatopes and the origin of 

Language. Jour. Anthrop. Inst, xxiii. 332-362. 
Atkinson (A.). On a bronze spearhead and two bronze celts found 

in Lincolnshire. Proc. Soc. Antiq. 2nd S. xv. 138-140. 
Atkinson (Kobert, LL.D.). On South Coptic texts: a criticism on 

M. Bouriant's Eloges du Martyr Victor, fils de Romanus'. Proc. 

Boy. Irish Acad. 3rd S. iii. 225-284. 
On Professor Rossi's publication of South Coptic texts. 

Proc. Boy. Irish Acad. 3rd S. iii. 24-99. 
Aveling (S. T.). Rochester Inns. Arch. Cant. xxi. 315-326. 
Axon (William E. A.). The libraiy of Richard Brereton of Ley 

1557. Trans. Lane, and Chesh. Antiq. Soc. xi. 103-112. 
Atlmer (H. H.). The Aylmer family. Jour. Kildare Arch. Soc. i. 



Baildon (W. p.). On the original roll of accounts of tlie reeve of 

the manor of Appleby, Leicestershire, for the year 1367-8. ^roc. 

Soc, Antiq, 2nd S. xv. 309-322. 
Yorkshire Star Chamber proceedings. Yorks. Arch, 8oc, 

xlii. 312-315. 
Baker (Arthur). History of St. Silin Church, Llansilin, Mont- 
gomeryshire. Arch. Cainbrensis, 5th S. xi. 108-121. 
Baebr (Harold). Notes on the Avon Yalley from Pershore to 

Tewkesbury. Birm. and Mid. Inst. xx. 10-28. 
Ball (Y., C.B.). On the volcanoes and hot springs of India and the 

folklore connected therewith. Proc. Boy. Irish Acad, 3rd S. iii. 

Description of two large spinel rubies with Persian 

characters engraved upon them. Proc. Boy. Irish Acad. 3rd S. 

iii. 380-399. 
Barrett (C. R. B.). Hippo-sandals. Jour. Brit, Arch, Assoc. 1. 

Bates (Rev. E. H.). Notes on a pamphlet of the Restoration period. 

Leicest. Archit. Soc. viii. 30-33. 
Notes on a recently recovered register of Claybrooke. 

Leicest. Archit, Soc. viii. 84-39. 
Bather (A. G.). The bronze fragments of the Acropolis. Jour. 

Hell. Studies, xiii. 232-271. 
The development of the plan of the Thersilion. Jour. 

Hell. Studies, xiii. 328-337. 

The problem of the Bacchee. Jour. Hell. Studies, xiv. 


and Y. W. Yorke. Excavations on the probable sites of 

Basilis and Bathos. Jour. Hell. Studies, xiii. 227-231. 
Batten (E. Chisholm). Burton Pynsent. Somerset Arch, and Nat. 

Hist. Soc. xl. 155-170. 
Batten (John). Stoke under Hamdon in connection with Sir 

Matthew de Gournay, Kt. and the Duchy of Cornwall. Somerset 

Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc. xl. 236-271. 
Beaumont (G. F.). Layer Marney earthwork. Trans. Essex Arch, 

Soc, N.S. V. 100. 
Bell (A. M.). Remarks on the flint implements from the chalk 

plateau of Kent. Jour. Anthrop, Inst, xxiii. 266-284. 
Bell (Edwin Weston). Notes on the British Fort on Castle Law at 

Forgandenny, Perthshire, partially excavated during 1892. 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot, xxvii. 14-22. 


Bellaihs (Col. G. C). Discovery of one of the main sewers of 
Roman Leicester. Leicest. Archit. 8oc, viii. 40-40. 

Benson (E. F.). The Thersilion at Megalopolis. Jour, Hell, Studief, 
xiii. 319-327. 

Berry (H. F.). The manor of Mallow in the thirteenth century. 
Jour. Boy. Soc. Antiq. Ireland^ 5th S. iv. 14-24. 

Bevan (Rev. Canon). Extracts from the statute-book of St. David's 
Cathedral. Arch. CamhrensiSf 5th S. x. 218-225. 

BiCKNELL (A. S.). A forgotten Chancellor and Canon [Dr. Biconyll] 
Somerset Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc. xl. 179-226. 

Black (Gt. F.). Report on the antiquities found in Scotland and pre- 
served in the British Museum, &c., and in the Museum of 
Science and Art, Edinburgh. Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot, xxvii. 

Scottish charms and amulets. Proc. Soc. Atitiq. Scot, xxvii. 


Notice of a charm b ead from Craignish. Proc. Soc. Antiq. 

Scot, xxviii. 230-233. 

Descriptive catalogue of loan collections of prehistoric and 

other antiquities from the shires of Berwick, Roxburgh, and 

Selkirk. Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot, xxviii. 321-342. 
Blakeway (Rev. J. B.). History of Shrewsbury hundred or liberties. 

Trans. Shropshire A. and N. H. Soc. 2nd S. vi. 373-414. 
BoDGER (J. W.). Roman objects discovered at Peterborough. Jour. 

Brit. Arch. Assoc. 1. 57-59, 64-5. 
BoDiNGTON (N.). Pampocalia [near the village of Bardsey]. 

Thoreshy Soc. Misc. iv. 60-64. 
Note on a Roman altar preserved in the museum of the 

Leeds Philosophical Society. Thoreshy Soc. Misc. iv. 79-80. 
Boodle (Rev. J. A.). Boughton under the Blean. Arch. Cant. xxi. 

BosviLLE Deeds. Yorks. Arch. Soc. xiii. 219-225. 
Bowes (R.). On the first and other early Cambridge newspapers. 

Proc. Cambridge Antiq. Soc. viii. 347-358. 
Brakspear (Harold). Notes on encaustic tiles at Heytesbury House. 

Wilts. Arch, and Nat. Hist. Mag. xxvii. 241-24 i. 
Brigg (William). Testament a Leodiensia, extracted from the Pro- 
bate Registry at York. Thoreshy Soc. Misc. iv. 1-16, 139-147. 
Brock (E. P. Loftus). The Saxon church at Whitefield, near Dover, 

Arch. Cant. xxi. 301-307. 
Brook (Alexander J. S.) . Notice of the sword belt of the sword of state 


of Scotland restored in 1892 to the Scottish regalia by the Rev. 
Samuel Ogilvy Baker. Froc. Soc, Antiq, Scot, xxviii. 279-298. 

Brook (Alexander J. S.). An account of the archeiy medals belong- 
ing to the university of St. Andrews and the grammar school 
of Aberdeen. Froc, Soc. Antlq. Scot, xxviii. 343-469. 

Brooke (John). Manchester Cathedral. Trans. Lane, and GhesTi. 
Antiq, Soc. xi. 21-26. 

Browne (Rev. Canon G. F.). Sculptured stone found on site of 
chapel by the cloister in the burial ground of Wells Cathedral 
Church. Somerset Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc. xl. 275. 

Browne (Charles R.). The ethnography of Inishbofin and Inish- 
shark, co. Galway. Froc. Boy. Irish Acad. 3rd S. iii. 317-370. 

Brownlow (Bishop). Clerical and social life in Devon in 1287. 
Trans. Devon. Assoc, xxvi. 209-229. 

Brushfield (T. N., M.D.), The rows of Chester. Jour. Archit. 
Arch, and Hist. Soc. Chester and North Wales, v. 207-238. 

The Church of All Saints, East Budleigh. Trans. Devon. 

Assoc, xxvi. 237-295. 

The churchwardens accounts of East Budleigh. Trans. 

Devon. Assoc, xxvi. 335-400. 
Buckle (Edmund). On the Lady Chapel by the cloister of Wells 

Cathedral and the adjacent buildings. Somerset Arch, and Nat. 

Hist. Soc. xl. 32-63. 
BuiCK (Rev. G. R.). The crannog of Moylarg. Jour. Boy. Soc, 

Antiq. Ireland, 5th S. iv. 315-331. 
Bulkelky-Owen (Hon. Mrs.). Selattyn: a history of the parish. 

Trans. Shropshire A. and N. H. Soc, 2nd S. vi. 79-98, 291-326. 
Bulleid (Arthur). The Lake village near Glastonbury, Somerset 

Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc, xl. 141-151. 
BuRD (Rev. J.), An ancient bronze matrix found at Chirbury. 

Trans, Shropshire A. and N. H. Soc. 2nd S. vi. 174-176. 
Burnard (Robert). Exploration of the hut circles in Broadun 

Ring and Broadun. Trans. Devon. Assoc, xxvi. 185-196. 
BuRNE (Miss). Guy Fawkes on the South Coast. Folklore, v. 38- 

BuRSON (W.). The Kynaston Family. Trans. Shropshire A, and 

N H.:Soc. 2nd S. vi. 209-222. 
C. (E. K.). A brawl in Kirkgate [Leeds] 13 Edward IL Thoreshy 

Soc. Misc. iv. 125-138. 
Calvert (E.). Extracts from a fifteenth century MS. Trans. Shrop- 
shire A. and N H. Soc. 2nd S. vi. 99-106. 


Caroe (W. D.). Church furniture. Jour. M.I.B.A. 3rd S. i. 

Carpenter (H. J.) Furse of Moreshead, a family record of the 

sixteenth century. Trans, Devon. Assoc, xxvi. 168-184. 
Carrick (Rev. J. C). Some notes on Archbishop Leighton and his 

connection with Newbattle. Proc. 8oc. Antiq. See. xxvii. 23-33. 
Carrington (W. a.). Selections from the Steward's accounts pre- 
served at Haddon Hall for the years 1549 and 1564. Derbyshire 

Arch. Soc. xvi. 61-85. 
List of recusants in the Peak of Derbyshire, 1616 ; list of 

bucks killed at Haddon 1669 ; names of Derbyshire gentlemen 

charged for the levy of three horsemen, [1601] etc. Derhysh, 

Arch. Soc. xvi. 140-156. 
Carroll (F. M.). Some notes on the abbey and cross of Moone and 

other places in the valley of the Griese. Jour, Kildare Arch. i. 

Carroll (Rev. J.). Remains in Athy and neighbourhood. Jour. 

Kildare Arch. Soc. i. 102-112. 
Carter (H. B.). Leaba Dhiarmada agus Grainne, Dunnaraore, 

Kildress, co. Tyrone. Jour. Rof/. Soc. Antiq. Ireland, 5th S. iv. 

Cave-Browne (Rev. J.). In and about Leeds and Bromfield parishes, 

Kent. Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. 1. 93-104. 
An ancient record concerning St. Augustine's Abbey, 

Canterbury. Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. 1. 295-302. 

KJiights of the shire for Kent, from a.d. 1275 to a.d. 1831. 

Arch. Cant. xxi. 198-243. 

Chamberlain (B. H.). Two funeral urns from Loochoo. Jour. 
Anthrop. Inst, xxiv. 58-59. 

Chancellor (F.). Leez Priory. Trans. Essex Arch. Soc. N.S. v. 

Chris TisoN (Dr. D.) The prehistoric fortresses of Treceiri, Carnar- 
von and Eildon, Roxburgh. Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot, xxviii. 100- 

On the geographical distribution of certain place-names 

in Scotland. Froc. Soc. Antiq. Scot, xxvii. 255-280. 

The prehistoric forts, etc., of Ayrshire. Froc. Soc. Antiq. 

Scot, xxvii. 381-405. 
Church (Rev. C. M.). The rise and growth of the Chapter of Wells 

from 1242- 1333. Archceologia, liv. 1-40. 
Documents bearing upon late excavations on the south 


side of Cathedral cLurcli of "Wells. Somerset Arch, and Nat, 

Hist, 8oc. xl. 19-31. 
Churchstoke Registers. Montgomeryshire Goll. xxv. 36. 
Clark (G. T.) The signory of Grower. Arch. Camhrensis, bth S. x. 

1-16, 292-308 ; xi. 122-130. 
Clark (T. W.). On ancient libraries. Froc. Cambridge Antiq. 8oc. 

viii. 359-388. 
Clark (Somers). The devastation of Nubia. Arch. Jour. li. 268-282. 

On the revised scheme for damming the Nile at Philae. 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. 2nd S. xv. 282-284. 

Clazey (J. 0.). and Rev. J. Fergusson. Notice of an urn found at 
Noranside, parish of Fern, Forfarshire, and notices of stone cists 
found at different times within the parish. Froc. Soc. Antiq. 
Scot, xxvii. 66-69. 

Clutterbuck (Rev. R. H.). The Black Book of Southampton. 
Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. 1. 125-130. 

The story of the quit rent at Andover. Jour. Brit. Arch. 

Assoc. 1. 257-266. 

Cobb (J. R.). The tower of St. Mary's Church, Brecon. Arch. 

Camhrensis, 5 th S. xi. 320-321. 
CoDRiNGTON (0.). Oriental coins. Num. Chron. 3rd S. xiv. 


Note on a gold coin of Taghlak Shah. Num. Chron. 3rd 

S. xiv. 185-186. 

CoDRiNGTON (Rev. R. H., D.D.,). A family Connection of the Codring- 

ton family in the 17th century. Trans. Bristol and Glouc. Arch. 

Soc. xviii. 134-141. 
Coffey (G-.)- "^^^ origins of prehistoric ornament in Ireland. Jour. 

Boy. Soc. Antiq. Ireland, 5th S. iv. 349-379. 
Notes on the classification of spearheads of the bronze 

age found in Ireland. Froc. Boy. Irish Acad. 3rd S. iii. 486-510. 
Coleman (Rev. W. A.). Some place and field names of the parish of 

Staveley. Derbyshire Arch. Soc. xvi. 190-197. 
Coles (Fred R.). The motes, forts, and doons in the east and west 

divisions of the stewartry of Kircudbright. Froc. Soc. Antiq. 

Scot, xxvii. 92-182. 

The stone circle at Holywood, Dumfriesshire. Froc. Soc. 

Antifj. Scot, xxviii. 84-90. 

Notice of the discovery of a small cup-shaped urn of a 

variety hitherto unknown in Scotland. Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot. 
xxviii. 204-206. 


Collier (W. F.). Dartmoor for Devonshire. Trans, Devon. Assoc. 

xxvi. 199-208. 
Collins (F.). The bounder of ye Lordshippe of Spoflford written this 

first of Aprill anno reg. Begine Elizabethe 19. Yorks. Arch. 8oc. 

xiii. 318-320. 
CoMERFORD (MosT Rev. Dr.). The Ford of AE ; some historical notes 

on the town of Athj. Jour. Kildare Arch. 8oc. i. 57-70. 
COMPER (J. N.). Practical considerations on the Gothic or English 

altar and certain dependent ornaments. St. PauVs Ecclesiohgi- 

cat Soc. iii. 195-224. 
CoMPTON (C. H.). Kirkham Priorj and Warden Abbey. Jour, 

Brit, Arch, Assoc. 1. 283-294. 
Cook (A. B.). Animal worship in the Mycenaean. Joum. Hell, 

SttidieSy xiv. 81-169. 
Cooper (Re?. T. S.). The church plat^ of Surrey. Coll. Surrey 

Arch. Soc. xii. 52-82. 
CORBETT- Winder, of Vaynor Park, pedigree. Montgomeryshire Coll, 

xxvi. 229-254. 
CowPER (H. S.). Two bronze celts found at Stainton-in-Furness and 

a stone celt from Plumbland. Proc. Soc. Antiq. 2nd S. xv. 238- 

Cox (E. W.). Chester Castle. Jour. Archit. Arch, and Hist. Soc. 

Chester and North Wales, v. 239-276. 
The origin and date of Chester rows. Jour. Archit. Arch. 

and Hist. Soc. Chester and North Wales, v. 299-303. 

Notes on the sculptures of the Roman monuments recently 

found in Chester. Trans. Lane, and Chesh. Hist. Soc. N.S. vii. 
and viii. 91-102. 

The ancient Pilkington Manor house, called Stand or 

Whitefield Hal], near Pilkington. Trans. Lane, and Chesh, Hist, 
Soc. N.S. ix. 215-216. 
Oberchurch and its runic stone. Trans. Lane, and Chesh, 

Hist. Soc. N.S. vii. and viii. 305-320. 

Are the marks in certain Wirral churches glides to 

measurements ? Trans. Lane, and Chesh, Hist. Soc. N.S. vii. and 

viii. 326. 
Cox (Rev. J. C). On the discovery of a Roman pig of lead found 

on Matlock Moor, Derbyshire. Proc. Soc. Antiq. 2nd S. xv. 185- 

Cripps (W. J.). Old church plate and how to describe it. Bristol 

and Glouc, Arch. Soc. xviii. 75-81. 


Cbisp (J. A.). Surrey Wills. GolL Surrey Arch, 8oc. xii. 83-107. 
Crosse (Col. T. R.). Schedule of deeds and documents, the property 

of, preserved in the muniment room at Shaw Hill, Chorley. 

Trans. Lane, and Ohesh. Hist, 8oc, N.S. vii. and viii. 330-352 ; ix. 

Grossman (Rev. C. D.). Adrian Schaell's memoir of High Ham 

church and rectory a.d. 1598. Somerset Arch, and Nat, Hist, Soc, 

xl. 113-122. 
Cuming CH. Syer). Merchants' Marks. Jour, Brit. Arch, Assoc, 1. 

Cunningham (A.). Later Indo-Scythians. Num. Chron, 3rd S. xiv. 

Cunningham (D. J.), and C. R. Browne. On some osseous remains 

found at Old Connaught, Bray, co. Dublin. Proc. Boy. Irish 

Acad. 3rd S. iii. 421-427. 
CuNNiNGTON (B. H.). Notes on the discovery of Romano-British 

kilns and pottery at Broomsgrove, Milton, Pewsey. Wilts Arch. 

and Nat. Hist. Mag. xxvii. 294-301. 
CuNNiNGTON (W.). Notes on food vessels from Oldbury Hill. Wilts 

Arch, and Nat. Hist. Mag. xxvii. 291-293. 
A comparison of two remarkable urns in the Stoarhead 

collection at Devizes. Wilts Arch, and Nat, Hist, Mag, xxvi. 

CuRREY (J. E.). St. Bridget's Church, Britway parish, co. Cork. 

Jour. Boy. Soc. Antiq, Ireland^ 5th S. iv. 129-131. 
CuRREY (H. E.). Notes on the almshouse of Elizabeth, Countess of 

Shrewsbury. Derbyshire Arch, Soc, xvi. 1-13. 
CusT (L.). Notice of the life and works of Lucas D'Heere. Archoeo- 

logia, liv. 59-80. 
Dagg (G. a. De M. E.). The old church of Aghalurcher, county 

Fermanagh. Jour, Roy. Soc. Antiq. Ireland, 5th S. iv. 264- 

Dartnell (G. E.) and Rev. E. H. Goddard. Contributions towards 

a Wiltshire glossary. Wilts Arch, and Nat, Hist, Mag, xxvi. 

293-314; xxvii. 124-159. 
Darwin (Prof.). On monuments to Cambridge men at the Univer- 
sity of Padua. Proc. Cambridge Antiq. Soc. viii. 337-347. 
Davenport (C). On English royal book bindings. Proc. Soc. Antiq. 

2nd S. XV. 345-348. 
Da VIES (Edward). Who wns Rebecca? Montgomeryshire Coll. xxviii. 



Davis (Cecil T.). Monnmental brass in the old or west church, 

Aberdeen. Arch. Jour, li. 76-80. 
Dawkins (Prof. Boyd). On the relation of the Palaeolithic to the 

Neolithic Period. Jour. Anthrop. Inst, xxiii. 242-267. 
Dean (John). Cardinal Langley's work at Middleton Church. 

Trans. Lane* and Ghesh. Antiq. Soc. xi. 57-81. 
Deane (Sir Thomas Newenham). A report on ancient monuments in 

CO. Kerry. Proc. Boy. Irish Acad. 3rd S. iii. 100-107. 
De Burgh (Yen. Archdeacon). St. David's church, Naas. Jour. 

Kildare Arch. Soc. i. 9-12. 
De Burgh (T. J.). Ancient Naas. Jour. Kildare Arch. Soc. i. 184- 

201, 265-280, 318-336. 
Devitt TRev. M.). The grave of Buan, near Clane. Jour, Kildare 

Arch. Soc. i. 310-316. 
Dixon (Rev. Robert). Notes on a sun-dial from the monastery of 

Ivy Church, Alderbury, near Salisbury. Wilts Arch, and Nat. 

Hist. Mag. xxvii. 236-241. 
Doe (G. Mark). The blowing up of Great Torrington Church, 

February 16th, 1645. Trans. Devon. Assoc, xxvi. 313-321. 

DoLAN (Dom Gilbert, O.S.B.). Notes on the ancient religious houses 
of the county of Lancaster, Trans. Lane, and Ghesh. Hist. Soc. 
N.S. vii. and viii. 201-232. 

DowDEN (Right Rev. John, Bishop of Edinburgh). Notes on the 
MS. Liturg. f. 5 (Queen Margaret's Gospel book) in the Bodleian 
Library. Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot, xxviii. 244-253. 

Notes on the true date of the October festival of St. Regulus 

of St. Andrews as bearing on the suggested identification of St. 

Regulus and the Irish St. Riaghail. Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot, xxvii. 

Drink WATER (Rev. C. H.). Petition of the Cordwainers of the town 

of Salop in A.D. 1323-4. Trans. Shropshire A. and N. H Soc. 

2nd S. vi. 284-290. 
The Abbot of Shrewsbury versus the Burgesses thereof in 

the matter of the Mills. Trans. Shropshire A. and N. H. Soc. 

2nd S. vi. 341-357. 
Duckworth (W. L. H.). A critical study of the collection of 

crania of aboriginal Australians in the Cambridge University 

Museum. Jour. Anthrop. Inst, xxiii. 284-314. 
DuiGNAN (W. H.). On some Shropshire place-names. Trans, 

Shropshire A. and N, H. Soc. 2nd S. vi. 


DuiGNAN (W. H.). On some Midland place-names. Birm. and Mid, 

Inst. XX. 45-59. 
Duncan (L. L.). The Rectory of Cowden. Arch, Cant, xxi. 87-94. 

Further notes from co. Leitrim. Folklore, v. 177-210. 

Duns (Professor). On some stone implements. Proc. Soc, Antiq. 

Scot, xxvii. 50-57. 

— * Antiquarian notes. Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot, xxviii. 126-136. 

DwNN (Lewis). Pedigrees of Montgomeryshire families selected 

about the year 1711-2 from Lewis Dwnn*s Original Visitation 

by the celebrated Welsh poet and grammarian John Rhydderch. 

Montgomeryshire Coll. xxvii. 1-167*. 
Earle (T. Algernon), and R. D. Radcliffe. The child-marriage of 

Richard, second Viscount Molyneux, with some notices of his 

life from contemporary documents. Trans. Lane, and Chesh. 

Hist. Soc. N.S. vii. and viii. 245-278. 
Ebblewhite (Ernest Arthur). Flintshire genealogical notes. Arch. 

Camhrensis, 5th S. x. 109-119, 252-260 ; xi. 7-18, 297-307. 
Cheshire names. Jour. Archit, Arch, and Hist. Soc, of Chester 

and North Wales, v. 58-65. 
Eddsup (Rev. Canon E. P.). Burials in woollen. Wilts Arch, and 

Nat, Hist. Mag. xxviii. 13-16. 
Eisteddfod, engraving of the, in 1824, in the Powys-land Maseum. 

Montgomeryshire Coll. xxv. 351-352. 
Ellis (A. S.). Yorkshire deeds. Yorhs. Arch. Soc. xiii. 44-83. 
Ely (Talpourd). Athena aud Enkelados as represented on a Greek 

vase. Arch. Jour, li. 67-75. 
Etheridge (R., Jun.). On an unusual form of rush basket from the 

northern territory of South Australia. Jour. Anthrojp, Inst. 

xxiii. 315-316. 
On a modification of the Australian aboriginal weapon, 

termed the Leonile, Langeel, Bendi, or Buccan, etc. Jour. 

Anthrop. Inst, xxiii. 317-320. 

An Australian aboriginal musical instrument. Jour, 

Anthrop. Inst, xxiii. 320-324. 
Evans (Arthur J.). Contributions to Sicilian numismatics. Num, 

Chran. 3rd S. xiv. 189-242. 
A Mykenseant reasure from u^gina. Jour, Hell, StadieSy 

xiii. 195-226. 

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c 2 


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Aberdeen : JB rooky Davis. 

Accounts (MS.) : Carrington. See 

Adderley : Lynam. 
Aghalurcher (Fermanagh) : Dagg. 
Allerton : Thoreshy. 
Andover: Clutterbuck, 
Appleby : Baildon. 
Archery : Brook^ Longman. 
Architectural antiquities : Ferguson, 
African : Last. 
Almshouses : Currey, 
Domestic : Arnold , Aveling^ Cox, 
Falkener, Leveson- Qoicer, Nevill, 
Ecclesiastical : Hughes, Lloyd. See 

Indus and Afghanistan : Kipling, 
Arms and Armour, Anderson, Ftheridge, 
Bartshorne, Hutton, Morris, Smith, 
Art : March, See Ornamentation, 

Paintings, Sculotured Antiquities. 
Arthington : L {IF'. T.) 
Assyrians : Longman. 
Athy : Carroll, Comer ford, Hannon, 
Avon Valley : Baker. 
Axbridge: Fry. 
Aylmer family : Aylmer. 

Barham : Payne, 

Barra Head (Scotland) : Anderson. 

Beddington (Surrey) : Andre. 

Bells: Fryer, Hutcheson, J. (M.C.), 

Java, Micklethwaite, Owen, 
Berden : Hope. 
Berkshire : Money, Shruhsole, See 

Beading, Windsor. 
Bettws : Thomas. 
Bibliography (books and MS.) Atkinson, 

Axon, Bates, Bevan, Bowes, Clark, 

Cust, Davenport, Doioden, Fergu- 
son, Fowler, Franks, Gould, Uol- 
gate, 0*Looney, WiB.) Williams. 

Biconyll (Dr.) : Bicknell, 

Bidston : Irvine. 

Biscovey: Langdon. 

Bosville : Bosville. 

Boughton : Boodle. 

Box (Wilts) : Qoddard. 

Bray : Cunningham. 

Breadsall : Kerry. 

Brecon : Cohh, Hay. 

Bridgend : Robinson. 

Britway : Currey. 

Brixham : Harris. 

Broad un : Burnard. 

Broad Chalke : Hutchinson. 

Bromfield : Cave-Browne. 

Bronze period : Oreenwell. 

Implements : Ahercromby, Anderson, 
Atkinson, Burd, Coffey, Cowper, 
Urns: Lowe. 

Broomfield : Bead. 

Broomsgrove : Cunnington. 

Bucks: H. (O), Lee, Summers. See 
Olney. Little Horwood, Padbury. 

Budleigh (East) : Brushfield, 

Burghead : Young. 

Burials in woollen : Fddsup, 

Burton Pynsent : Batten, 

Bute : Hewison. 

Cambridge : Bowes, Darwin, Foans, 
Gray, Hope, Hughes, White. 

Cambridgeshire: Pearson, See Cherry 

Campbeltown: Gray. 

Canterbury : Cave-Browne. 

Cardiff : Fryer. 

Carnarvon : Turner. 

Castle Dermot : Stokes. 

Castles : Cox, Leinster^ Vicars, Vigors, 
Walker, Weldon, Williams. 



Celtic period : 

Art : Allen (J.S.), Stokes, Trench. 
Mythology : Hooppell. 

Channel islands : Kershaw. 

Cherry Hinton : Hughes. 

Cheshire, Allen, Irvine, Ryland. See 
Bidston, Chester, &loverstone, 
Great Boughton, Eaby, Wallasey, 

Chester : Brushfield, Cox, Hewitt, Hib- 
hert, Hughes, Taylor. 

Chests : Hart. 

Chetton : Purton. 

Chichester: Hay den. 

ChildwaU: OTcill. 

Chirbury : Burd. 

Chorley : Crosse. 

Christian monuments: Allen (J.R.). 
See Monuments. 

Church festivals : Dowden. 

Church plate : Cooper, Cripps, God- 
dard, Markham, Marshall, Walker. 

Churches : Andre, Baker, Brock, 
Brooke, Browne, Brush field, 
Buckle, Carrolly Church, Cobb, 
Compton, Cox, Crossman, Currey, 
Dagg, Davis, Dean^ T>e Burgh, 
Dixon, Doe, Dolan, Fowler, Olynne, 
Gough, Hughes, Hutcheson, Irvine, 
I (M.C.), Jackson, Kitchen, Lee, 
Letts, Leveson- Goiver, Livett, 
Lloyd, Ijynam, Lyon, Mickle- 
thwaite, Murphy, Okill, Owen, 
Paul, Pouting, JSobertson, Ser- 
geaunt, Scott, Stevens, Thomas, 
Tierney, Westropp, Willis-Bund, 
Woodruff, Yeatman, 

Church stoke : Churchstoke. 

Churchwardens' accounts : Brushfield, 
Leveson- Gower, Vane. 

Churston Ferrers : Harris. 

Clane : Devitt, Sherlock. 

Claybrooke : Bates. 

Codrintjton family : Codrington. 

CoUingbourne Ducis : Hodgson. 

Compton (Surrey) : Andre. 

Coptic : Atkinson. 

Corbett Winder family: Corhett- Win- 

Cornwall : Jago, Langdon, Worth. See 
Duloe, Biscovey, Lewannick. 

Cowden : Duncan, Leveson- Gower, 

Craignish : Black. 

Cranbome Chase : Armitage. 

Craniology : Duckworth, Haddon, Beid, 
Smith . 

Crannogs : Buick, Bulleid, Gray, 

Crawford (Fife) : Ahercromhy. 
Crete : My res. 
Crosses : Allen, Carroll, Greenwell, 

Langdon, Paget, Mowbotham, 

Croydon : Griffith. 
Cumberland : See Plumbland, Stainton- 

in-F urness. 

Dalaman : Gray. 

Darowen : Owen. 

Dartmoor: Collier, Worth. 

Dean, Forest of : Hyett. 

Deepdale: Ward. 

D'Heere (Lucas) : Cust. 

Delgon : M'Leod. 

Derbyshire : Carrington, Kerry, Yeat- 
man. See Beardsall, Derby, Deep- 
dale, Haddon, Matlock, Eepton. 

Derley : Kerry. 

Devonshire : Brownlow, Grimspound,. 
Prowse, Reichel, Bowe, See Brix- 
liam, Broadun, Bud lei gh, Churston 
Ferrers, Dartmoor, South Molton^ 
Tavey Cleave, Torrington. 

Dialect : Dartnell. 

Dolcaradog : Owen. 

Dolforwyn : Williams. 

Domesday : Irvine, Beichel. 

Doncaster : Fairbank. 

Dorking: Ashcomhe. 

Dorsetshire. See Cranbome, Bushmore, 

Dover : Payne. 

Dublin : Benaud. 

Duloe : Jago. 

Dunnamore : Carter. 

Dunollie : Anderson. 

Durham, GreenwelL See Lanchester^ 

Earthworks and mounds : Ailsa, Beau- 
mont, Bell, Fryer, Gould, Grims- 
pound, Hughes, Jago, Maclean^ 
Macnaughton, Pitt-Rivers, Wake- 
man. See Tumuli. 

Eastbourne : Whitley. 

Ecclesiastical antiquities : Bevan, Caroe,. 
Comper, Cooper, Dowden^ Fvans,^ 
Fairbank, Freshfield, Gardiner,. 
Gibson, Hay, Hope, Hughes, 
I. (T.8), Jackson, Langdon, Legg, 
Leveson- Gower, Markham, Oliver, 



Page, Taylor y Virtue^ Walker, See 
BeUs, Church-plate, Churches, 
Crosses, Fonts. 

Eidenbridge : Leveson-Gower. 

Edinburgh : Lockhart^ Miller, 

Eglish (co. Tyrone) : Latimer. 

Egyptian antiquities : Findlay^ Longman, 
Naville, Price, Whitehotise. 

Eindon (Carmarthenshire) : Allen. 

Eldon (Roxburghshire) : Christison, 

Essex : Gould, Laver, Winstone. See 
Berden, Broomfield, Halstead, 
Harlow, Layer Marney, Leoz, 
Fleshy, Rayleigh Mount, Stratford, 
Langtliorne, Theydon Q-arnon, 

Ethnography : Browne, Fawcett. 

Eudon Burnell : Purton. 

Eudon George : Purton. 

Eustace family : Murphy. 

Exmoor : Batole. 

Falkirk : Miller. 

Ealstone : Waylen. 

Eaversham : Giraud. 

Eem (Forfarshire) : Clazey. 

Filborough : Arnold, Nevill. 

Finchalo: Fowler. 

Folklore : Amery, Anichkof, Ball, 
Bather, Black, Burne, Cook, Dun- 
can^ Ferguson, Fisher, Frazer, 
Gerish, Hartland^ PTesseling, Hoop- 
pell, Jacobs, Kay, Ker, Kinahan^ 
Legg, March, Meyer, Moore, Mur- 
ray- Aynsley, Owen, Powell, Rouse, 
Salmon, Schultz, Sewell, Spurrell, 
Stokes, Waddell, Walhouse, Wood. 

Fonts : Allen (J. JR.), Fishwick, Lewis, 
Lynam, Winchester, 

Forgendenny (Perthshire) : Bell, 

Furse family : Carpenter. 

Q-ardening : Archaologia. 

Garter order of : Thompson. 

Genealogies and family history : Aylmer, 
Bursor^, Carpenter, Codrington, 
Corhett- Winder, Dwnn, JSarle, 
Ebblewhite, Fitzgerald, Jones, 
Letts, Lloyd, Maitland, Marshall, 
Milbourn, Norcliff'e, Phillips, Pil- 
kington, Pugh, Sandford, Vaughan, 

Glastonbury : Bulleid. 

Gloucestershire : Maclean : See Dean. 

Gloyerstone : Shrubsole. 

Gower : Clark, Morgan. 

Gran gem ellon : Weldon, 

Gravesend : Arnold. 

Great Boughton : Shrubsole. 

Greek antiquities : Bather, Benson,. 
Cook^ Ely, Evans, Falkener, Fort- 
num, Frazer, Gardner, Hicksy^ 
Jones, Kirker, Loring, Murray^ 
Paton, Richards, Sellers, Smithy 
Verrall, Woodhouse. 

Guisbrough : Kodges. 

Haddon Hall : Carrington. 

Halstead : Sperling. 

Hampshire : see Andover, Silchestcr^ 
Southampton, Stoneham, Winch cas- 

Hampsthwaite : Fowler, Stephenson. 

Harlow : Gould. 

Heraldry : Franks, Gray, Grazebrook, 
Hope, Round, Rylands, Vinycomb, 

Herbert family : L(M.C.) 

Heytesbury House : Brakspear 

High Ercall : Vane. 

High Ham : Crossman. 

Holywood : Coles. 

Hopton Hall : Hartshorne. 

Huish Episcopi : Stubbs. 

Hut circles ; Burnard, Gould, 

Inscriptions: Jago. ' 

Crosses : Allen, Langdon. 

Greek : Hicks. 

B>oman : Cox, Haverjield. 

B^ck (African) : Howarth. 

Wales ; Rhys. 

See Ogham, Runic. 
Insignia : Brook, Ferguson, Goddard^ 
Institutions : 

Parish : Lloyd, 

See Manor, Municipal. 
Ireland : Allen, Browne, Buick, Coffey^. 
Deane, Fetherstonhaugh, Fitz- 
gerald, Frazer, Graves, Gray,. 
Haddon, Hasse, Hickson, Kinahan^ 
Kirker, Knowles, Letts^ Lynch y. 
March, Mills, Murphy, Olden, 
0* Looney, O' Reilly, Or pen , . 
Rotheram, Salmon, Stokes, Swan^, 
Trench, Westropp, W^illis-Bund.. 
See Agalurcher, Athy, Britway^ 
Bray, Castledermot, Clane, Dublin,. 
Dunnamore, English, Grange - 
mellon, Jigginstown, Xillashee,. 



Kilteel, Limerick, Loughcrew, 
Mallow, Maynooth, Moone, Naas, 
Navan, Old Connaught, Kathna- 
geeragh, Ross, Tara, Timolin. 
Ivy Church (Wilts) : Dixon. 

Japan : Aston. 
Jigginstown : Vicars. 
Jones of Garthmill : Jones. 

Kent : Belly Cave - Browne ^ Livett, 
Payney Woodruff. See Barham, 
Boughton, Bromfield, Canterbury, 
Cowden, Dover, Edenbridge, Faver- 
sham, Filborough, Gravesend, 
Leeds, Orpington, Preston, Roches- 
ter, Sandgate, Teynham, W liitefield. 

Kerry (parish of) : Rowley- Morris. 

Kettins (Forfarshire) : Hutcheson. 

Kirkby: Bill. 

Kirkcudbright : Colei. 

Kirkham : Compton. 

Killashee : Murphy. 

Kilteel : Mayo. 

Kirkoswald (Ayrshire), Ailsa. 

Kirkstall: Thoreshy. 

Kynaston family : Burson. 

Lambeth : Kershaw. 

Lancashire : Allen, Dolan, Harrison, 
Eylands. See Childwall, Chorley, 
Kirkby, Little Crosby, Liverpool, 
Manchester, Meols Shore, Middle- 
ton, Pilkington, Eivington, Koch- 
dale, Whalley. 

Lanchester : Hooppell. 

Langport Eastover : Paul. 

Langport : Norris, Weaver. 

Language : Aston, Ray, Rhys. 

Layer Marney : Beaumont, 

Leeds (Kent) : Cave-Browne. 

Leeds (Yorks) : Brigg, C. {E. K.), 
Marshall, Thoreshy. 

Leez : Chancellor, Sergeaunt. 

Leicester : Bellairs, Jackson. 

Leicestershir*^. See Appleby, Clay- 
brooke, Leicester. 

Leighton : Leighton. 

Leighion (Archbishop) : CarricJc. 

Lewannick : Langdon. 

Lewes, Sussex) : Allen. 

Lewis (Island) : Anderson. 

Limerick: Hewson. 

Lincoln : Wilson, 

Lincolnshire : Atkinson. See Lincoln, 

Lithography : Green. 
Little Crosby : Watts. 
Little Horwood : Keyser. 
Liverpool: Gibson. 
Llanbeblig : Hughes. 
Llandrinio : Thomas. 
Llandyssilio : Evans. 
Llaneilian : Hughes. 
Llansantffraid . I. (T. S.) 
Llansilin : Baker. 
Llantwit Major : Allen. 
Llanwddyn : Llanwddyn. 
Lloyd family : Lloyd. 
Locks : Andre. 
London : Freshfield, Green, Mickleth- 

waite. Read. 
Long Sutton : Morland. 
Longleat : Talbot. 
Loughcrew : Frazer. 
Luing : Macnaughton. 

Mallow : Berry. 

Man : Moore, Wood. 

Manchester : Brooke, Letts. 

Manorial history : Baildon, Berry 
Holmes, Kerr, Kershaw, M. {A.S^y 
Pearson, Pollock, Purton, Watts. 

Margaret Tudor, portrait : Mackay. 

Martin (Wilts) : Ponting. 

Masons' marks : Rylands. 

Matlock Moor : Cox, Haverficld. 

Maynooth : Leinster. 

Meiford : Lloyd, Thomas. 

Meols Shore : Potter. 

Merchants' marks : Cuming, Welch, 

Middleton : Dean, 

Midton : Macrae. 

Milbourne family : Milbourn. 

Modern period, antiquities of: Acland. 
See Chests, Locks, Masons' Marks, 
Merchants' Marks, Sandals, Targeta, 

Molyneux (Richard 2nd Visct.) : JSarle. 

Monkshood (Somersetshire) : Winwood, 

Monuments, effigies and tombs : Allen, 
Ashcombe. Davis, Fowhr, Gardi- 
ner, Hartshorne, Hope, Letts, Leve- 
son-Govoer, Lynam, Owen, Renaud, 
Stephenson, Thomas, Williams, 

Moone : Carroll. 

Morocco : Meakin. 

Mosley family : Letts. 

Municipal history : Clutterbuck, Drink- 
water, Ferguson, Fletcher, Fuller, 



Gibson^ Goddard, Sihberf, Kerr 
Taylor, Vau^han, Vigors. 

Musical instruments : Btheridge, 

Musselburgh. : Lowe. 

Naas : De Burgh. 

Navan : Moore. 

Kether-thong : Morehouse, 

Newbattle : Carrick. 

Kewnham : Kerr. 

Korman period : Allen, Levitt. 

Northamptonshire. See Peterborough, 

Northfield : Pearson. 
Northop : Owen. 
Nubia : Clark. 
Numismatics : 

Alexander: Oman. 

Crete : Myres, 

English : Hohlyn. 

Greek: Six, Worth. 

Henrietta Maria : Grueher. 

James I : Montagu. 

Medals: Weber. 

Oriental : Codrington, Cunningham. 

Boman : Hill. 

Saxon : Kvans, Grueher. 

Scotland : Richardson. 

Sicilian: Evans, 

Trade tokens : Willis. 

Oberchurch : Cox, 

Ogham inscriptions : Graves, Langdon, 

Old Connaught : Wakeman. 
Oldburj Hill : Cunnington. 
Olney: Gough, 
Ornament : 

Prehistoric : Coffey. 

Irish t Trench. 
Orpington : Virtue. 
Oflgoldcross : Molmes. 
Oswestry : Parry-Jones. 
Oxford: Hope. 
Oxfordshire See Woodstock. 

Padbury : Keyser. 

Paintings : Keyser, Mackay, 

gomeryshire, Robinson, 
Pampocalia : Bodington. 
Pawson family : Norcliffe. 
Persian antiquities : Ball. 
Peterborough : Bodger, Irvine, 
Pilkington : Cox. 
Pilkington family : Pilkington, 


Pittenweem : Lyon. 

Pittington : Fowler. 

Place-names : Christison, Coleman, 
Duignan, Kbblewhite, Hickson, 
Irvine, Miller, Reichel, W,(R.), 

Plas Mawr : Hughes. 

Pleshy : Round. 

Plumbland: Cowper. 

Prehistoric antiquities : Black, Christi' 
son, Clazey, Coffey, Coles, Dawkins, 
Deane, Hewison, Knowles, Morgan, 
Myres, Rotherham, Sanjord, Win- 
stone, Worth. See Bronze age, 
Crannogs, Hut CJircles, Mounds, 
Ornaments, Stone age. 

Preston: Robertson. 

Raby : Hodgson. 
Kathnageeragh : Vigors. 
Rayleigh Mount : Round. 
E>eading : Stevens. 
Eeame family : Marshall. 
Begisters, Bates, Churchstoke, Hodgson, 
Leveson - Gower, Pritt, Sankey, 
Kepton : Irvine. 
Kippingdale : Fowler. 
Eivington : Rivington. 
Koads : Laver, Mac Donald. 
Kochdale : Fishwick. 
Eochester : Aveling, Livett, Payne. 
Koman antiquities: Bodger, Fryer, 
Goddard, Greenwell, Morland, 
Morris, Shrubsole, Turner, Ward. 
Altars : Bodington. 
Coins: Hill. 

Kilns and pottery : Cunnington. 
Monuments : Cox. 
Pig of lead : Cox, Haverfield. 
Koads : MacDonald. 
Sandals : Wells. 
Sewers : Bellairs. 
Sites : Fox, Haverfield. 
Tools (iron) : Fvans. 
Waterpipes : Shrubsole. 
Home: Forbes. 
Boss : Vigors. 

Bound Towers : Fitzgerald, Westropp. 
Bunic monuments : Cox. 
Bushmore : Pitt-Rivers. 

St. Andrews : Brook. 
Sandal (Yorks) : Walker. 
Sandals : Barrett, Wells. 
Sandgate : Fynmore, Button 




Saxon antiquities: BrocJcy ChiffUhy 
Irvine, Payne, Read, Stevens, 

Scotland: AUen, Anderson, Black, 
BrooJc, Christison, Coles, Duns, 
Goudie, Gray, Macdonald, Mac- 
Kay, MacJdnlay, McLeod, Munro, 
Bhys, Russell. See Aberdeen, 
Burghead, Bute, Campbeltown, 
Craignish, Crawford, Balaruan. 
Belgon, Bunollie, Edinburgh, 
Eldon, Falkirk, Fern, Forgan- 
denny, Holywood, Eettins, 
£irkcudbrigbt, Kirkoswald, Lewis, 
Lning, Midton, Musselburgh, 
Newbattle, Pittenweem, St. 
Andrews, Shetland. 

Sculptured antiquities : Allen, Browne, 
Frazer, Higgins, Thomas. 

Seals : Hope, Murphy, Wyon. 

Selattjn (Shropshire) : BulJceley-Owen. 

Shamrock : Frazer, Salmon. 

Shelyock : Kenyon. 

Shetland .* Goudie. 

Shoes (raw-hide) : MacJcay. 

Shrewsbury : BlaJceway, DrinJcwater, 
Fletcher, Lloyd, W. {G. D. F.) 

Shropshire : Calvert, Duignan, Kenyon. 
See Chetton, Chirbury, High Er- 
call, Oswestry, Selattyn, Shelvock, 
Shrewsbury, Wenlock. 

Silchester : Fvans, Fox, 

Somersetshire. See Axbridge, Burton 
Pynsent, Exmoor, Q-lastonbury, 
High Ham, Huish Episcopi, Lang- 
port, Langport Eastover, Long 
Sutton, Stoke-under-Hamdon, Wed- 
more, WeUs. 

South Molton : Worth. 

Southampton: Clutterbuck. 

Spofford: Collins. 

Stainton-in-Fumess : Cowper. 

Stillington (Bishop) : Jex-BlaJce, 

Stockton '. M.{A. 8.) 

Stoke-under-Hamdon : Batten. 

Stone Age : Bell, Dxwkins, Duns, 
Findlay, Gray, Hayden, Knowles, 
Owen, Shrubsole. 

Stoneham (North) : Kitchen. 
Strata Marcella : J. (M. C.) 

Stratford Langthorne : Stevens, 
Sussex : See Chichester, Eastbourne, 

Lewes, Wadhurst. 
Surrey : Cooper, Crisp, Stevenson. See 
Beddington, Compton, Croydon, 
Dorking, Lambeth. 
Suffolk : See Wenhaston. 
Sweathouse : Latimer. 

Talley: Owen, 

Tara: Murphy. 

Targets : Anderson. 

Tavey Cleave : Gould, 

Teao: Willis-Bund, 

Teynham: Payne. 

Theydon Ghu*non : Waller. 

Tiles : Brakspear, Frazer. 

Timolin : Hartshorns. 

Toller (Ghreat) : Lewis. 

Torrington (Q-reat) : Doe. 

Tournaments: Green. 

Treceiri (Carnarvonshire) : Christison. 

Trewem Hall: M. (F.R.). 

Tumuli : Fryer, Goddard, Letts, Read, 

Urns (funeral) : Chamberlain, Clazey, 
Coles, Cunnington, Gray, Lowe, 

Valle Crucis : Hughes, Smith, 

Wadhurst: Gardiner. 
Wales: Allen, Allen (Mrs. T.), Davies, 
Dwnn, Fisteddfod, Fisher, LI. 
(W.V.), Lloyd, M. (F.R.), 
Montgomeryshire, Owen, Rhys, 
Rowley- Morris, S. (G.) Taylor, 
Thomas, Tiemey, Vaughan, W. (R.), 
Williams, Willis-Bund, Wyon, 
See Bettws, Brecon, Bridgend, 
Cardiff, Churchstoke, Darowen, 
Dolcaradog, Dolforwyn, Eindon, 
Q-ower, ferry, Leighton, Llan- 
beblig, Llandrinio, Llandysillio, 
Llaneilian. Llantwit Major, Llan- 
wddyn, Meiford, Northop, Plas 
Mawr, Strata Marcella, Talley, 
Treceiri, Teilo, Valle Crucis. 

Wallasey : FHU, Radclife, 

Wansdyke : Pitt-Rivers. 

Wardon : Compton. 

Warminster: Ponting. 

Welford : Markham. 

Wells : Browne, Buckle, Church, Hope, 
Moore, Owen. 

Wedmore : Sanford. 

Wenhaston : Keyser. 

Wenlock : Vaughan, 

Whalley (Lancashire) : Micklethwaite, 

Whitefield (Kent) : Brock. 

Wills: Brigg, Crisp, M.{F,R.), Mont- 

Wilton: Yates. 



Wilts : Dartnell, Goddard, Solgate^ 
Willis, Wiltshire, See Box, Broad- 
cbalke, Broomsgroye, Collingboume 
Duels, Falstone, Heytesbury, Ivy 
Ghurcb, Longleat, Martin, Oldbury 
Hill, Stockton, Warminster, 

Winchester: Jacob , Kershaw , Win- 

Windsor : Hope, 

Wirrall : Cox, Irvine, 

Woodstock : Marshall, 
Worcestershire : See Northfield. 
Wragby : SanJcey, 

Yorkshire : Baildon, Bllis, Glynne, 
Thoreshy, See Arthington, Bos- 
ville, Dcncaster, Ghuisbrough, 
Hampsthwaite, Kirkstall, Leeds, 
Netherthong, Osgoldcross, Pampo- 
calia, Sandal, Spofford, Wragby. 

LOirDON : 
















Report of the Sub-Committee on the 
Photographic Survey of England and 

The Sub-Committee has considered the subject referred to it by 
the Congress, as to the best method of promoting a general Photographic 
Record of the Country on the lines adopted by the Society for the 
Photographic Survey of the County of Warwick. 

The Sub-Committee is of opinion that the establishment of such a 
general Photographic Record of all works of antiquity is of the 
highest importance, and that the Societies in Union should use their 
best efforts to establish, for their particular counties, associations on 
the basis of that so successfully initiated by the Warwickshire Society, 
and followed by the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 

It may be expected that Societies organized on these lines, besides 
being of the greatest value to antiquaries, will be readily supported by 
the many interested in photography, who will be glad to feel that their 
efforts are incorporated and preserved for ever in what will eventually 
become a national collection. A more intelligent interest will be 
created in what is often at present a desultory and useless amusement, 
and the Archaeological Societies will doubtless be strengthened by the 
addition of many intelligent members. 

The following Regulations are suggested for adoption : — 

1. That all photographs be as large as possible, whole 
plate being preferred, but in no case less than ^ plate. 

2. That they be printed in permanent process. 

3. That while artistic effect is a valuable addition to a 
picture, it should not be achieved at the sacrifice of the work 
illustrated, but the point of view should be chosen to show as 
clearly as possible the details of the subject. 

This is especially important in the case of tombs, effigies, and varioiis 
architectural details, where it will often be impossible to combine 
picturesque effect and valuable record. While, therefore, it will be 
necessary to keep up a certain standard of artistic skill, plates should be 
preferred which clearly show architectural or other facts that can only be 
adequately recorded by the deliberate sacrifice of picturesque effect. 

4. That some arrangement should be made, to supply a 
scale in all illustrations, since without this many are practically 

Particulars of size can be added in the accompanying deBcription, but 
it is far better that an actuid scale should be gi?en by the inclusion in the 
picture of a graduated staff or a 3 ft. rod or walking stick, which may 
generally be unobtrusiyely introduced. In a series of photographs of 
Boman masonry now in preparation for the Society of Antiquaries a 
graduated scale,* marked clearly with English and French measures, is in 
Sil cases included. The scale must, of course, be placed in the same plane 
as the object to be photographed. 

The Oonffress most strongly recommends the adoption of the double 
scale, which wul render the photographs of European yalue, and materially 
assist English scholars in the work of comparison. 

5. That a description in all cases accompany the photo- 
graph, giving the size, general condition, and as many particulars 
as possible of the object illustrated 

6. That all particulars as to history, date, etc., be carefully 
edited by competent authorities, as otherwise much false and 
often ridiculous information may be spread and perpetuated. 

7. That the copies of the photographs for the collection 
be mounted by the curator on stout cards, uniform with those of 
the Warwickshire Survey, and the descriptive particulars legibly 
written or printed on the back, and the title on the front. 

The plan adopted in Warwickshire of selecting a Hundred for the 
work of each year, and committing one square of the 6-inch Ordnance 
Map to individual or associated workers, provides for a systematic and 
exhaustive record that will be much more valuable than desultory or 
haphazard contributions. The jealousies that might arise in the selection 
of examples of prominent interest will also be avoided. 

Where a county is divided amongst several Photographic Societies, 
the number of localities to be illustrated can be increased accordingly. 

The following Rules are copied from those of the Warwickshire 
Survey Section of the Birmingham Photographic Society : 

^' That the 6-inch Ordnance Map be adopted as the basis of the 

*< That the work be conducted, as far as may be convenient, on the 
lines of the Hundreds. 

* Printed copies of this scale (Price 6d., post free, or 5s. per dozen), can be 
obtained on apphcation to the Assistant-Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries, 
Burlington House, London, W. 

" That in order to systematise the work it is desirable that members 
shall confine their work, as far as possible, to the Hundred selected 
for the ensuing year. 

'* That each square of the Ordnance Map (containing, roughly, six 
square miles) shall be considered a distinct field for work, and that any 
member may have allotted to him such square as he may select, unless 
such square has been previously allotted." 

Another and perhaps better way, which has been adopted by the 
Guildford Society, is to divide the 6-inch Ordnance Map into distinct 
blocks, with natural boundaries, and to furnish the members to whom 
a block is allotted with a corresponding plan cut from the 1-inch 
Ordnance Map, and mounted on card 

To facilitate access to objects to be illustrated, cards of introduction 
should be provided, and issued to those who undertake work. It is 
suggested that the cards be made to run for one year only, and be not 
re-issued except to those who are doing satisfactoiy work. 

It is desirable that a Committee should prepare a schedule of the 
principal objects of which it is desired to obtain records, but such a list 
should not be regarded as in any way exhaustive, and may be supple- 
mented by individual observation. 

The photographing of portraits, already begun by the Warwickshire 
Society, is also of great value where it can be effected. 

Besides objects of archaeological interest, photographs should be 
welcomed that give types of natives and groups of school children. 
These will be of the highest value to ethnological students. The 
ethnological photographs should, if possible, be taken in accordance 
with the directions laid down by Mr. Francis Galton. These may be 
obtained from the British Association, at Burlington House. 

Photographs of objects of natural history, and of landscapes or 
geological features, should be encouraged and accepted, as they may 
be ultimately gathered into a separate collection. 

Many of the County Societies are for the study of natural history 
as well as of archseology, and where this is not the case proper 
custodians can eventually be found for the various collections. 

It is desurable, to avoid risk of loss by fire, that at least three 
sets of Prints should be preserved by way of record : one by the County 
Society ; a second by the British Museum ; and a third, of archaeological 
plates, by the Society of Antiquaries. The third prints from those 
plates wMch illustrate science might be deposited with the societies 
representing the various subjects, such as the Anthropological Institute 
or the Geological and Linnaean Societies. 

It is thought that, pending the general adoption of County 
Museums, the various County ArchsBological Societies would be the best 
custodians of the collections ; but it will probably be more acceptable 
to those who photograph that it should be clearly understood that 
the custody is temporary and may be withdrawn at any time. 

It will constantly be the case that photographs of a neigh- 
bourhood will be taken by strangers, but it is thought that the general 
adoption throughout England of such a scheme as that proposed will 
be suflBciently widely known to induce such photographers to com- 
municate their work to the various centres, although they may not be 
personally interested in such centres. 

The Sub-Committee suggests that the various ArchsBological 
Societies should take the initiative in founding local associations for the 
preparation of the Photographic Record. 

These associations should have their own executive, and the 
County Society should suggest the names of certain competent archaa- 
ologists to serve on the councils. Where Photographic Societies 
already exist, efforts should be directed to bringing these into union and 
supplying the necessary information. 

Sir J. B. Stone, who had so much to do with initiating the 
Birmingham scheme, strongly urges that a national society should be 
formed for the purpose of promoting the Photographic Record, and the 
Committee are of opiuion that a strong central body would be of the 
greatest service, and they recommend the Congress to do their best to 
assist such a scheme, should it be put forward under good auspices. 

The Sub-Committee wishes to point out that it is not necessary 
and, perhaps, not altogether desirable, that the County ArchsBological 
Societies should add to their work, already arduous enough, this 
of the Photographic Record. 

It will be sufficient that they should promote local Photx)graphic 
Societies, form a medium of union, and supply skilled advice on the 
subject of archaeology. 



Fmrns of Schedule prepa/red by a Committee of the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science, appointed to Organise an Ethno- 
graphical Survey of the United Kingdom, 

Members of the Committee. 

Francis Galton, F.KS., J. G. Garson, M.D., and E. W. Brabrook, 
F.S.A. (Chairman), representing the AntlLropological Institute. 

Edward Clodd, G. L. Gomme, E.S.A,, and Joseph Jacobs, M.A., re- 
presenting the Folklore Society. 

G. W. G. Leveson Gower, V.P.S.A., George Payne, F.S.A., and 
General Pitt- Rivers, F.R.S., representing the Society of Antiquaries of 

Sir C. M. Kennedy, C.B., K.C.M.G., and E. G. Ravenstein, repre- 
senting the Royal Statistical Society. 

A Member representing the Dialect Society. 

Dr. J. Beddoe, F.R.S. ; Arthur J. Evans, F.S.A. ; Sir H. H. Howorth, 
F.R.S. ; Professor R. Meldola, F.R.S. 

John Rhys, M.A., Jesus Professor of Celtic in the University of 
Oxford, and also Professor Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., E. S. Hartland, F.S.A., 
Edward Laws, the Ven. Archdeacon Thomas, F.S.A., S. W. Williams, 
F.S.A., and J. Romilly Allen, F.S.A. Scot. (Secretary), representing the 
Cambrian ArcheBological Society, and forming a Sub- Committee for Wales. 

Joseph Anderson, LL.D., Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries of 

Professor D. J. Cunningham, F.R.S., C. R. Browne, M.D., and Pro- 
fessor A. C. Haddon, M. A., representing the Royal Lnsh Academy, and 
forming a Sub- Committee for Ireland (Prof. Haddon, Secretary). 

E. Sidney Hartland, F.S.A., Secretary. 

This Committee has already made two preliminary reports to the 
Association, in which the names of 367 villages or places in various parts 
of the United Elingdom have been indicated as especially to deserve 
ethnographic study. The list, large as it is, is not exhaustive. For 
these and such other villages and places as may appear to be suitable, 
the Committee propose to record — 

(1) Physical types of the inhabitants ; 

(2) Current traditions and beliefs ; 

(3) Peculiarities of dialect ; 

(4) Monuments and other remains of ancient culture ; and 

(5) Historical evidence as to continuity of race. 

4K% All communications should be addressed to ' The Secbetabt of 
THE Ethnographic Survey, British Association, Burlington House, 
London, W.' 


The most generally convenient method of organising a simultaneonB 
inquiry under these five heads appears to be the appointment of a sub- 
committee in each place, one or more members of which would be prepared 
to undertake each head of the inquiry. For the ancient remains advan- 
tage should be taken of the work of the Archaeological Survey where it 
is in operation. The general plan of the Committee is discussed in an 
article, On the Organisation of local Anthropological Besearch, in the 
* Journal of the Anthropological Institute ' of February 1893. 

For the use of inquirers copies on foolscap paper of the Forms of 
Schedule have been prepared, giving a separate page or pages of foolscap 
for each head of the inquiries, on which are the questions and hints pre- 
pared by the Committee, the lower portion of each page, to which should 
be added as many separate sheets of foolscap as may be required, being 
left for answers ; and, with regard to the physical observations, a single 
page of foolscap has been set aside for the measurements of each in- 
dividual to be observed. The requisite number of copies of the foolscap 
edition of the schedules and of extra copies of the form for the persons 
to be photographed and measured will be supplied on application. 

Communications should all be written on foolscap paper, and the 
writing should be on one side only of the page, and a margin of about one 
inch on the left-hand side of the page should be left, with a view to 
future binding. 

Directions /or Measurement, 

Instrument required for these measurements ; — The * Traveller's 
Anthropometer,' manufactured by Aston & Mander, 25 Old Compton 
Street, London, W.C. ; price 3^. 3s. complete ; without 2-metre steel 
measuring tape and box footpiece, 21, lOs, With this instrument all the 
measurements can be taken. In a permanent laboratory it will be found 
convenient to have a fixed graduated standard for measuring the height, 
or a scale affixed to a wall. For field work a tape measure may be tem- 
porarily suspended to a rigid vertical support, with the zero just touching 
the ground or floor. 

A 2-metre tape, a pair of folding callipers, a folding square, all of 
which are graduated in millimetres, and a small set-square can be ob- 
tained from Aston & Mander for II, 6s, : with this small equipment all 
the necessary measurements can be taken. 

Height Standing. — The subject should stand perfectly upright, with 
his back to the standard or fixed tape, and his eyes directed horizontally 
forwards. Care should be taken that the standard or support for the tape 
is vertical. The stature may be measured by placing the person with his 
back against a wall to which a metre scale has been affixed. The height 
is determined by placing a carpenter's square or a large set-square against 
the support in such a manner that the lower edge is at right angles to the 
scale ; the square should be placed well above the head, and then brought 
down till its lower edge feels the resistance of the top of the head. The 
observer should be careful that the height is taken in the middle line of the 
head. If the subject should object to take off his boots, measure the 
thickness of the boot-heel, and deduct it from stature indicated in boots. 

Height Sitting. — For this the subject should be seated on a low stool 

or bench, having behind it a graduated rod or tape with its zero level with 

the seat ; he should sit perfectly erect, with his back well in against the 

scale. Then proceed as in measuring the heigbt standing. The square- 

should be employed here also if the tape against a wall is used. 



Length of Cranium. — Measured with callipers from the most prominent 
part of the projection between the eyebrows (glabella) to the most distant 
point at the back of the head in the middle liv^. Care should be taken 
to keep the end of the callipers steady on the glabella by holding it there 
with the fingers, while ftie other extremity is searching for the maximum 
projection of the head behind. 

Breadth of Cranium, — The maximum breadth of head, which is usually 
about the level of the top of the ears, is measured at right angles to the 
length. Care must be taken to hold the instrument so that both its points 
are exactly on the same horizontal level. 

Foice Length, — This is measured from the slight furrow which marks 
the root of the nose, and which is about the level of a line drawn from the 
centre of the pupil of one eye to that of the other, to the under part of the 
chin. Should there be two furrows, as is often the case, measure from 
between them. 

Upper Face Length. — From root of nose to the interval between the two 
central front teeth at their roots. 

Fa^e Breadth, — Maximum breadth of face between the bony projections 
in front of the ears. 

Inter-ocular Breadth, — Width between the internal angles of the eyes. 
While this is being measured the subject should shut his eyes. 

Bigonial Breadth, — Breadth of face at the outer surface of the angles 
of the lower jaw below the ears. 

Ifose Length, — From the furrow at root of nose to the angle between 
the nose and the upper lip in the middle line. 

Breadth of Nose. — Measured horizontally across the nostrils at the 
widest part, but without compressing the nostrils. 

Height of Head, — The head should be so held that the eyes look straight 
forward to a point at the same level as themselves — i.e., the plane of vision 
should be exactly horizontal. The rod of the Anthropometer should be 
held vertically in front of the face of the subject, and the upper straight 
arm should be extended as far as possible and placed along the middle 
line of the head ; the shorter lower arm should be pushed up to the lower 
surface of the chin. When measured with the square the depending bar 
must be held vertically in front of the face (with the assistance of the 
spirit-level or plumb-line), and the small set-square passed up this arm 
from below in such a manner that its horizontal upper edge will come into 
contact with the lower contour of the chin. The distance between the 
lower edge of the horizontal bar of the square and the upper edge of the 
set-square can be read off, and this will be the maximum height of the 

Height of Cranium, — The head being held in precisely the same manner 
as in measuring the height of the head, the instrument is rotated to the 
left side of the head, its upper bar still resting on the crown, and the 
recording arm (or the set-square) is pointed to the centre of the line of 
attachment of the small projecting cartilage in front of the ear-hole. 

Note. — It is essential that these rules should be strictly followed in 
order to secure accuracy. All measurements must be made in millimetres. 
If possible, the subject's weight should be obtained, and recorded in the 
place set apart for remarks. The observer is recommended to procure 
* Notes and Queries on Anthropology,' 2nd edition, from the Anthropo- 
logical Institute. 3 Hanover Square, London, W. ; net price, 3«. ^d. 




Physical Types of the Inhabitants — (continued). 
Photographic Portraits. 

Facial characteristics are conveniently recorded by means of photo- 
graphs, taken in the three ways explained below. Amateurs in photo- 
graphy are now so numerous that it is hoped the desired materials may 
be abundantly supplied. At least twelve more or less beardless male 
adults and twelve female adults should be photographed. It will add 
much to the value of the portrait if these same persons have also been 
measured. The photographs should be mounted on cards, each card 
bearing the name of the district, and a letter or number to distinguish the 
individual portraits ; the cards to be secured together by a thread passing 
loosely through a hole in each of their upper left-hand comers. Three 
sorts of portrait are wanted, as follows : — 

(a) A few portraits of such persons as may, in the opinion of the 
person who sends them, best convey the peculiar characteristics of the 
race. These may be taken in whatever aspect shall best display those 
characteristics, and should be accompanied by a note directing attention 
to them. 

(6) At least twelve portraits of the left side of the face of as many 
different adults of the same sex. These must show in each case the exact 
profile, and the hair should be so arranged as fully to show the ear. All 
the persons should occupy in turn the same chair (with movable blocks 
on the seat, to raise the sitters' heads to a uniform height), the camera 
being fixed throughout in the same place. The portraits to be on such a 
scale that the distance between the top of the head and the bottom of 
the chin shall in no case be less than 1^ inch. Smaller portraits can 
hardly be utilised in any way. If the incidence of the light be not the 
same in all cases they cannot be used to make composite portraits. By 
attending to the following hints the successive sitters may be made to 
occupy so nearly the same position that the camera need hardly be re- 
focussed. In regulating the height of the head it is tedious and clumsy 
to arrange the proper blocks on the seat by triaL The simpler plan is to 
make the sitter first take his place on a separate seat with its back to the 
wall, having previously marked on the wall, at heights corresponding to 
those of the various heights of head, the numbers of the blocks that 
should be used in each case. The appropriate number for the sitter is 
noted, and the proper blocks are placed on the chair with the assurance 
that what was wanted has been correctly done. The distance of the 
sitter from the camera can be adjusted with much precision by fixing a 
looking-glass in the wall (say &ve feet from his chair), so that he can see 
the reflection of his face in it. The backward or forward position of the 
sitter is easily controlled by the operator, if he looks at the sitter's head 
over the middle of the camera, against a mark on the wall beyond. It 
would be a considerable aid in making measurements of the features of 
the portrait, and preventing the possibility of mistaking the district of 
which the sitter is a representative, if a board be fixed above his head in 
the plane of his profile^ on which a scale of inches is very legibly marked, 
and the name of the district written. This board should be so placed as 
just to fall within the photographic plate. The background should be of 
a medium tint (say a sheet of light brown paper pinned against the wall 

beyond), very dark and very light tints being both unsuitable for com- 
posite photography. 

(c) The same persons who were taken in side-face should be subse- 
quently photographed in strictly full face. They should occupy a different 
chair, the place of camera being changed in accordance. Time will be 
greatly saved if all the side-faces are taken first, and then all the full 
faces ; unless, indeed, there happen to be two operators, each with his 
own camera, ready to take the same persons in turn. The remarks just 
made in respect to (&) are, in principle, more or less applicable to the 
present case ; but the previous method of insuring a uniform distance 
between the sitter and the camera ceases to be appropriate. 

It is proposed that composites of some of these groups shall be taken 
by Mr. Oalton, so far as his time allows. 

Place Name of Observer 

2. Current Traditions and Beliefs, 


Every item of folklore should be collected, consisting of customs, 
traditions, superstitions, sayings of the people, games, and any supersti- 
tions connected with special days, marriages, births, deaths, cultivation of 
the land, election of local ofi&cers, or other events. Each item should 
be written legibly on a separate piece of paper, and the name, occupa- 
tion, and age of the person from whom the information is obtained 
should in all cases be carefully recorded. If a custom or tradition relates 
to a particular place or object, especially if it relates to a curious natural 
feature of the district, or to an ancient monument or camp, some infor- 
mation should be given about such place or monument. Sometimes a 
custom, tradition, or superstition may relate to a particular family or 
group of persons, and not generally to the whole population; and in 
this case care should be exercised in giving necessary particulars. Any 
objects which are used for local ceremonies, such as masks, ribbons, 
coloured dresses, &c., should be described accurately, and, if possible, 
photographed ; or might be forwarded to L6ndon, either for permanent 
location, or to be drawn or photographed. Any superstitions that are 
believed at one place and professedly disbelieved at another, or the exact 
opposite believed, should be most carefully noted. 

The following questions are examples of the kind and direction of the 
inquiries to be made, and are not intended to confine the inquirer to the 
special subjects referred to in them^ or to limit the replies to categorical 
answers. The numbers within brackets refer to the corresponding articles 
in the 'Handbook of Folklore * (published by Nutt, 270 Strand, London), 
which may be consulted for advice as to the mode of collecting and the 
cautions to be observed. 

(4) Relate any tradition as to the origin of mountains or as to 

giants being entombed therein. 
Are there any traditions about giants or dwarfs in the district ? 

Relate them. 
Is there a story about a Blinded Giant like that of Polyphemus P 


(13) Describe any ceremonies performed at certain times in connect 

tion with mountains. 
(16) Relate any traditions or beliefs about caves. 
(19) Are any customs performed on islands not usually inhabited ? 

Are they used as burial places ? 
(25) Describe any practices of leaving small objects, articles of dress, 

&o,, at wells. 
(29) Are there spirits of rivers or streams ? Give their names. 

(32) Describe any practices of casting small objects, articles of dress, 

&c., into the rivers. 

(33) Are running waters supposed not to allow criminals or evil 

spirits to cross them ? 
(39) Describe any customs at the choosiug of a site for building, 
and relate any traditions as to the site or erection of any 

(42) Is there a practice of sprinkling foundations with the blood of 

animals, a bull, or a cock P 

(43) Does the building of a house cause the death of the builder ? 
(48, 49, 50) Relate any traditions of the sun, moon, stars. 

(62) Describe the customs of fishermen at launching their boats. 

(63) Give any omens believed in by fishermen. 
(66) Is it unlucky to assist a drowning person P 

(84) What ceremonies are performed when trees are felled ? 

(85) Describe any custom of placing rags and other small objects 

upon bushes or trees. 

(86) Describe any maypole customs and dances. 

(87) Describe any customs of wassailing of firuit trees. 

(90) Are split trees used in divination or for the cure of disease P 
(98) Describe any ceremonies used for love divination with plants or 
trees. \ 

(105) Describe the garlands made and used at ceremonies. 
(110) What animals are considered lucky and what unlucky to meet, 
come in contact with, or kill P 

(132) Describe any customs in which animals are sacrificed, or driven 

away from house or village. 

(133) Describe customs in which men dress up as animals. 

(137) Give the names of the local demons, fairies, pixies, ghosts, <fec. 
Have any of them personal proper names ? 

(139) Their habits^ whether gregarious or solitary. Do they use 

special implements P 

(140) Form and appearance, if beautiful or hideous, small in stature, 

different at different times. 
(144) Character, if merry, mischievous, sulky, spiteful, industrious, 

stupid, easily outwitted. 
(146) Occupations, music, dancing, helping mankind, carrying on 

mining, agricultural work. 
(146) Haunts or habitations, if human dwellings, mounds, barrows, 

mines, forests, boggy moorlands, waters, the underworld, 

dolmens, stone circles. 

(190) Give the details of any practices connected with the worship of 

the local saint . 

(191) Are sacrifices or offerings made to the local saint ; on what days; 

and when ? 

(192) What is the shrine of the local saint ? 

(210) Witchcraft. Describe minutely the ceremonies performed by 
the witch. What preliminary ceremony took place to pro- 
tect the witch ? 

(294) Are charms used to find evil spirits and prevent their moving 

away ? 

(295) Are amulets, talismans, written bits of paper, gestures, &c., used 

to avert evil or to ensure good ? If so, how ; when ; where ? 

(297) Are skulls of animals, or horses, or other objects hung up in 

trees to avert the evil eye and other mah'gn influences ? 

(298) What methods are employed for divining fdture events ? What 

omens are believed in ? 
(353) What superstitions are attached to women's work as such ? 
(356) Are women ever excluded from any occupation, ceremonies, or 

places ? 
(358) What superstitions are attached to the status of widowhood ? 
(366) Are particular parts of any town or village, or particular 

sections of any community, entirely occupied in one trade or 

occupation ? 

(368) Have they customs and superstitions peculiar to their occupation ? 

(369) Do they intermarry among themselves, and keep aloof from 

other people ? 

(373) Have they any processions or festivals ? 

(422) What parts of the body are superstitiously regarded ? 

(432) Are bones, nails, hair, the subject of particular customs or 
superstitions ; and is anything done with bones when acci- 
dentally discovered ? 

(436) Is dressing ever considered as a special ceremonial; are 
omens drawn from accidents in dressing P 

(452) Are any parts of the house considered sacred ? 

(453) Is the threshold the object of any ceremony; is it adorned 

with garlands ; is it guarded by a horseshoe or other object P 

(454) Are any ceremonies performed at the hearth; are the ashes 

used for divination ; is the fire ever kept burning for any 

continuous period ? 
(456) Is it unlucky to give fire from the hearth to strangers always, 

or when ? 
(467) Is there any ceremony on leaving a house, or on first occupying 

a house P 
(509) What are the chief festivals, and what the lesser festivals 

observed P 

(515) Explain the popular belief in the object of each festival. 

(516) Describe the customs and observances appertaining to each 

(540) When does the new year popularly begin P 

State the superstitions or legends known to attach to — 
(a) Hallowe'en. \ 

(fe) May Eve. | 

(c) Midsummer Day, and St. John's Eve. l Both old and new 

(d) Lammas, or August 1. ( styles. 

(e) New Year's Day. 
(/) Christmas. 


Is there anj superstition as to the first person who enters a 
honse in the New Year P Is stress laid upon the colour of 
complexion and hair P 

(567) What are the customs observed at the birth of children ? 

(588) Describe the ceremonies practised at courtship and marriage. 

(623) Describe the ceremonies at death and burial. 

(669) Describe any games of ball or any games with string, or other 

(674) Describe all nursery games of children. 

(686) Is there any special rale of succession to property P 

(703) Is any stone or group of stones, or any ancient monument or 
ancient tree connected with local customs P 

(706) Are any special parts of the village or town the subject of 
particular rights, privileges, or disabilities ; do these parts 
bear any particular names P 

(711) Describe special local modes of punishment or of lynch law. 

(719) Describe special customs observed at ploughing, harrowing, 
sowing, manuring, haymaking, apple-gathering, corn-harvest, 
hemp-harvest, flax-harvest, potato-gathering, threshing, flax- 
picking, and hemp-picking. 

The collections under this head will be digested by Professor Rhys 
and the representatives of the Folklore Society. 

Place Name of Observer 

3. PecuUoHties of Dialect, 
Directions to Collectors op Dialect Tests. 

1. Do not, if it can be helped, let your informant know the nature of 
your observations. The true dialect-speaker will not speak his dialect 
freely or truly unless he is unaware that his utterance is watched. In 
some cases persons of the middle class can afford correct information, and 
there is less risk in allowing them to know your purpose. 

2. Observe the use of consonants. Note, for example, if v and z are 
used where the standard pronunciation has/ and s. This is common in 
the south. 

3. Observe very carefully the nature of the vowels. This requires 
practice in uttenng and appreciating vowel sounds, some knowledge of 
phonetics, and a good ear. 

4. Record all observations in the same standard phonetic alphabet, 
viz., that given in Sweet's * Primer of Phonetics.* A few modifications 
in this may be made, viz., ng for Sweet's symbol for the sound of ng in 
thing ; sh for his symbol for the sh in she ; ch for his symbol for the ch in 
choose ; th for the th in thin ; dh for the th in then. If these modifications 
are used, say so. But the symbol j must only be used for the y in you, 
viz., as in German. If the sound of j in just is meant. Sweet's symbol 
should be used. On the whole it is far better to use no modifications at 
all. Sweet's symbols are no more difficult to use than any others after 
a very brief practice, such as every observer of phonetics must necessarily 
go through. 


5. If yon find that yon are nnable to record sounds according to the 
above scheme it is better to make no return at all. Incorrect returns are 
misleading in the highest degree, most of all such as are recorded in the 
ordinary spelling of literary English. 

6. The chief vowel-sounds to be tested are those which occur in the 
following words of English origin, viz., man, hardy name, help, meat (spelt 
with ea), green (spelt with ee), hilly uriney fire, softy hohy oak (spelt with oa}y 
cooly sun, house, day, law, or words involving similar sounds. Also words 
of French origin, such asjiLsty master (a before «), gra/nt(a before w), try, 
value, measure, ha^con, pay, chair, journey, pity, heef, clea/Ty profit, hoil, roast 
pork, false, butcher, fruit, blue, pure, poor, or words involving similar 

The best account of these sounds, as tested for a Yorkshire dialect, is 
to be found in Wright's * Dialect of Windhill ' (English Dialect Society, 
1892), published by Kegan Paul at 12s. 6d, Sweet's symbols are here 
employed throughout. 

Sweet's ' Primer of Phonetics ' is published by the Oxford Press at 
3^. 6d. 

A list of test words (of English origin) is given at p. 42 of Skeat's 
* Primer of English Etymology,' published by the Oxford Press at Is. 6d, 

7. The task of collecting words which seem to be peculiarly dialectal 
(as to form or meaning, or both) has been performed so thoroughly that 
it is useless to record what has been often already recorded. See, for 
example, Halli well's (or Wright's) * Provincial Glossary * and the publi- 
cations of the English Dialect Society. In many cases, however, the 
pronunciation of such words has not been noted, and may be carefully set 
down with great advantage. 

The Rev. Professor Skeat has been kind enough to draw up the fore- 
going directions, and the collections under this head will be submitted 
to him. 

Place Name of Observer 

4. Monuments and other Remains of Ancient Culture, 

Plot on a map, describe, furnish photographs on sketches, and state 
the measurements and names (if any) of these, according to the following 
classification : — 

Drift implements. Caves and their contents. 
Stone circles. Monoliths. Lake dwellings. 
Camps. Enclosures. Collections of hut circles. 
Cromlechs. Cairns. Sepulchral chambers. 

Barrows, describing the form, and distinguishing those which have 
not been opened. 
Inscribed stones. 
Figured stones. Stone crosses. 
Castra (walled). Earthen camps. 
Foundations of Roman buildings. 
Cemeteries (what modes of sepulture). 
Burials, inhumation or cremation. 
Detailed contents of graves. 



Types of fibnlaB and other ornaments. 

Coins. Implements and weapons, stone, bronze, or iron. 

Other antiquities. 

A list of place-names within the area. No modem names required. 

Special note should be made of British, Roman, and Saxon interments 
oocurring in the same field, and other signs of successive occupation. 

Reference should be made to the article ' ArchsBology ' in * Notes and 
Queries on Anthropology,* p. 176. 

These relate to England only. The sub-committees for other parts of 
the United Kingdom will prepare modified lists. 

The collections under this head will be digested by Mr. Payne. 

Place Name of Observer 

5. historical Evidence as to Oontinuity of Race, 

Mention any historical events connected with the place, especially 
such as relate to early settlements in it or more recent incursions of alien 

State the nature of the pursuits and occupations of the inhabitants. 

State if any precautions have been taken by the people to keep them- 
selves to themselves ; if the old village tenures of land have been pre- 

Has any particular form of religious belief been maintained ? 

Are the people constitutionally averse to change ? 

What are the dates of the churches and monastic or other ancient 
buildings or existing remains of former buildings ? 

Do existing buildings stand on the sites of older ones P 

How far back can particular families or family names be traced ? 

Can any evidence of this be obtained from the manor rolls; firom 
the parish registers; from the tythingmen's returns; from guild or 
corporation records ? 

Are particular family names common ? 

In what county or local history is the best deecription of the place to 
be found ? 

Evidences of historical continuity of customs, dress, dwellings, im^- 
plements, <&c., should be noted. 

The collections under this head will be digested by Mr. Brabrook. 

Noies Ea^lanatory of tlte 8cliedules. 
By E. Sidney Hartland, F.S.A., Secretary of the Committee. 

The object of the Committee is to obtain a collection of authentic 
information relative to the population of the British Islands, with a view 
to determine as far as possible the racial elements of which it is composed. 
The high interest of the inquiry for all archfeologista need not be here- 
insisted on. A satisfactory solution of the problems involved will mean 
the re-writing of much of our early history ; and even if we can only gain 
ft partial insight into the real facts it will enable us to correct or to con- 
firm many of the guesses in which historians have indulged upon data of 
a vetT meagre and often delusive character. 

The methods it is proposed to adopt have regard to the physical 
peculiarities of the inhabitants, their mental idiosyncrasies, the material 
remains of their ancient culture, and their external history. In modem 
times great movements of population have taken place, the developmenta 
of industry and commerce have bronght together into large centres 
natives of all parts of the country, and even foreigners, and thereby 
caused the mingling of many elements previously disparate. These have 
enormously complicated the difficulties of the inquiry. They have 
rendered many districts unsuitable for every purpose except the record of 
material remains. Scattered np and down the country, however, there 
are hamlets and retired places where the population has remained 
stationary and affected but little by the currents that have obliterated 
their neighbours' landmarks. To such districts as these it is proposed to 
direct attention. Where families have dwelt in the same village from 
father to son as far back as their ancestry can be traced, where the modes 
of life have diverged the least from those of ancient days, where pastoral 
and agricultural occupations have been the mainstay of a scanty folk 
from time immemorial, where custom and prejudice and superstition have 
held men bound in chains which all the restlessness of the nineteenth 
century has not yet completely severed, there we hope still to find sure 
traces of the past. 

The photographic survey, which has been carried out so well at- 
Birmingham and elsewhere, and has been initiated in our own country, 
will prove a most valuable aid to the wider work of the Ethnographical 
Survey. Photographs of the material remains of ancient culture are 
explicitly asked for in the schedule. In addition to them, photographs of 
typical inhabitants are urgently desired. Some judgment will, of conrse, 
require to be exercised in the selection of types, and a considerable 
amount of tact in inducing the subjects to allow themselves to bo taken. 
It has been found effective for this pnrpose, as well as for that of 
measuring the people, that two persons should go out together, and 
setting up the camera in the village, or wherever they find a convenient 
spot, coram populo, they should then proceed gravely to measure and 
photograph one another. This will be found to interest the villagers 
and some d them will gradually be persuaded to submit to the operatirf 
A little geniality, and sometimes a mere tangible gratification of a tri^p 
character, will hardly ever fail in accompl^hing the object. The e 
rience of observers who have taken measurements is that i 


•extremely fascinating work as the collection increases and the results are 

This comparison, if the subjects have been selected with judgment, 
•and accurately measured and photographed, should enable us to determine 
in what proportions the blood of the various races which have from time 
to time invaded and occupied our soil has been transmitted to the present 
population of different parts of the United Kingdom. From the ancient 
remains in barrows and other sepulchral monuments, and from the study 
of the living peoples of Western Europe, the characteristics of the races 
in question are known with more or less certainty, and every year adds 
to our information concerning them. A much more complex problem, 
and one wherein archaeologists have a more direct interest, is how far the 
culture of the races in question has descended to us, and how far it has 
been affected by intruding arts, faiths, and inventions. To solve this, 
appeal is made first to the historic and prehistoric monuments and other 
material remains, and secondly to the traditions of many kinds that 
linger among the peasantry. Here the first business, and that with 
which the practical work of the survey is immediately concerned, is the 
work of collection. To photograph, sketch, and accurately describe the 
material remains ; to note and report the descriptions and drawings 
already made, and where they are preserved ; to gather and put into 
handy form the folklore of each country already printed ; and to collect 
from the surviving depositaries of tradition that which may still be 
found — namely, tales, sayings, customs, medical prescriptions, songs, 
games, riddles, superstitions, and all those scraps of traditional lore stored 
in rustic memories, impervious and strange to the newer lore of to-day — 
these are the necessary preliminaries to the study of the civilisation of our 

Archaeologists have paid too exclusive attention to the material 
remains. They have forgotten to inquire what light may be thrown 
upon them by tradition. By the term tradition I do not mean simply 
what the people say about the monuments. Antiquaries soon found out 
that that was always inaccurate, and often utterly false and misleading. 
Hence thay have been too much inclined to despise all traditions. But 
tradition in the wide sense of the whole body of the lore of the uneducated^ 
their customs as well as their beliefs, their doings as well as their sayings, 
has proved, when scientifically studied, of the greatest value for the 
explanation of much that we must fail to understand in the material 
remains of antiquity. To take a very simple instance : when we find in 
Gloucestershire barrows, cups, or bowls of rough pottery buried with the 
dead, we call them food-vessels, because we know that it is the custom 
among savage and barbarous nations to bury food with the dead and to 
make offerings at the tomb, and that this custom rests on a persuasion 
that the dead continue to need food and that they will be propitiated by 
gifts ; and we further infer that the races who buried food-vessels with 
their dead in this country held a similar opinion. Or, to take another 
burial custom : General Pitt- Rivers reported last year to the British As- 

^ The Ethnographical Survey Committee has a few sets of instruments for taking 
the measurements, which can be placed temporarily at the disposal of the local 
committee. Perhaps I may here also express the opinion that if the personal 
photographs and measurements called for expenditure beyond what could be met by 
local enthusiasm, the Committee might not be indisposed to contribute by way of a 
small payment for each photograph and set of measurements. 


sociatiou that he had found in excavations at Cranbome Chase bodies 
buried without the head. If we were ignorant of the practices of other 
races we should be at a loss to account for such interments. As it is, we 
ask ourselves whether these bodies are those of strangers whose heads have 
been sent back to their own land, or their oMm tribe, in order to be united 
in one general cemetery with their own people ; or whether the heads 
were cut off and preserved by their immediate relatives and brought into 
the circle at their festive gatherings to share the periodical solemnities of 
the clan. Both these are savage modes of dealing with the dead, one of 
which, indeed, left traces in Boman civilisation at its highest development. 
The knowledge of them puts us upon inquiry as to other burials of the 
prehistoric inhabitants of this country, which may help us in reconstruct- 
ing their worship and their creed. I for one do not despair of recovering, 
by careful comparison of the relics preserved to us in the ancient monu- 
ments with the folklore of the existing peasantry and of races in other 
parts of the earth, at least the outlines of the beliefs of our remote 

Any such conclusions, however, must be founded on the essential unity 
that science has, during the last thirty years, unveiled to us in human 
thought and human institutions. This unity has disguised itself in forms 
as diverse as the nationalities of men. And when we have succeeded in 
piecing together the skeleton of our predecessors' civilisation, material and 
intellectual, we are confronted by the further inquiries : What were the 
specific distinctions of their culture ? and How was it influenced by those 
of their neighbours or of their conquerors 1 This is a question only to be 
determined, if at all, by the examination of the folklore of the country. 
We may assume that the physical measurements, descriptions, and por- 
traits of the present inhabitants will establish our relationship to some of 
the peoples whose remains we find beneath our feet. And it will be 
reasonable to believe that, though there has been a communication from 
other peoples of their traditions, yet that the broad foundation of our folk- 
lore is derived from our forefathers and predecessors in our own land. In 
Gloucestershire itself we have strong evidence of the persistence of tradi- 
tion. Bisley Church is said to have been originally intended to be built 
several miles off, * but the Devil every night removed the stones, and the 
architect was obliged at last to build it where it now stands.' This is, of 
course, a common tradition. The peculiarity of the case is that at Bisley 
its meaning has been discovered. The spot where, we are told, *the 
church ought to have been built was occupi^ formerly by a Boman villa ; ' 
and when the church was restored some years ago * portions of the mate- 
rials of that villa were found embedded in the church walls, including the 
altars of the Penates, which are now, however, removed to the British 
Museum.' ^ Here, as Sir John Dorington said, addressing this Society 
some years ago at Stroud, is a tradition which has been handed down for 
fifteen or sixteen hundred years. This is in our own country, and it may 
be thought hard to beat such a record. But at Mold, in Flintshire, there 
is evidence of a tradition which must have been handed down from the 
prehistoric iron age — ^that is to say, for more than two thousand years. 
A cairn stood there, called the Bryn-yr-Mlyllon, the Hill of the Fairies. 
It was believed to be haunted ; a spectre clad in golden armour had been 

* Gloucestershire A, ^ Q. vol. i. p. 390 quoting an article in the Building Nercs, 
See also Sir John Dorington's Presidential Address, Trans, B. ^ O, Arch. Soc, vol. v. 

p. 7. 


seen to enter it. That this story was current before the mound was 
opened is a fact beyond dispute. In 1832 the cairn was explored. Three 
hundred cartloads of stones were removed, and beneath them was found a 
skeleton *laid at full length, wearing a corslet of beautifully wrought 
gold, which had been placed on a lining of bronze.' The corslet in ques- 
tion is of Etruscan workmanship, and is now, I believe, to be seen in the 
British Museum.^ 

Examples like these — and they stand by no means alone — inspire con- 
fidence in the permanence of what seems so fleeting and evanescent. Folk- 
lore is, in fact, like pottery, the most delicate, the most fragile of human 
productions ; yet it is precisely these productions which prove more dur- 
able than solid and substantial fabrics, and outlast the wreck of empires, 
a witness to the latest posterity of the culture of earlier and ruder times. 

But if these traditions have thus been preserved for centuries and even 
millenniums, they have been modified — nay, transformed — in the process. 
It is not the bare fact which has been transmitted from generation to 
generation, but the fact seen through the distorting medium of the popu- 
lar imagination. This is a characteristic of all merely oral records of an 
actual event ; and this it is which everywhere renders tradition, taken 
literally, so untrustworthy, so misleading a witness to fact. The same 
law, however, does not apply to every species of tradition. Some species 
fall within the lines of the popular imagination ; and it is then not a dis- 
torting but a conservative force. The essential identity of so many stories, 
customs and superstitions throughout the world is a sufficient proof of this, 
on which I have no space to dwell. But their essential identity is over- 
laid with external differences due to local surroundings, racial peculiari- 
ties, higher or lower planes of civilisation. There is a charming story told 
in South Wales of a lady who came out of a lake at the foot of one of the 
Carmarthenshire mountains and married a youth in the neighbourhood, 
and who afterwards, offended with her husband, quitted his dwelling for 
ever and returned to her watery abode. In the Shetland Islands the tale 
is told of a seal which cast its skin and appeared as a woman. A man of 
the Isle of Unst possessed himself of the seal-skin and thus captured and 
married her. She lived with him until one day she recovered the skin, 
resumed her seal- shape and plunged into the sea, never more to return. 
In Croatia the damsel is a wolf whose wolf-skin a soldier steals. In the 
Arabian Nights she is a jinn wearing the f eather-pltftnage of a bird, appa- 
rently assumed simply for the purpose of flight. In all these cases the 
variations are produced by causes easily assigned. 

The specific distinctions of a nation's culture are not necessarily limited 
to changes of traditions which it may have borrowed from its neighbours 
or inherited from a common stock. It may conceivably develop tiwiitions 
peculiar to itself. This is a subject hardly yet investigated by students 
of folklore. Their labours have hitherto been chiefly confined to estab- 
lishing the identity underlying divergent forms of tradition and explaining 
the meaning of practices and beliefs by comparison of the folklore of dis- 
tant races at different stages of evolution. But there are not wanting 
those who are turning their attention to a province as yet unconquered, 
and indeed almost undiscovered. Even if they only succeed in establish- 
ing a negative, if they show that all traditions supposed to be peculiar 

' Boyd Dawkins, Early Man in Britain^ p. 431, citing Arcliaeologia and Arch, 


have counterparts elsewhere, they will have rendered a signal service to 
science, and produced incontrovertible testimony of the unity of the human 
mind and the unintermittent force of the laws which govern it. 

Alike for the purpose of ascertaining the specific distinctions of culture 
and the influences of neighbouring nations and neighbouring civilisations, 
an accumulation of facts is the prime requisite. If we have reason to 
believe in the persistence of tradition, we shall have confidence that relics 
will be discovered in our midst of the faith and institutions of our remoter 
ancestors ; and, in accordance as we venerate antiquity or desire to pre- 
serve what remains of the past, we shall hasten to collect them. Nor can 
we be too quick in so doing. The blood of our forefathers is a permanent 
inheritance, which it would take many generations and a large interming- 
ling of foreigners seriously to dilute, much less to destroy. But tradition 
is rapidly dying. It is dwindling away before the influences of modem 
civilisation. Formerly, when the rural districts were isolated, when news 
travelled slowly and nobody thought of leaving his home save to go to the 
nearest market, and that not too often, when education did not exist for 
the peasantry and the landowners had scarcely more than a bowing ac- 
quaintance with it, the talk by the fireside on winter evenings was of the 
business of the day — the tilling, the crops, the kine. Or it was the gossip 
and small scandals interesting to such a community, or reminiscences by 
the elders of the past. Thence it would easily glide into tales and super- 
stitions. And we know that these tales and superstitions were, in fact, 
the staple of conversation among our fathers and generally throughout the 
West of Europe, to go no further afield, down to a very recent period ; 
and they still are in many districts. In England, however, railways, 
newspapers, elementary education, politics, and the industrial movements 
which have developed during the present century have changed the ancient 
modes of life ; and the old traditions are fading out of memory. The 
generation that held them is fast passing away. The younger generation 
has never cared to learn them ; though, of course, many of the minor 
superstitions and sayings have still a considerable measure of power, espe- 
cially in the shape of folk-medicine and prescriptions for luck. We must 
make haste, therefore, if we desire to add to the scanty informatibn on 
record concerning English folklore. 

As a starting-point for the collection of Gloucestershire folklore I put 
together, a year or two ago, the folklore in Atkyns, Rudder, and the first 
four volumes of Gloucestershire Notes and Qv^ries ; and it was printed by 
the Folklore Society and issued as a pamphlet.^ Other works remain to 
be searched ; and it is probable that a good deal more may be found already 
in print, if some who are interested in the antiquities of the country wiU 
undertake the not very arduous, but very necessary, labour of collection. 
When all is gathered, however, it will oidy be a small part of what must 
have existed at no distant date — if not of what still exists, awaiting dili- 
gent inquiry among living men and women. How to set about the in- 
quiry is a question that must be left very much to the individual inquirer 
to answer. Valuable practical hints are given in the Handbook of Folklore, 
a small volume that may be bought for half-a-crown and carried in the 
pocket. Confidence between the collector and those from whom he is 
seeking information is the prime necessity. Keep your notebook far in 

' ''County Folklore, Printed Extracts — No, 1, Qloucettershire, London : D. Nutt, 
1892. 1*. 


the background, and beware of letting the peasant know the object 
of your curiosity, or even of allowing him to see that you are curious. 
Above all, avoid leading questions. If you are looking for tales, tell a tale 
yourself. Do anything to establish a feeling of friendly sympathy. Never 
laugh at your friend's superstitions — not even if he laugh at them himself ;. 
for he will not open his heart to you if he suspect you of despising them. 

There is one other division of the schedule to which I have not yet 
referred. The Dialect is perishing as rapidly as the folklore ; it is being- 
overwhelmed by the same foes. Peculiarities of dialect are due partly ta 
physical, partly to mental, causes. From either point of 'vdew they are of 
interest to the investigator of antiquities. Hence their inclusion among 
the subjects of the Ethnographical Survey. Nobody who has once under- 
stood how much of history is often wrapped up in a single word can fail 
to perceive the importance of a study of dialect, or how largely it may 
contribute to the determination of the origin of a given population. The- 
reduction of dialect into writing requires accuracy to distinguish the nice- 
ties of pronunciation, and some practice to set them down ; but a little 
experience will overcome most difficulties, which, after all, are not great. 
It is believed that most of the words — as distinguished from their pronun- 
ciation — in use have been recorded in the publications of the English 
Dialect Society or elsewhere. But it is better to record them again than 
to leave them unrecorded. Nor should it be forgotten in this connection 
that a word often bears a different shade of meaning in one place from what 
it bears in another. In recording any words, care should therefore be taken 
to seize not only the exact sound, but the exact signification, if it be desired 
to make a real contribution towards the history of the country, or the 
history of the language. Of the method of collection and transcription it 
is needless to add to the directions in the schedule. 

■1 I